Radon mitigation

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Radon mitigation is any process used to reduce radon concentrations in the breathing zones of occupied buildings.

Contents

Testing

ASTM E-2121 is a US standard for reducing radon in homes as far as practicable below 4 picocuries per liter (pCi/L) (148 Bq/m3) in indoor air. [1][2] Radon test kits are commercially available. [3] The kit includes a collector that the user hangs in the lowest livable floor of the house for 2 to 7 days. The user then sends the collector to a laboratory for analysis. The National Environmental Health Association provides a list of radon measurement professionals in the United States.[4] Long-term kits, taking collections from 91 days to one year, are also available. An open land test kit can test radon emissions from the land before construction begins. The EPA and the National Environmental Health Association have identified 15 types of radon testing.[5] A Lucas cell is one type of device.

Radon levels fluctuate naturally. An initial test might not be an accurate assessment of a home's average radon level. Transient weather can affect short-term measurements.[6] Therefore, a high result (over 4 pCi/L) justifies repeating the test before undertaking more expensive abatement projects. Measurements between 4 and 10 pCi/L (148 and 370 Bq/m3) warrant a long-term radon test. Measurements over 10 pCi/L (370 Bq/m3) warrant only another short-term test so that abatement measures are not unduly delayed. Purchasers of real estate are advised to delay or decline a purchase if the seller has not successfully abated radon to 4 pCi/L or less.

The National Environmental Health Association administers a voluntary National Radon Proficiency Program for radon professionals consisting of individuals and companies wanting to take training courses and examinations to demonstrate their competency.[7] A list of mitigation service providers is available.[8]

Methods of mitigation

Because high levels of radon have been found in every state of the United States,[9] testing for radon and installing radon mitigation systems has become a specialized industry in the last two decades. Many states have implemented programs that affect home buying and awareness in the real estate community, however radon testing and mitigation systems are not generally mandatory unless specified by the local jurisdiction.[10]

According to the EPA's "A Citizen's Guide to Radon",[11] the method to reduce radon "primarily used is a vent pipe system and fan, which pulls radon from beneath the house and vents it to the outside", which is also called sub-slab depressurization, active soil depressurization, or soil suction. Generally indoor radon can be mitigated by sub-slab depressurization and exhausting such radon-laden air to the outdoors, away from windows and other building openings.[12] "EPA generally recommends methods which prevent the entry of radon. Soil suction, for example, prevents radon from entering your home by drawing the radon from below the home and venting it through a pipe, or pipes, to the air above the home where it is quickly diluted" and "EPA does not recommend the use of sealing alone to reduce radon because, by itself, sealing has not been shown to lower radon levels significantly or consistently" according to the EPA's "Consumer's Guide to Radon Reduction: How to fix your home".[13] Modern energy-efficient construction that conserves energy by making homes airtight often exacerbates the risk of radon exposure. Less tightly constructed homes with greater air leaks are often just as likely to present elevated risks. Ventilation systems can utilize a heat exchanger or energy recovery ventilator to recover part of the energy otherwise lost in the process of exchanging air with the outside. For crawlspaces, the EPA states,[13] "An effective method to reduce radon levels in crawlspace homes involves covering the earth floor with a high-density plastic sheet. A vent pipe and fan are used to draw the radon from under the sheet and vent it to the outdoors. This form of soil suction is called submembrane suction, and when properly applied is the most effective way to reduce radon levels in crawlspace homes."

The most common approaches are active soil depressurization (ASD) and mechanical ventilation (MV). Experience has shown that ASD is applicable to most buildings since radon usually enters from the soil and rock underneath and MV is used when the indoor radon is emitted from the building materials. A less common approach works efficiently by reducing air pressures within cavities of exterior and demising walls where radon emitting from building materials, most often concrete blocks, collects.

  1. Air conditioner duct leaks located outside the breathing zone, such as in the attic.
  2. Excessive exhaust fan operation
  3. Oversize or over-capacity air conditioners
  4. AC air handler fans that do not stop running when the air conditioner compressor stops running.
  5. Delta tt), which is the amount that the air is cooled as it is passed through the air conditioner's cooling coils. A good delta t performance figure for home air conditioners is about 20 °F (11 °C). In comparison, automobile air conditioners deliver Δt performance of 32 to 38 °F (18 to 21 °C). A delta t of 14 °F (8 °C) will dehumidify poorly if at all.

In South Florida, most all radon mitigation is performed by use of fixed rate mechanical ventilation. Radon mitigation training in Florida does not include any segment addressing mechanical ventilation or of problems associated with mechanical ventilation systems such as high indoor humidity, mold, moldy odors, property damage or health consequences of human occupation in high humidity of moldy environments. As a result, most Florida radon mitigators are unaware of and do not incorporate existing building science moisture management technology into mechanical ventilation radon installations.

Home inspectors are generally unaware of the mold risks associated with radon mitigation by mechanical ventilation even though mold may make occupants sick, destroy their home and property, and/or be very expensive to clean up and then make the home difficult to sell. In Florida the lawsuits are just beginning[citation needed].

It appears that in thousands of Florida condominiums and apartments, radon mitigation mechanical ventilation systems were installed in a concealed fashion,[citation needed] escaping even the recognition of professional home inspectors and real estate professionals.[citation needed]

Radon removal

Radon removal is implemented to reduce indoor radon levels. Radon can be removed by the use of air pipes and fans to exhaust sub-slab air to the outside called sub-slab depressurization, active soil depressurization, or soil suction.[11][13]

Modern construction that conserves energy by making homes airtight exacerbates the risks of radon exposure if radon is present in the home. For crawlspaces, the EPA states “An effective method to reduce radon levels in crawlspace homes involves covering the earth floor with a high-density plastic sheet. A vent pipe and fan are used to draw the radon from under the sheet and vent it to the outdoors. This form of soil suction is called submembrane suction, and when properly applied is the most effective way to reduce radon levels in crawlspace homes.”[13]

The most common approaches are active soil depressurization (ASD) and mechanical ventilation (MV). Experience has shown that ASD is applicable to most buildings since radon usually enters from the soil and rock underneath and MV is used when the indoor radon is emitted from the building materials. A less common approach works efficiently by reducing air pressures within cavities of exterior and demising walls where radon emitting from building materials, most often concrete blocks, collects.

Nearly all mechanical ventilation-based radon control systems are of fixed rate operation, and even if the indoor relative humidity in the interior of a building goes high, they will continue to inject moisture-laden air into this wet environment increasing the likelihood of mold growth. This is especially risky in hot, humid climates. It is not an unusual practice for radon mitigators in hot, humid climates to warn of possible resulting mold problems by way of an easily removed warning sticker.[citation needed]

Above Slab Air Pressure Differential Barrier technology ASAPDB requires that the interior pressure envelope, most often drywall, as well as all ductwork for air conditioning systems, be made as airtight as possible. A small blower, often no more than 15 cubic feet per minute may then extract the radon-laden air from these cavities and exhaust it to the out of doors. With well-sealed HVAC ducts, very small negative pressures, perhaps as little as 0.5 pascal, will prevent the entry of highly radon-laden wall cavity air from entering into the breathing zone. Such ASAPDB technology is often the best radon mitigation choice for high rise condominiums as it does not increase indoor humidity loads in hot humid climates, and it can also work well to prevent mold growth in exterior walls in heating climates.

References

  1. ^ "Recommended Residential Radon Mitigation Standard of Practice". United States Environmental Protection Agency. Archived from the original on 2008-01-16. http://web.archive.org/web/20080116184748/http://www.epa.gov/iaq/radon/pubs/mitstds.html. Retrieved 2008-02-02. 
  2. ^ "ASTM E2121-03 Standard Practice for Installing Radon Mitigation Systems in Existing Low-Rise Residential Buildings". ASTM International. http://www.astm.org/cgi-bin/SoftCart.exe/DATABASE.CART/REDLINE_PAGES/E2121.htm?L+mystore+xyan5063. Retrieved 2008-02-02. 
  3. ^ "Commercially Available Radon Kits". Alpha Energy Labs. http://www.drhomeair.com/order/drha_order1.php. Retrieved 2012-04-19. 
  4. ^ "Residential Measurement Provider". The National Environmental Health Association—National Radon Proficiency Program. http://www.radongas.org/Description_of_Radon_Measurement_Service.html. Retrieved 2008-02-02. 
  5. ^ "Radon Measurement Method Definitions". The National Environmental Health Association—National Radon Proficiency Program. http://www.radongas.org/device.htm. Retrieved 2008-02-02. 
  6. ^ "You've found radon in your home—what should you do?". Air Chek, Inc.. Archived from the original on 2007-12-24. http://web.archive.org/web/20071224030656/http://www.radon.com/radon/mitigation.html. Retrieved 2008-02-02. 
  7. ^ "National Radon Proficiency Program". The National Environmental Health Association—National Radon Proficiency Program. http://www.radongas.org/. Retrieved 2008-02-02. 
  8. ^ "Residential Mitigation Provider". The National Environmental Health Association—National Radon Proficiency Program. http://www.radongas.org/Description_of_Radon_Mitigation_Services.html. Retrieved 2008-02-02. 
  9. ^ "Radon: Myth vs Fact". Radon-Rid/EPA. http://www.radonrid.com/comp/myth-vs-fact. Retrieved 2009-11-13. 
  10. ^ "Listing of States and Jurisdictions with RRNC Codes". EPA. http://www.epa.gov/radon/rrnc/code_listing.html. Retrieved 2009-11-13. 
  11. ^ a b "A Citizen's Guide to Radon". EPA. http://www.epa.gov/radon/pubs/citguide.html#lower. Retrieved 2010-04-03. 
  12. ^ "Radon Mitigation Methods". Radon Solution. http://radon-solution.com/pg_mitigation_methods.php. Retrieved 2008-12-02. 
  13. ^ a b c d "Consumer's Guide to Radon Reduction: How to fix your home". EPA. http://www.epa.gov/radon/pubs/consguid.html#reductiontech. Retrieved 2010-04-03. 

External links