Pyatigorsk

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia - View original article

Pyatigorsk (English)
Пятигорск (Russian)
-  City[1]  -
View of Pyatigorsk from Mt.Mashuk.JPG
View of Pyatigorsk from Mt.Mashuk, 2007
Map of Russia - Stavropol Krai (2008-03).svg
Location of Stavropol Krai in Russia
Pyatigorsk is located in Stavropol Krai
Pyatigorsk
Location of Pyatigorsk in Stavropol Krai
Coordinates: 44°02′N 43°03′E / 44.033°N 43.050°E / 44.033; 43.050Coordinates: 44°02′N 43°03′E / 44.033°N 43.050°E / 44.033; 43.050
Герб «Пятигорска».svg
Flag of Pyatigorsk.svg
Coat of arms
Flag
Administrative status (as of July 2011)
CountryRussia
Federal subjectStavropol Krai[1]
Administratively subordinated tocity of krai significance of Pyatigorsk[1]
Administrative center ofcity of krai significance of Pyatigorsk[1]
Municipal status (as of July 2010)
Urban okrugPyatigorsk Urban Okrug[2]
Administrative center ofPyatigorsk Urban Okrug[2]
Head[citation needed]Lev Travnev[citation needed]
Representative bodyCouncil of Deputies[citation needed]
Statistics
Population (2010 Census)142,511 inhabitants[3]
Rank in 2010121st
Time zoneMSK (UTC+04:00)[4]
Founded1780[citation needed]
Postal code(s)357500[citation needed]
Dialing code(s)+7 8793[citation needed]
Official website
Pyatigorsk on WikiCommons
 
Jump to: navigation, search
Pyatigorsk (English)
Пятигорск (Russian)
-  City[1]  -
View of Pyatigorsk from Mt.Mashuk.JPG
View of Pyatigorsk from Mt.Mashuk, 2007
Map of Russia - Stavropol Krai (2008-03).svg
Location of Stavropol Krai in Russia
Pyatigorsk is located in Stavropol Krai
Pyatigorsk
Location of Pyatigorsk in Stavropol Krai
Coordinates: 44°02′N 43°03′E / 44.033°N 43.050°E / 44.033; 43.050Coordinates: 44°02′N 43°03′E / 44.033°N 43.050°E / 44.033; 43.050
Герб «Пятигорска».svg
Flag of Pyatigorsk.svg
Coat of arms
Flag
Administrative status (as of July 2011)
CountryRussia
Federal subjectStavropol Krai[1]
Administratively subordinated tocity of krai significance of Pyatigorsk[1]
Administrative center ofcity of krai significance of Pyatigorsk[1]
Municipal status (as of July 2010)
Urban okrugPyatigorsk Urban Okrug[2]
Administrative center ofPyatigorsk Urban Okrug[2]
Head[citation needed]Lev Travnev[citation needed]
Representative bodyCouncil of Deputies[citation needed]
Statistics
Population (2010 Census)142,511 inhabitants[3]
Rank in 2010121st
Time zoneMSK (UTC+04:00)[4]
Founded1780[citation needed]
Postal code(s)357500[citation needed]
Dialing code(s)+7 8793[citation needed]
Official website
Pyatigorsk on WikiCommons

Pyatigorsk (Russian: Пятиго́рск) is a city in Stavropol Krai located on the Podkumok River, about 20 kilometers (12 mi) from the town of Mineralnye Vody where there is an international airport and about 45 kilometers (28 mi) from Kislovodsk. Since January 19, 2010, it has been the administrative center of the North Caucasian Federal District of Russia. Population: 142,511 (2010 Census);[3] 140,559 (2002 Census);[5] 129,499 (1989 Census).[6]

Overview[edit source | edit]

The name Pyatigorsk is derived from the fused Russian words "пять гор" (five mountains) and the city is so called because of the five peaks of the Beshtau (which also means five mountains in Turkic) of the Caucasian mountain range overlooking the city. It was founded in 1780,[citation needed] and has been a health spa with mineral springs since 1803. Pyatigorsk is one of the oldest spa resorts in Russia. The health resort provides unique medical resources, and its underground wealth supplies 50 different mineral springs, medical mud taken from Lake Tambukan located 10 km from Pyatigorsk, and the mild climate of the area. It is one of 116 historical towns of the Russian Federation. Russian poet Mikhail Lermontov was shot in a duel at Pyatigorsk on July 27, 1841. There is a museum in the city devoted to his memory. The Zionist activist Joseph Trumpeldor was born in Pyatigorsk.
The Circassian or Adyghe name is Beishto.

Geography and climate[edit source | edit]

The city is situated on a small plateau, 512 meters (1,680 ft) above sea level, at the foot of Beshtau, Mashuk, and three other outliers of the Caucasus Mountains, which protect it on the north. The snow-covered summits of Mount Elbrus are visible to the south.

The climate of Pyatigorsk falls within humid continental (Dfb) classification under the Köppen-Geiger climate classification system and is characterized by absence of sharp fluctuations of annual and daily temperatures. Summers are steadily warm with the average July temperature of +21 °C (70 °F) while winters, lasting two to three months, are cold, with the average January temperature of −4 °C (25 °F). Spring is cool, with a sharp transition by the summer, and a warm, dry, and long fall. There are an average of ninety-eight sunny days in a year.

Climate data for Pyatigorsk
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
Record high °C (°F)18.2
(64.8)
20.8
(69.4)
30.3
(86.5)
33.5
(92.3)
34.4
(93.9)
36.5
(97.7)
39.7
(103.5)
40.9
(105.6)
37.4
(99.3)
31.4
(88.5)
25.1
(77.2)
20.6
(69.1)
40.9
(105.6)
Average high °C (°F)0.8
(33.4)
1.3
(34.3)
5.9
(42.6)
14.9
(58.8)
20.3
(68.5)
24.1
(75.4)
27.0
(80.6)
26.5
(79.7)
21.4
(70.5)
14.6
(58.3)
7.7
(45.9)
2.9
(37.2)
14.1
(57.4)
Daily mean °C (°F)−3.8
(25.2)
−3.2
(26.2)
1.0
(33.8)
8.9
(48)
14.5
(58.1)
18.4
(65.1)
21.1
(70)
20.3
(68.5)
15.3
(59.5)
8.9
(48)
3.1
(37.6)
−1.5
(29.3)
8.7
(47.7)
Average low °C (°F)−7.7
(18.1)
−7.0
(19.4)
−2.9
(26.8)
3.6
(38.5)
8.8
(47.8)
12.6
(54.7)
15.4
(59.7)
14.7
(58.5)
10.1
(50.2)
4.2
(39.6)
−0.7
(30.7)
−5.2
(22.6)
3.9
(39)
Record low °C (°F)−32.5
(−26.5)
−31.6
(−24.9)
−23.4
(−10.1)
−11.9
(10.6)
−4.8
(23.4)
1.5
(34.7)
7.0
(44.6)
3.3
(37.9)
−3.2
(26.2)
−9.6
(14.7)
−22.3
(−8.1)
−25.8
(−14.4)
−32.5
(−26.5)
Precipitation mm (inches)18.3
(0.72)
19.0
(0.748)
26.4
(1.039)
48.0
(1.89)
72.8
(2.866)
86.4
(3.402)
70.0
(2.756)
51.7
(2.035)
43.6
(1.717)
32.7
(1.287)
25.7
(1.012)
23.7
(0.933)
518.3
(20.405)
Avg. precipitation days16.816.116.213.711.79.77.16.510.715.413.716.4154
Source: climatebase.ru[7]

History[edit source | edit]

20th-century postcard with a view of Pyatigorsk

The first mention of the mineral springs is found in the writings of the 14th-century Arabian traveler Ibn Battuta. Scientific interest in them was first shown by Peter the Great, but the information collected on his expedition has since been lost. Interest was revived at the end of the 18th century when the first Russian settlement was founded—Konstantinogorskaya fortress, erected at Mt. Mashuk in 1780.[citation needed]

The value of the Caucasian mineral waters led to the construction of a resort in 1803, and the first studies of their medical properties began thereafter: on April 24, Alexander I signed a decree which made the mineral waters state property. There are now many settlements near the springs. The first such settlement was Goryachevodsk (now part of Pyatigorsk) at the bottom of Mt. Mashuk, then Kislovodsk, Yessentuki, Zheleznovodsk.[8]

During World War II, Pyatigorsk was occupied for a while by the German Wehrmacht. The Einsatzkommando 12 of Einsatzgruppe D had its headquarter in Pyatigorsk in 1942.[9] Many Jewish inhabitants of the region were killed.[10]

Administrative and municipal status[edit source | edit]

Within the framework of administrative divisions, it is, together with two urban-type settlements and five rural localities, incorporated as the city of krai significance of Pyatigorsk—an administrative unit with the status equal to that of the districts.[1] As a municipal division, the city of krai significance of Pyatigorsk is incorporated as Pyatigorsk Urban Okrug.[2]

Economy[edit source | edit]

The industry of Pyatigorsk is primarily oriented towards service of the health resort. There is also food industry (a meat-processing plant, a winery, a dairy, a brewery, a confectionery), textiles (clothing, shoe plant, carpet factories), machine industry and metal working (PО Pyatigorskselmash specializes in machines and equipment for aviculture; a special automobile equipment works, an electromechanical plant, etc.); a chemical factory and a ceramics factory who specialize in porcelain and ceramic gifts such as samovars, figurines, vases, and decorative ceramic wall hanging panels.

In 1991, the Pyatigorsk health resort had ten sanatoria, four boarding houses and five sanatoria-preventoria. The number of people who stayed at the health resort within a year totalled about 170,000.

Tourism[edit source | edit]

Pyatigorsk is a convenient starting point for numerous tourist routes. The southern slope of Mashuk has a 20 meters (66 ft) deep sinkhole, at the bottom of which there is a small lake. To climb Mashuk, there is a cable and a foot road. At the center of the health resorts, on the slopes and at the bottoms of Mounts Beshtau, Mashuk, Zmeyka, Razvalka, Zheleznaya, Ostrov, and Medovaya, there is Mount Beshtau forestland (mainly ash, oak, hornbeam, and beech).

Points of interest[edit source | edit]

The monument marks the place of Lermontov's duel

The state memorial estate of Mikhail Lermontov was founded in 1973. It unites all of the Lermontov memorial places in the region: the place where he fought his duel and was killed, a necropolis, Lermontov's small house, Verzilin's houses, the house of Alexander Alyabyev, the Lermontov square, and monument.

The Aeolian harp is a small stone pavilion in the classical style, constructed by the brothers Bernardacci in 1828.

Diana's grotto was built in 1830, in honor of the first ascent of Mount Elbrus.

Pyatigorsk is well known in the Caucasus region for its excellent restaurants and nightlife, as well as for its extremely large marketplace. A major thoroughfare is known to locals as "Broadway", which runs through the center of the city, and on which most of the best restaurants, nightclubs, and attractions are located. Broadway is also a popular spot for people watching. The influence of the Caucasus region is felt here most noticeably in the music and cuisine, which incorporate aspects of many former Soviet republics such as Armenia.

Pyatigorsk features prominently in Jonathan Littel's 2009 novel, The Kindly Ones.

Honors[edit source | edit]

Asteroid 2192 Pyatigoriya discovered in 1972 by Soviet astronomer Tamara Smirnova is named after the city.[11]

International relations[edit source | edit]

Pyatigorsk is twinned with:

References[edit source | edit]

Notes[edit source | edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e Resolution #63-p
  2. ^ a b c Law #88-kz
  3. ^ a b "Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года. Том 1" [2010 All-Russian Population Census, vol. 1]. Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года (2010 All-Russia Population Census) (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service. 2011. Retrieved June 29, 2012. 
  4. ^ Правительство Российской Федерации. Постановление №725 от 31 августа 2011 г. «О составе территорий, образующих каждую часовую зону, и порядке исчисления времени в часовых зонах, а также о признании утратившими силу отдельных Постановлений Правительства Российской Федерации». Вступил в силу по истечении 7 дней после дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Российская Газета", №197, 6 сентября 2011 г. (Government of the Russian Federation. Resolution #725 of August 31, 2011 On the Composition of the Territories Included into Each Time Zone and on the Procedures of Timekeeping in the Time Zones, as Well as on Abrogation of Several Resolutions of the Government of the Russian Federation. Effective as of after 7 days following the day of the official publication.).
  5. ^ "Численность населения России, субъектов Российской Федерации в составе федеральных округов, районов, городских поселений, сельских населённых пунктов – районных центров и сельских населённых пунктов с населением 3 тысячи и более человек" [Population of Russia, its federal districts, federal subjects, districts, urban localities, rural localities—administrative centers, and rural localities with population of over 3,000]. Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года (All-Russia Population Census of 2002) (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service. May 21, 2004. Retrieved February 9, 2012. 
  6. ^ Demoscope Weekly (1989). "Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 г. Численность наличного населения союзных и автономных республик, автономных областей и округов, краёв, областей, районов, городских поселений и сёл-райцентров." [All Union Population Census of 1989. Present population of union and autonomous republics, autonomous oblasts and okrugs, krais, oblasts, districts, urban settlements, and villages serving as district administrative centers]. Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 года (All-Union Population Census of 1989) (in Russian). Institute of Demographics of the State University—Higher School of Economics. Retrieved February 9, 2012. 
  7. ^ "Climatebase". Retrieved June 26, 2012. 
  8. ^ "Pyatigorsk". Newtime21v.narod.ru. 2007-01-30. Retrieved 2012-08-08. 
  9. ^ (German) Jonathan Littell: Die Wohlgesinnten - Materialienband. Berlin 2006. P. 66
  10. ^ "Russia // Kira Belkova". The Jewish Foundation for the Righteous. 
  11. ^ Schmadel, Lutz D. (2003). Dictionary of Minor Planet Names (5th ed.). New York: Springer Verlag. p. 178. ISBN 3-540-00238-3. 

Sources[edit source | edit]

External links[edit source | edit]