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The Quraysh or Quréish or Quraish (Arabic: قريش, Qurayš; other transliterations include "Quresh", "Qurrish", "Qurish", "Qirsh", "Quréishi" "Qureshi", "Kuraish", "Koraish", "Koreish" and "Coreish") were a powerful merchant tribe that controlled Mecca and its Ka'aba and that according to tradition descended from Ishmael.
According to this tradition, Quraysh is Nadhr ibn ("son of") Kinanah ibn Khuzaimah ibn Madrakah ibn Ilyas (Elijah) ibn Mudhar ibn Nazar ibn Ma'ad ibn Adnan ibn Add ibn Sind ibn Qedar ibn Ishmael ibn Abraham ibn Azar (Terah) ibn Nahoor ibn Serug ibn Reu ibn Peleg ibn Eber ibn Salah ibn Arpachshad ibn Shem ibn Noah ibn Lamech ibn Methuselah ibn Idris (Enoch) ibn Jared ibn Mahalalel ibn Kenan ibn Enos ibn Seth ibn Adam.
According to Arabic history books, the Quraysh tribe was a branch of the Banu Kinanah tribe, which descended from the Mudhar. For several generations they were spread about among other tribal groupings. About five generations before Muhammad the situation was changed by Qusai ibn Kilab. By war and diplomacy he assembled an alliance that delivered to him the keys of the Kaaba, an important pagan shrine which brought revenues to Mecca because of the multitude of pilgrims that it attracted. He then gathered his fellow tribesmen to settle at Mecca, where he enjoyed such adulation from his kin that they adjudged him their de facto king, a position that was enjoyed by no other descendant of his. Different responsibilities were apportioned between different clans. There were some rivalries among the clans, and these became especially pronounced during Muhammad's lifetime.
The Quaraysh's main god was Hubal. According to The Oxford Handbook of Late Antiquity, "The Qurayshite pantheon was composed principally of idols that were in the Haram of Makka, that is, Hubal (the most important and oldest deity), Manaf, Isaf, and Na'ila."
Some clan leaders did not appreciate Muhammad's claim of prophethood and tried to silence him by putting pressure on his uncle, Abu Talib. They rejected Islam's conception of monotheism; while they agreed that there was a sigle higher God, they also worshipped many lesser Gods they believed were intermediaries between mankind and the one higher God. Many of the clans also began to oppose the followers of Muhammad, for example by boycotting them. A number of early Muslims took refuge with the Christian king of Abyssinia, while Muhammad himself would later emigrate to Yathrib, now Medina. The Quraysh fought many battles against Muhammad. One major clash, the Battle of Badr in 624 C.E., where the Quraysh were defeated, was later seen as a turning point for Muslims. After Muhammad conquered Mecca in 630, he pardoned most of those who had previously opposed him, which helped maintain peace among the different clans. After Muhammad died, clan rivalries reignited, playing central roles in the conflicts over the caliphate and contributing to the Shia-Sunni divide.
After the introduction of Islam by Muḥammad, the Quraysh gained supremacy and produced the three dynasties of the Ummayad Caliphate, the Abbasid Caliphate and the Fatimid Caliphate. The split between the Shi'a and Sunni branches of Islam centers over the succession to Muhammad. The Sunnis believe Abu Bakr was elected as Muhammad's successor while the Shi'a (literally "supporters [of Ali]") believe Muhammad appointed `Ali ibn Abi Talib as his successor.
The third caliph, `Uthman ibn `Affan, was from the Banu Umayyah clan.
When `Ali was made caliph after the death of `Uthman, the Caliphate was in the hands of the Banu Hashim, but he was almost immediately challenged by Muawiyah, who was a member of the Umayyad clan. After `Ali's assassination at the hands of the Kharajites, the Shi'a hoped his son Hasan would become Caliph, but he deferred the position to Mu`awiyah, in hoping to quell the long-lasting civil war between the Muslims at that time. Mu`awiyah, in turn, violated the treaty signed with Hasan bin Ali, established the Umayyad line of Caliphs.
After the death of Mu`awiyah, his son Yazid became caliph but was almost immediately challenged by `Ali's younger son, Hussayn. Hussayn would not swear allegiance to Yazid when he received letters from the people of Al-Kufah that speak of Yazid's wrongdoing against Islam, and Hussayn's acknowledgment of the caliphate's non-hereditary lineage, which Yazid had breached. Hussayn was martyred by the stronger forces of Yazid at the Battle of Karbala. This event would ultimately lead to a full schism between Shi'a Islam and Sunni Islam.
In the Shi'a view, Muhammad's descendants through Ali were persecuted by Umayyad Caliphs.
Quraysh branched out into various sub-clans, who in turn branched out into yet further sub-clans. Roughly the division corresponded to the family lines of the current chieftain of that clan having sons.
The leaders of the Quraysh (Arabic: Sadat Quraysh), who formed Mecca's aristocracy upon the appearance of Muhammad, included:
|Kilab ibn Murrah||Fatimah bint Sa'd|
|Qusai ibn Kilab||Hubba bint Hulail||Zuhrah ibn Kilab|
|Abd-al-Uzza ibn Qusai||Abd-al-Dar ibn Qusai||Waqida bint Amr||Abd Manaf ibn Qusai||ʿAbd Manāf ibn Zuhrah||ʿĀtika|
|Ka'b||Banu Abd-al-dar||Nawfal ibn Abd Manaf||Atikah bint Murrah|
|Amr||Asad ibn Abd-al-Uzza||ʿAbd Manāf ibn ʿAbd ad-Dār||ʿAbd Shams ibnʿAbdManaf||Hala||Barra||Muttalib ibn Abd Manaf||Hashim ibn 'Abd Manaf||Hashemites|
|Nufayl||Amir||Sakhar||Khuwaylid ibn Asad||Nawfal ibn Asad||Kalde||Banu Nawfal||Umayya ibn Abd Shams||Barra||Wahb ibn 'Abd Manaf||Abusayfah||‘Abd al-Muttalib||Asad ibn Hashim||Nazle|
|Khattab ibn Nufayl||Uthman Abu Quhafa||Salma Umm-ul-Khair||Waraka ibn Nawfal||Alkame||Harb||Abu al-'As ibn Umayyah||Aminah bint Wahb||‘Abd Allah ibn ‘Abd al-Muttalib||Abu Talib ibn ‘Abd al-Muttalib||Hamza ibn ‘Abd al-Muttalib||‘Abbas ibn ‘Abd al-Muttalib|
|Umar ibn al-Khattab||Abu Bakr (Family)||Safiyyah bint ‘Abd al-Muttalib||Awwam ibn Khuwaylid||Khadijah bint Khuwaylid||Harith||Abu Sufyan ibn Harb||Al-Hakam ibn Abi al-'As||Affan ibn Abi al-'As||Muhammed (Family)||Khadijah (Daughters)||Ali (Family tree)||Khawlah bint Ja'far||ʿAbd Allâh bin `Abbâs|
|Hafsa bint Umar||Aisha (Family tree)||Asmā' bint Abu Bakr||Zubayr ibn al-Awam||Nadr||Muawiyah I||Marwan ibn al-Hakam||Uthman ibn Affan||Ruqayyah bint Muhammad||Fatimah Zahra||Muhammad ibn al-Hanafiyyah||Al-Mukhtar al-Thaqafi|
|ʿAli bin ʿAbd Allāh|
|ʿAbd Allâh ibn Abi Bakr||Umm Khultum||Abd Allah ibn al-Zubayr||Al-Munzir bin Zubayr||Asim bin Zubayr||Al-Muhacir bin Zubayr||Ummayads||Uthman ibn Abu-al-Aas||Hasan al-mujtaba||Mother of Fātimāh||Hussein ibn Ali (Family)||Shahrbanu||Abu Hāshim al-Hānafiyyah (Kaysān’īyyah)||Muhammad "al-Imām"|
|Muhammad ibn Abi Bakr||ʿAbd al-Rāhman||Khadijah bint Zubayr||Ümmü Hasan||Aisha bint Zubayr||Urwah ibn al-Zubayr||Yazid I||Zayd ibn al-Hasan||Hasan al-Mu'thannā||Fatimah bint Hasan||Ali Zayn|
|Jayda al-Sindhi||As-Saffah||Ibrāheem "al-Imām"|
|Qasim ibn Muhammad||Hisham ibn Urwah||Muawiyah II||Hasan ibn Zayd ibn Hasan||ʿAbd Allāh al-Kāmil||Farwah bint al-Qasim||Muhammad al-Baqir|
|Abbasids||Jāʿfar ibn Abī Tālīb|
|Farwah bint al-Qasim||Ali Zayn|
|Ismā‘il ibn Hassan||Muhammad al-Nafs al-Zakiyya||Hamīdah al-Barbariyyah Khātūn||Jāʿfar al-Sādiq (Imamāh‘Shi'ā)||Fatima bint al-Hussain'l-Athram||Hasan ibn Zayd’ûl-Alavī (Tabaristan)||ʿAbd Allāh ibn Jāʿfar|
|‘Umar al-Ashraf||Muhammed ibn Ismā‘il||Idris ibn ʿAbd Allāh||Ummul Banīn Najmah||Musa al-Kadhim|
|Yāhyā ibn Zayd’ûl-Alavī||Ismā‘il ibn ʿAbd Allāh|
|‘Alī||Zayyed||Idrisids||Sabīkah Khayzurān||Ali al-Ridha||Muhammed||Hussein||ʿAbd Allāh|
|al-Ḥasan||Dā‘ī al-Kabīr||Ibrāhim||Sumānah||M. al-Jawād||Al-Wafi||Yāhyā||al-Hussayn|
|al-Nāṣīr||Narjis||Hasan al-Askari||Ar-Rāḍī||Yāhyā Kufī|
|Alavids||Muhammad Mahdi||Mahdi Billāh|
|Twelve Imams (Twelvers)||Fatimids (Ismailism)||Al-Aftāh (Aftāhīyyah)|
|Nizār al-Muṣṭafá (Nizārīyyah)||Al-Mustā‘lī (Mustā‘līyyah)|
|Alamut Castle (Hassasins)||Al-Hāfeez (Ḥāfīzīyyah)||Aṭ-Ṭāyyīb (Ṭāyyībīyyah)|
|Nizārī Imāmah||Al-Fā'īz||Taiyabi Dā'ĩs|