Rafic Hariri

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Rafic Hariri
رفيق حريري
Hariri.jpg
Prime Minister of Lebanon
In office
31 October 1992 – 2 December 1998
Preceded byRashid el-Solh
Succeeded bySelim Hoss
In office
23 October 2000 – 21 October 2004
Preceded bySelim Hoss
Succeeded byOmar Karami
Personal details
BornRafic Baha El Deen Al Hariri
(1944-11-01)1 November 1944
Sidon, Lebanon
Died14 February 2005(2005-02-14) (aged 60)
Beirut, Lebanon
NationalityLebanese and Saudi Arabian
Political partyFuture Movement
ChildrenBahaa, Saad, Houssam
ReligionIslam (Sunnah)
 
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This article is about the former Lebanese prime minister. For the writer, see Al-Hariri of Basra.
Rafic Hariri
رفيق حريري
Hariri.jpg
Prime Minister of Lebanon
In office
31 October 1992 – 2 December 1998
Preceded byRashid el-Solh
Succeeded bySelim Hoss
In office
23 October 2000 – 21 October 2004
Preceded bySelim Hoss
Succeeded byOmar Karami
Personal details
BornRafic Baha El Deen Al Hariri
(1944-11-01)1 November 1944
Sidon, Lebanon
Died14 February 2005(2005-02-14) (aged 60)
Beirut, Lebanon
NationalityLebanese and Saudi Arabian
Political partyFuture Movement
ChildrenBahaa, Saad, Houssam
ReligionIslam (Sunnah)

Rafic Baha El Deen Al Hariri (Arabic: رفيق بهاء الدين الحريري‎; 1 November 1944 – 14 February 2005) was a business tycoon and the Prime Minister of Lebanon from 1992 to 1998 and again from 2000 until his resignation, 20 October 2004. He headed five cabinets during his tenure. Hariri dominated the country's post-war political and business life and is widely credited with reconstructing Beirut after the 15-year civil war.

Hariri was assassinated on 14 February 2005 when explosives equivalent to around 1800 kg of TNT were detonated as his motorcade drove past the St. George Hotel in the Lebanese capital, Beirut. The investigation, by the Special Tribunal for Lebanon, into his assassination is still ongoing and currently led by the independent investigator Daniel Bellemare. In its first two reports, UNIIIC indicated that the Syrian government may be linked to the assassination.[1] Hariri's killing led to massive political change in Lebanon, including the Cedar Revolution and the withdrawal of Syrian troops from Lebanon.

Early life and education[edit]

Hariri was born on 1 November 1944 to a modest Sunni Muslim family, along with two siblings (brother, Shafic and sister Bahia) in the Lebanese port city of Sidon.[2] He attended elementary and secondary school in Sidon,[2] and graduated in business administration at Beirut's Arab University.[3] In 1965, Hariri left his home and went to Saudi Arabia.[3] There, he earned from teaching for a short period of time, later shifting to the construction industry.[4] In 1978, he gained Saudi Arabian citizenship,[3][5] in addition to his Lebanese citizenship.

In 1969, Hariri established Ciconest, a small subcontracting firm, which went out of business soon. He then went in business with the French construction firm Oger for the construction of a hotel in Ta’if, Saudi Arabia, the timely construction of which brought him in good graces with King Khaled. Hariri took over Oger, forming Saudi Oger, which became the main construction firm used by the Saudi Royal family for all of their important developments. As a result, only a few years after his first contract with King Khaled, Hariri had become a multi-billionaire.

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Having accumulated his wealth, Hariri started a number of philanthropic projects, including the building of educational facilities in Lebanon. His first initiative in Lebanon was the Islamic Association for Culture and Education which was founded in 1979.[6] The association was later renamed the Hariri Foundation.[6] Hariri became progressively more embroiled in politics. His appeals to the U.N. and services as an emissary to the Saudi Royal family won him international recognition on the political stage for his humanitarian efforts but also slowly caught him in the web of Lebanese politics.

In 1982, he donated $12 million to Lebanese victims of the 1978 South Lebanon conflict and helped clean up Beirut's streets with his company's money. After the conflict, he acted as an envoy of the Saudi royal family to the country. He laid the groundwork that led to the 1989 Taif Accord, which Saudi Arabia organised to bring the warring factions together. Taif put an end to the civil war and paved the way for Hariri to become prime minister.

Political career[edit]

Hariri returned to Lebanon in the early 1980s as a wealthy man and began to build a name for himself by making large donations and contributions to various groups in Lebanon. However, he continued to serve as a political advisor to Prince Bandar bin Sultan in 1983.[7] He was implanted as the Saudis' strong man following the collapse of the PLO and the paucity of any viable Sunni leadership in the country as well as a response to the rising power of the Shiite militia Amal. As a former Saudi diplomatic representative, he played a significant role in constructing the 1990 Taif Agreement that ended Lebanon's sixteen-year civil war.[8] In 1992, Hariri became the first post-civil war prime minister of Lebanon under president Elias Hrawi.[9][10] Hariri put the country back on the financial map through the issuing of Eurobonds and won plaudits from the World Bank for his plan to borrow reconstruction money as the country's debt grew to become the largest per capita in the world. His first premiership lasted until 1998, and Hariri was replaced by Salim Hoss as prime minister.[5][9] In fact, as a result of the power struggle between Hariri and newly elected president Émile Lahoud, he left office.[11]

In October 2000, Hariri was again appointed prime minister, replacing Salim Hoss, and formed the cabinet.[5][12] In September 2004, Hariri defended UN Security Council Resolution 1559, which called for "all remaining foreign forces to withdraw from Lebanon."[13] On 20 October 2004, his second term ended when he resigned from office.[14] Omar Karami succeeded him as prime minister.[15][16]

1992-1998 economic political policies[edit]

Rafic Hariri's former residence in Paris, France.

Hariri implemented an aggressive new economic policy. Perhaps Hariri's most important creation in the beginning of his career was "Horizon 2000" the government's name for its new rejuvenation plan. A large component of "Horizon 2000" was Solidere, the privately owned[17] construction company that was established to reconstruct post-war Lebanon. Solidere was owned by the government and private investors. Solidere was largely focused on redeveloping Beirut's downtown and turning it into a new urban center as quickly as possible as one aspect of the various infrastructure redevelopment plans that would be implemented by "Horizon 2000". Another aspect of the decade-long plan was the privatization of major industries. Numerous contracts were awarded in important industries such as energy, telecommunications, electricity, airports and roads.

The last and perhaps most significant aspect of "Horizon 2000" was economic stimulus via foreign direct investment. Specifically, Hariri supported foreign firms and individuals taking an interest in Lebanon's developmental potential. Hariri simplified tax codes and provided tax breaks to foreign investors. Due to his previous successes in the private sector and the numerous resulting international connections, Hariri was able to garner a significant amount of low-interest loans from foreign investors. Hariri also pursued aggressive macroeconomic policy such as maintaining strict regulations on bank reserves and inter-bank interest rates to curb inflation and raise the value of the Lebanese pound relative to the dollar.

Hariri's economic policies were a remarkable success during his first year in office. From 1992 to 1993 there was a 6 percent increase in real national income, the capital base of commercial banks effectively doubled, the budgetary earnings hovered at around a billion dollars, and commercial banks’ consolidated balance sheets increased about 25%. By 1998, however, real GDP growth was around 1%, a year later it would be -1%, national debt had skyrocketed 540% from two to eighteen billion dollars, Lebanon's economy was in a miserable state.

Hariri and Lebanon's political environment[edit]

George W. Bush and Hariri meeting in the White House

Amid the political crisis brought on by the extension of President Émile Lahoud's term, Hariri resigned as Prime Minister, saying: "I have... submitted the resignation of the government, and I have declared that I will not be a candidate to head the (next) government."

During a BBC interview in 2001,[18][19] Harīrī was asked by Tim Sebastian why he refused to hand over members of Hezbollah that were accused by America of being terrorists. He responded that Hezbollah were the ones protecting Lebanon against the Israeli occupation and called for implementation of passed United Nations resolutions against Israel. He was further accused of making the American coalition in the war on terrorism worthless and asked if he was ready for the consequences of his refusal, reminding him that George W. Bush had said: "Either you are with us, or you are with the terrorists."[20] He replied that he had hoped there would be no consequences, but would deal with them if they arrive. Hariri further said that he opposed the killing of all humans – Israeli, Palestinian, Syrian or Lebanese – and believed in dialogue as a solution. He further went on to say that Syria would have to stay in Lebanon for protection of Lebanon until they are no longer needed and Lebanon asks them to leave.

Lebanese Druze leader Walid Jumblatt, a recent recruit of the anti-Syrian opposition, emboldened by popular anger and civic action now being called Lebanon's Cedar Revolution, alleged in the wake of the assassination that on 26 August 2004 Syrian President Bashar al-Assad threatened Hariri, saying "[President of Lebanon] Lahoud is me. ... If you and Chirac want me out of Lebanon, I will break Lebanon."[21] He was quoted as saying "When I heard him telling us those words, I knew that it was his condemnation of death." This meeting between Hariri and Assad, which had been on 26 August 2004, lasted for just fifteen minutes.[15][22][23]

On 22 June 2005, Beirut International Airport was renamed Rafic Hariri International Airport.[2] Additionally, Beirut General University hospital was renamed Rafiq Hariri Hospital.[2] Rafic Hariri was succeeded by his son Saad Hariri as leader of the Future Party.

Personal life[edit]

Hariri married twice. He had seven children. In 1965, he married an Iraqi woman, Nida Bustani, who is the mother of his three sons; Bahaa (born 1967), who is a businessman, Saad, who succeeded his father as leader of the future movement, and Houssam —who died in a traffic accident in the US in the late 1980s.[24][25] They divorced. He married his second spouse, Nazik Audi, in 1976 and she is the mother of Hariri's four children, including Ayman and Fahd.[24]

Assassination[edit]

Ministry of the Interior soldier guarding the site of the attack that killed Hariri.

On 14 February 2005, Hariri was killed when explosives equivalent to around 1,800 kilograms (4,000 lb) of TNT concealed inside a parked Mitsubishi van were detonated[26] as his motorcade drove near the St. George Hotel in Beirut.[27] Another 22 people lost their lives in the explosion.[28] Among the dead were several of Hariri's bodyguards and his friend and former Minister of the Economy Bassel Fleihan. Hariri was buried along with his bodyguards, who died in the bombing, in a location near Mohammad Al-Amin Mosque.

A 2006 report by Serge Brammertz has indicated that DNA evidence collected from the crime scene suggests that the assassination might be the act of a young male suicide bomber.[29] A UN backed tribunal issued four arrest warrants to members of the Hezbollah.[30] Hezbollah blamed the assassination on Israel.[31]

According to a Canadian Broadcasting Corporation news investigation, the special UN investigation team had found strong evidence for the responsibility of Hezbollah in the assassination.[32]

Aftermath[edit]

Main article: Cedar Revolution

Hariri was well regarded among international leaders, for example, he was a close friend of French President Jacques Chirac. Chirac was one of the first foreign dignitaries to offer condolences to Hariri's widow in person at her home in Beirut. The Special Tribunal for Lebanon was also created at his instigation. Syria was initially accused of the assassination, which led to the withdrawal of Syrian troops from Lebanon following widespread protests.

Hariri memorial shrine

Major General Jamil Al Sayyed, then head of Lebanese General Security, Brigadier General Mustafa Hamdan, Major General Ali Hajj and Brigadier General Raymond Azar were all arrested in August 2005 at the request of German prosecutor Detlev Mehlis, who was carrying out the UN investigation about the assassination.[33] Sayyed was one of the persons who decided to assassinate Rafik Hariri according to a leaked draft version of the Mehlis report along with other Syrian high-rank intelligence and security officers and officials, namely Assef Shawkat, Maher Assad, Hassan Khalil and Bahjat Suleyman.[34] However, later reports about the assassination did not repeat the allegations against Jamil Al Sayyed and other three Lebanese generals.[33] Four Lebanese generals were held in Roumieh prison, northeast of Beirut from 2005 to 2009.[33][35] They were released from the prison due to lack of evidence in 2009.[35]

Following Hariri's death, there were several other bombings and assassinations against minor anti-Syrian figures. These included Samir Kassir, George Hawi, Gebran Tueni, Pierre Amine Gemayel, Antoine Ghanem and Walid Eido. Assassination attempts were made on Elias Murr, May Chidiac, and Samir Shehade (who was investigating Hariri's death).[citation needed]

The United Nations special tribunal (see Special Tribunal for Lebanon) investigating the murder of Hariri is expected to issue draft indictments accusing Hezbollah of murdering Hariri.[36]

Rafic Hariri Statue in Beirut

Hezbollah accused Israel of the assassination of Hariri. According to Hezbollah officials, the assassination of Hariri was planned by the Mossad as a means of expelling the Syrian army from Lebanon. In August 2010, Hezbollah leader Hassan Nasrallah presented evidence, consisting of intercepted Israeli spy-drone video footage, which he said implicated Israel in the assassination of Hariri.[37] After an altercation between male Tribunal staff and women at a gynecology clinic in October 2010, Hezbollah demanded that the Lebanese government stop all cooperation with the Special Tribunal, claiming the tribunal to be an infringement on Lebanese sovereignty by western governments. On 1 November 2010, a report was leaked by Al Akhbar, a local secular, leftist newspaper, stating that Hezbollah drafted plans for a quick takeover of the country in the case an indictment against its members is issued by the UN Special Tribunal.[38] The report states that Hezbollah conducted a simulation of the plan on 28 October, immediately following a speech by its secretary general.[39]

On the other side, it was revealed by leaked US embassy cables that then Egyptian General Intelligence Directorate director Omar Suleiman reported that Syria "desperately" wanted to stop the investigation of the Tribunal.[40]

Corruption[edit]

Hariri was considered as the principal actor in the widespread corruption that plagued Lebanon during the Syrian occupation. His wealth grew from less than $1 billion when he was appointed prime minister in 1992, to over $16 billion when he died. The Company for the Development and Reconstruction of Beirut's Central District, known as Solidere, in which Hariri is the primary shareholder, expropriated most property in the central business district of Beirut, compensating each owner with shares in the company, were worth as little as 15% of the property's value. That Hariri and his business associates profited immensely from this project was an open secret.[41][42]

Hariri and his protégés were not the only beneficiaries of this spending spree. In order to secure support from militia chieftains, and pro-Syrian ideologues that Damascus had installed in the government, Hariri allowed kickbacks from public spending to enrich all major government figures. Contracts for the import of petroleum were awarded to the two sons of President Elias Hrawi.[41][42]

As result of the growing criticism and popular discontent with Hariri's policies, the government banned public demonstrations in 1994 and relied upon the Army to enforce the decree.[41][42] In return for a relatively free hand in economic matters, Hariri cooperated with Syria's drive to consolidate its control over Lebanon. Under the guise of "regulating" the audiovisual media, the government placed control of all major television and radio stations in the hands of pro-Syrian elites. Supporters of Michel Aoun were also perpetually harassed and detained.[41][42]

He is mainly credited with the widespread corruption that followed the war and the crippling damages done to the economy, with the public debt rising from $2.5 billion to over $40 billion and economic growth slowing from 8% to –1% during his time as prime minister.

References[edit]

  1. ^
  2. ^ a b c d "Rafiq Al Hariri's biography". Rafiq Hariri Foundation. Retrieved 1 March 2008. 
  3. ^ a b c Worth, Robert F. (30 June 2011). "Rafik Hariri". New York Times. Archived from the original on 22 February 2013. 
  4. ^
  5. ^ a b c Gambill, Gary C.; Ziad K. Abdelnour (July 2001). "Dossier: Rafiq Hariri". Middle East Intelligence Bulletin 3 (7). Archived from the original on 8 May 2014. 
  6. ^ a b "Lebanon’s Politics: The Sunni Community and Hariri’s Future Current". Middle East Report (96). 26 May 2010. Retrieved 22 September 2013. 
  7. ^ Mehio, Saad (9 July 2002). "Prime Minister Alwaleed bin Talal? For what?". The Daily Star. Retrieved 18 July 2013. 
  8. ^ Neal, Mark W.; Richard Tansey (2010). "The dynamics of effective corrupt leadership: Lessons from Rafik Hariri's political career in Lebanon". The Leadership Quarterly 21: 33–49. doi:10.1016/j.leaqua.2009.10.003. Retrieved 10 June 2012. 
  9. ^ a b Middle East Review. Kogan Page Publishers. p. 113. ISBN 978-0-7494-4066-4. Retrieved 19 March 2013. 
  10. ^ Knudsen, Are (2007). "The Law, the Loss and the Lives of Palestinian Refugees in Lebanon". CMI 1. Retrieved 20 March 2013. 
  11. ^ Fakih, Mohalhel (17–23 February 2005). "A city mourns". Al Ahram Weekly 730. Retrieved 15 April 2013. 
  12. ^ "Hariri Forms Govt". APS Diplomat Recorder. 28 October 2000. Retrieved 19 March 2013. 
  13. ^ Makhzoumi, Fouad (2010). "Lebanon’s Crisis of Sovereignty". Survival: Global Politics and Strategy 52 (2): 5–12. doi:10.1080/00396331003764298. Retrieved 28 July 2013. 
  14. ^ Harris, William (Summer 2005). "Bashar al-Assad's Lebanon Gamble". Middle East Quarterly XII (3): 33–44. Retrieved 17 March 2013. 
  15. ^ a b Safa, Oussama (January 2006). "Lebanon springs forward". Journal of Democracy 17 (1). 
  16. ^ "Hezbollah ignored as Lebanon's top three leaders get major government shares". Lebanon Wire. 27 October 2004. Retrieved 25 March 2013. 
  17. ^ "''About Solidere''". Solidere.com. Retrieved 4 July 2011. 
  18. ^ "BBC Interview With Rafiq Hariri'". Information clearing house. Retrieved 4 July 2011. 
  19. ^ "Rafiq Hariri'". BBC News. 16 February 2005. Retrieved 4 July 2011. 
  20. ^ ""You Are Either With Us Or With The Terrorists", President Bush Warns". Iran press service. Retrieved 4 July 2011. 
  21. ^ Neil Macfarquhar (20 March 2005). "Behind Lebanon Upheaval, 2 Men's Fateful Clash". The New York Times (Lebanon; Syria). Retrieved 4 July 2011. 
  22. ^ Raad, Nada (27 August 2004). "Berri, Hariri silent on Syria talks". The Daily Star. Retrieved 16 March 2013. 
  23. ^ Seeberg, Peter (February 2007). "Fragmented loyalties. Nation and Democracy in Lebanon after the Cedar Revolution" (Working Papers). University of Southern Denmark. Retrieved 23 October 2012. 
  24. ^ a b Vloeberghs, Ward (July 2012). "The Hariri Political Dynasty after the Arab Spring". Mediterranean Politics 17 (2): 241–248. doi:10.1080/13629395.2012.694046. Archived from the original on 28 July 2013. 
  25. ^ Fisk, Robert (22 January 1994). "Syria mourns death of a 'golden son'". The Independent (London). Archived from the original on 26 August 2013. 
  26. ^ Wetzel, Jan Erik; Mitri, Yvonne (2008). "The Special Tribunal for Lebanon: A Court "Off the Shelf" for a Divided Country". The Law and Practice of International Courts and Tribunals 7: 81–114. doi:10.1163/157180308x311110. Archived from the original on 22 February 2013. 
  27. ^ Edge, Tim. "Death of a Martyr". GWU. Retrieved 24 March 2013.  Archived 22 July 2013 at WebCite
  28. ^ Kerry, John (14 February 2013). "Anniversary of Lebanese Prime Minister Rafik Hariri's Assassination" (Press release). U.S. Department of State. Archived from the original on 22 February 2013. 
  29. ^ "UN probe into murder of former Lebanese leader nears sensitive stage – inquiry chief". UN. 18 December 2006. Archived from the original on 22 July 2013. 
  30. ^ "Hariri murder: UN tribunal issues arrest warrants". BBC News. 30 June 2011. Archived from the original on 1 December 2012. Retrieved 1 December 2012. 
  31. ^ "Hezbollah leader says Israel was behind Hariri killing". CNN. 3 June 2011. Archived from the original on 1 December 2012. Retrieved 1 December 2012. 
  32. ^ Macdonald, Neil (21 November 2010). "CBC Investigation: Who killed Lebanon's Rafik Hariri?". CBC News. Archived from the original on 18 December 2012. Retrieved 18 December 2012. 
  33. ^ a b c "Factbox: Lebanese generals ordered released by Hariri court". Reuters. 29 April 2009. Archived from the original on 18 December 2012. Retrieved 18 December 2012. 
  34. ^ "Mehlis Report". The Washington Post. Retrieved 28 June 2012. 
  35. ^ a b "Jamil as-Sayyed". Now Lebanon. 31 August 2009. Retrieved 29 June 2012. 
  36. ^
  37. ^ Hezbollah chief: Israel killed Hariri, CNN
  38. ^ * Hezbollah Threatens an 'Explosion' in Beirut Over Tribunal, Stratfor Global Intelligence.
  39. ^ Nash, Matt (1 November 2010). "Hezbollah to take over "large parts of Lebanon"?". Now Lebanon. Retrieved 18 July 2013. 
  40. ^ "US embassy cables: Egypt spy chief promises pressure on Hamas". The Guardian (London). 28 November 2010. 
  41. ^ a b c d Fisk, Robert (6 December 1998). "Lebanon's vast web of corruption unravels". London: The Independent. Archived from the original on 1 December 2012. Retrieved 1 December 2012. 
  42. ^ a b c d Ciezadlo, Annia (24 February 2007). "Sect Symbols". The Nation (New York City). Archived from the original on 6 December 2007. Retrieved 25 June 2011. 

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Print articles
Political offices
Preceded by
Rashid el-Solh
Prime Minister of Lebanon
1992–1998
Succeeded by
Selim al-Hoss
Preceded by
Selim al-Hoss
Prime Minister of Lebanon
2000–2004
Succeeded by
Omar Karami