Fedora (operating system)

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Fedora
Fedora logo and wordmark.svg
Fedora 20 GNOME Shell Desktop
Fedora 20 (Heisenbug) with GNOME 3.10.2
Company / developerFedora Project,
(owned by Red Hat, Inc.)
OS familyUnix-like
Working stateCurrent
Source modelFree and open source software (with exceptions)[1]
Initial release2003-11-06[2] It was codenamed Yarrow. Fedora Core 1 was based on Red Hat Linux 9 and shipped with version 2.4.22 of the Linux kernel, version 2.4 of the GNOME desktop environment, and K Desktop Environment 3.1.[3]
Latest stable release20 (Heisenbug) (December 17, 2013; 12 days ago (2013-12-17)) [±]
Available language(s)Multilingual
Update methodYum (PackageKit)
Package managerRPM Package Manager
Supported platformsi686, x86-64
Kernel typeMonolithic (Linux)
UserlandGNU
Default user interfaceGNOME 3
LicenseVarious free software licenses, plus proprietary binary blobs.[1]
Official websitefedoraproject.org
 
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Fedora
Fedora logo and wordmark.svg
Fedora 20 GNOME Shell Desktop
Fedora 20 (Heisenbug) with GNOME 3.10.2
Company / developerFedora Project,
(owned by Red Hat, Inc.)
OS familyUnix-like
Working stateCurrent
Source modelFree and open source software (with exceptions)[1]
Initial release2003-11-06[2] It was codenamed Yarrow. Fedora Core 1 was based on Red Hat Linux 9 and shipped with version 2.4.22 of the Linux kernel, version 2.4 of the GNOME desktop environment, and K Desktop Environment 3.1.[3]
Latest stable release20 (Heisenbug) (December 17, 2013; 12 days ago (2013-12-17)) [±]
Available language(s)Multilingual
Update methodYum (PackageKit)
Package managerRPM Package Manager
Supported platformsi686, x86-64
Kernel typeMonolithic (Linux)
UserlandGNU
Default user interfaceGNOME 3
LicenseVarious free software licenses, plus proprietary binary blobs.[1]
Official websitefedoraproject.org

Fedora /fɨˈdɒr.ə/, formerly Fedora Core, is an RPM-based, general purpose collection of software, including an operating system based on the Linux kernel, developed by the community-supported Fedora Project and owned by Red Hat. The Fedora Project's mission is to lead the advancement of free and open source software and content as a collaborative community.[4]

One of Fedora's main objectives is not only to contain software distributed under a free and open source license, but also to be on the leading edge of such technologies.[5][6] Fedora developers prefer to make upstream changes instead of applying fixes specifically for Fedora—this ensures that their updates are available to all Linux distributions.[7]

A version of Fedora has a relatively short life cycle—the maintenance period is only 13 months: there are 6 months between releases, and version X is supported only until 1 month after version X+2.[8] This promotes leading-edge software because it frees developers from some backward compatibility restraints, but it also makes Fedora a poor choice for product development (e.g., embedded systems), which usually requires long-term vendor-support, unavailable with any version of Fedora.

In 2008, Linus Torvalds, author of the Linux kernel, stated that he used Fedora because it had fairly good support for the PowerPC processor architecture, which he had favoured at the time.[9]

History[edit]

The Fedora Project was created in late 2003, when Red Hat Linux was discontinued.[10] Red Hat Enterprise Linux was to be Red Hat's only officially supported Linux distribution, while Fedora was to be a community distribution.[10] Red Hat Enterprise Linux branches its releases from versions of Fedora.[11]

The name of Fedora derives from Fedora Linux, a volunteer project that provided extra software for the Red Hat Linux distribution, and from the characteristic fedora hat used in Red Hat's "Shadowman" logo. Warren Togami began Fedora Linux in 2002 as an undergraduate project, intended to provide a single repository for well-tested third-party software packages so that non-Red Hat software would be easier to find, develop, and use. The key of Fedora Linux and Red Hat Linux was that Fedora's repository development would be collaborative with the global volunteer community.[12] Fedora Linux was eventually absorbed into the Fedora Project, carrying with it this collaborative approach.[13] Fedora is a trademark of Red Hat, and although this had previously been disputed by the creators of the unrelated Fedora repository management software, the issue has now[when?] been resolved.[14][dead link]

The Fedora Project is governed by a board whose majority is elected by the Fedora community.[15]

Features of Fedora[edit]

Distribution[edit]

Fedora's Update Manager
PackageKit, the default package manager front-end on Fedora

The Fedora Project distributes Fedora in several different ways:[16]

The Fedora Project also distributes custom variations of Fedora which are called Fedora spin.[18] These are built from a specific set of software packages and have a combination of software to meet the requirements of a specific kind of end user. Fedora spins are developed by several Fedora special interest groups.[19] It is also possible to create Live USB versions of Fedora using Fedora Live USB creator, UNetbootin or dd.

Extra Packages for Enterprise Linux (EPEL) is a volunteer-based community effort from the Fedora project to create a repository of high-quality add-on packages that complement the Fedora-based Red Hat Enterprise Linux and its compatible spinoffs such as CentOS or Scientific Linux.[20]

Software package management is primarily handled by the yum utility.[21] Graphical interfaces, such as pirut and pup are provided, as well as puplet, which provides visual notifications in the panel when updates are available.[21] apt-rpm is an alternative to yum, and may be more familiar to people used to Debian or Debian-based distributions, where Advanced Packaging Tool is used to manage packages.[22] Additionally, extra repositories can be added to the system, so that packages not available in Fedora can be installed.[23]

Software repositories[edit]

Fedora comes installed with a wide range of software that includes LibreOffice, Firefox, and Empathy. Additional software that is not installed by default can be downloaded using the package manager.

Before Fedora 7, there were two main repositories – Core and Extras. Fedora Core contained all the base packages that were required by the operating system, as well as other packages that were distributed along with the installation CD/DVDs, and was maintained only by Red Hat developers. Fedora Extras, the secondary repository that was included from Fedora Core 3, was community-maintained and not distributed along with the installation CD/DVDs.

Also prior to Fedora 7 being released, there was a third repository called Fedora Legacy. This repository was community-maintained and was mainly concerned with extending the life cycle of older Fedora Core distributions and selected Red Hat Linux releases that were no longer officially maintained. Fedora Legacy was shut down in December 2006.

Third party repositories exist that distribute more packages that are not included in Fedora either because it does not meet Fedora's definition of free software or because distribution of that software may violate US law. One of the most popular third-party repositories is RPM Fusion.

Desktop environments[edit]

The default desktop in Fedora is the GNOME desktop environment, with Fedora offering the GNOME Shell as its default interface since the release of Fedora 15.[24] Other desktop environments are available from the Fedora package repositories, and can also be installed from the Fedora installer, including the KDE Plasma Workspaces, Xfce, and LXDE desktop environments.[25] In Fedora 18 both the MATE and Cinnamon desktops were made available in the package repositories.[25] In addition, specialized "spins" are available offering these alternative desktops custom configured and offered by default. Other spins are also available targeting specific niche interests, such as gaming, security, design, and robotics.

Spins[edit]

A concept similar to Debian blends is Fedora spins.

Security features[edit]

Security is one of the most important features in Fedora. One of the security features in Fedora is Security-Enhanced Linux, a Linux feature that implements a variety of security policies, including mandatory access controls, through the use of Linux Security Modules (LSM) in the Linux kernel. Fedora is one of the distributions leading the way with SELinux.[26] SELinux was introduced in Fedora Core 2. It was disabled by default, as it radically altered how the operating system worked, but was enabled by default in Fedora Core 3 and introduced a less strict, targeted policy.[27][28]

Releases[edit]

Fedora 18 with a KDE shell

The current release of the operating system is Fedora 20, codenamed "Heisenbug", which was released on 17 December 2013.

Some of the features of Fedora 19 include:

Version history[edit]

Fedora Core 1 with the GNOME Desktop and Bluecurve theme
Fedora 18 will be maintained until one month after the release of Fedora 20

Old Red Hat Linux releases are listed at: Template:Releases_Red_Hat_Linux.


Project NameVersionCode nameRelease date[29]End-of-life date[30]Kernel version
Fedora CoreOld version, no longer supported: 1Yarrow2003-11-052004-09-202.4.22
Old version, no longer supported: 2Tettnang2004-05-182005-04-112.6.5
Old version, no longer supported: 3Heidelberg2004-11-082006-01-162.6.9
Old version, no longer supported: 4Stentz2005-06-132006-08-072.6.11
Old version, no longer supported: 5Bordeaux2006-03-202007-07-022.6.15
Old version, no longer supported: 6Zod2006-10-242007-12-072.6.18
FedoraOld version, no longer supported: 7Moonshine2007-05-312008-06-132.6.21
Old version, no longer supported: 8Werewolf2007-11-082009-01-072.6.23
Old version, no longer supported: 9Sulphur2008-05-132009-07-102.6.25
Old version, no longer supported: 10Cambridge2008-11-252009-12-182.6.27
Old version, no longer supported: 11Leonidas2009-06-09[31]2010-06-252.6.29
Old version, no longer supported: 12Constantine2009-11-17[32]2010-12-022.6.31
Old version, no longer supported: 13Goddard2010-05-25[33]2011-06-042.6.33
Old version, no longer supported: 14Laughlin2010-11-02[34]2011-12-082.6.35[35]
Old version, no longer supported: 15Lovelock2011-05-24[36]2012-06-26[37]2.6.42[38]
Old version, no longer supported: 16Verne2011-11-08[39]2013-02-12[40]3.1[41]
Old version, no longer supported: 17Beefy Miracle[42]2012-05-29[43]2013-07-30[44]3.3[45]
Older version, yet still supported: 18Spherical Cow2013-01-15[46]2014-01-14[47]3.10[48]
Older version, yet still supported: 19Schrödinger's Cat[49]2013-07-02[50]3.11[48]
Current stable version: 20Heisenbug[51]2013-12-17[52]3.11[48]
Legend:
Old version
Older version, still supported
Latest version
Latest preview version
Future release

Derivatives[edit]

See also List of Fedora-based Linux distributions

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "Frequently Asked Questions about Fedora Licensing". Fedora Project wiki. Retrieved 1 March 2011. 
  2. ^ Red Hat (2003-11-06). "Announcing Fedora Core 1". Retrieved 2007-10-18. 
  3. ^ "Fedora Core 1 Release Notes". Retrieved 2007-10-19. 
  4. ^ "Fedora Project Overview". Retrieved 2009-11-04. 
  5. ^ Max Spevack. "Fedora Project Leader Max Spevack Responds". Retrieved 2006-12-17. 
  6. ^ "Fedora Project Objectives". 2006-12-19. Retrieved 2007-02-12. 
  7. ^ Paul W. Frields (2008-05-12). "Fedora 9". Fedora Project. Retrieved 2008-07-27. 
  8. ^ Fedora Project life cycle and maintenance, accessed 2009–04–07.
  9. ^ Richard Morris (2008-07-17). "Linus Torvalds, Geek of the Week". Retrieved 2009-08-03. 
  10. ^ a b "Fedora Project: Announcing New Direction". 2003-09-22. Retrieved 2007-10-18. 
  11. ^ "The Fedora Project and Red Hat Enterprise Linux, part 4". 2006-08-22. Retrieved 2007-10-18. 
  12. ^ "Warren Togami on the new Fedora Project". Retrieved 2010-02-09. 
  13. ^ "Why Fedora? (.odp presentation)". Retrieved 2011-04-30. 
  14. ^ "Red Hat Inc.'s Use of The Fedora Name". Archived from the original on 2006-10-13. Retrieved 2009-06-25. 
  15. ^ "Fedora goes to a community-dominated board". Retrieved 2009-06-22. 
  16. ^ Fedora Project. "New Users – How Do I Download Installation Files?". Retrieved 2009-04-03. 
  17. ^ Fedora Project. "Alternative Install Methods". Retrieved 2009-04-03. 
  18. ^ CustomSpins - Fedora Project Wiki.
  19. ^ Fedora Project (2007-11-19). "Custom Spins". Retrieved 2007-11-19. 
  20. ^ Extra Packages for Enterprise Linux (EPEL), accessed 2009–05–15.
  21. ^ a b Stuart Ellis. "Software Management Tools in Fedora Core". Retrieved 2007-11-18. 
  22. ^ Fedora Project. "APT and Fedora". Retrieved 2007-11-18. 
  23. ^ Stuart Ellis. "Using Repositories". Retrieved 2007-11-18. 
  24. ^ "Fedora 15 and the Desktop: Is it Ready?". Retrieved 2012-05-30. 
  25. ^ a b "Fedora 17 now available for download". Retrieved 2012-05-30. 
  26. ^ "Mandatory Access Control with SELinux" (PDF). Retrieved 2007-10-07. 
  27. ^ "Fedora Core 2 Release Notes". Retrieved 2007-10-19. 
  28. ^ "Fedora Core 3 Release Notes". Retrieved 2007-10-19. 
  29. ^ Fedora Project. "Releases". Retrieved 2008-06-23. 
  30. ^ "End of life". FedoraProject. Retrieved 2012-01-25. 
  31. ^ "Fedora 11 Release Schedule". The Fedora Project. 2009-05-31. Retrieved 2009-06-10. 
  32. ^ "Releases/12". FedoraProject. Retrieved 2012-01-25. 
  33. ^ "Releases/13/Schedule". FedoraProject. Retrieved 2012-01-25. 
  34. ^ "Releases/14/Schedule". FedoraProject. Retrieved 2012-01-25. 
  35. ^ "Fedora 14 Release Schedule and Codename - Softpedia". News.softpedia.com. Retrieved 2012-01-25. 
  36. ^ "Releases/15". FedoraProject. Retrieved 2012-01-25. 
  37. ^ "Reminder: Fedora 15 end of life on 2012-06-26". FedoraProject. Retrieved 1 June 2012. 
  38. ^ "kernel". Admin.fedoraproject.org. Retrieved 2012-03-29. 
  39. ^ "Releases/16/Schedule". FedoraProject. Retrieved 2012-01-25. 
  40. ^ Gilmore, Dennis. "Reminder: Fedora 16 end of life on 2013-02-12". lists.fedoraproject.org. Retrieved 16 January 2013. 
  41. ^ "Fedora 16 Release Notes". Retrieved 2012-11-10. 
  42. ^ "Fedora Project Wiki". FedoraProject. 2012-01-16. Retrieved 2012-01-25. 
  43. ^ "Releases/17/Schedule - FedoraProject". FedoraProject. 2012-04-05. Retrieved 2012-04-25. 
  44. ^ Gilmore, Dennis. "Reminder: Fedora 17 end of life on 2013-07-30". lists.fedoraproject.org. Retrieved 7 August 2013. 
  45. ^ url=http://docs.fedoraproject.org/en-US/Fedora/17/html/Release_Notes/sect-Release_Notes-Changes_for_Sysadmin.html#id579836
  46. ^ "Releases/18/Schedule - FedoraProject". FedoraProject. 2013-01-05. Retrieved 2013-01-05. 
  47. ^ Gilmore, Dennis. "Reminder: Fedora 18 end of life on 2014-01-14". lists.fedoraproject.org. Retrieved 18 December 2013. 
  48. ^ a b c "Fedora Kernel". 2013-07-31. Retrieved 2013-11-12. 
  49. ^ "Results of Fedora 19 release name". FedoraProject. 2012-11-16. Retrieved 2012-11-16. 
  50. ^ "Releases/19/Schedule - FedoraProject". FedoraProject. 2013-03-04. Retrieved 2013-03-04. 
  51. ^ "Results of Fedora 20 Release Name Voting ". FedoraProject. 2013-09-03. Retrieved 2013-09-04. 
  52. ^ "Releases/20/Schedule - FedoraProject". FedoraProject. 2013-11-12. Retrieved 2013-11-12. 
  53. ^ Source: DistroWatch list of Fedora derived Linux distributions
  54. ^ Source: Fedora WIKI list of derived distributions.
  55. ^ Fuduntu - Punny Name, Serious Distro, accessed 2011-03-18.

External links[edit]