Pyatigorsk

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Pyatigorsk (English)
Пятигорск (Russian)
-  City[1]  -
Вид на город Пятигорск.jpg
View of Pyatigorsk
Map of Russia - Stavropol Krai (2008-03).svg
Location of Stavropol Krai in Russia
Pyatigorsk is located in Stavropol Krai
Pyatigorsk
Pyatigorsk
Location of Pyatigorsk in Stavropol Krai
Coordinates: 44°03′N 43°04′E / 44.050°N 43.067°E / 44.050; 43.067Coordinates: 44°03′N 43°04′E / 44.050°N 43.067°E / 44.050; 43.067
Герб «Пятигорска».svg
Flag of Pyatigorsk.svg
Coat of arms
Flag
Administrative status (as of September 2013)
CountryRussia
Federal subjectStavropol Krai[1]
Administratively subordinated tocity of krai significance of Pyatigorsk[1]
Administrative center ofcity of krai significance of Pyatigorsk[1]
Municipal status (as of July 2010)
Urban okrugPyatigorsk Urban Okrug[2]
Administrative center ofPyatigorsk Urban Okrug[2]
Head[citation needed]Lev Travnev[citation needed]
Representative bodyCouncil of Deputies[citation needed]
Statistics
Population (2010 Census)142,511 inhabitants[3]
Rank in 2010121st
Time zoneMSK (UTC+03:00)[4]
Founded1780[5]
Postal code(s)[6]357500–357504, 357506, 357519, 357522, 357524, 357528, 357532, 357534, 357535, 357538
Dialing code(s)+7 8793[citation needed]
Official website
Pyatigorsk on WikiCommons
 
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Pyatigorsk (English)
Пятигорск (Russian)
-  City[1]  -
Вид на город Пятигорск.jpg
View of Pyatigorsk
Map of Russia - Stavropol Krai (2008-03).svg
Location of Stavropol Krai in Russia
Pyatigorsk is located in Stavropol Krai
Pyatigorsk
Pyatigorsk
Location of Pyatigorsk in Stavropol Krai
Coordinates: 44°03′N 43°04′E / 44.050°N 43.067°E / 44.050; 43.067Coordinates: 44°03′N 43°04′E / 44.050°N 43.067°E / 44.050; 43.067
Герб «Пятигорска».svg
Flag of Pyatigorsk.svg
Coat of arms
Flag
Administrative status (as of September 2013)
CountryRussia
Federal subjectStavropol Krai[1]
Administratively subordinated tocity of krai significance of Pyatigorsk[1]
Administrative center ofcity of krai significance of Pyatigorsk[1]
Municipal status (as of July 2010)
Urban okrugPyatigorsk Urban Okrug[2]
Administrative center ofPyatigorsk Urban Okrug[2]
Head[citation needed]Lev Travnev[citation needed]
Representative bodyCouncil of Deputies[citation needed]
Statistics
Population (2010 Census)142,511 inhabitants[3]
Rank in 2010121st
Time zoneMSK (UTC+03:00)[4]
Founded1780[5]
Postal code(s)[6]357500–357504, 357506, 357519, 357522, 357524, 357528, 357532, 357534, 357535, 357538
Dialing code(s)+7 8793[citation needed]
Official website
Pyatigorsk on WikiCommons

Pyatigorsk (Russian: Пятиго́рск) is a city in Stavropol Krai located on the Podkumok River, about 20 kilometers (12 mi) from the town of Mineralnye Vody where there is an international airport and about 45 kilometers (28 mi) from Kislovodsk. Since January 19, 2010, it has been the administrative center of the North Caucasian Federal District of Russia. Population: 142,511 (2010 Census);[3] 140,559 (2002 Census);[7] 129,499 (1989 Census).[8]

Overview[edit]

The name Pyatigorsk is derived from the fused Russian words "пять гор" (five mountains) and the city is so called because of the five peaks of the Beshtau (which also means five mountains in Turkic) of the Caucasian mountain range overlooking the city. It was founded in 1780,[5] and has been a health spa with mineral springs since 1803. Pyatigorsk is one of the oldest spa resorts in Russia. The health resort provides unique medical resources, and its underground wealth supplies 50 different mineral springs, medical mud taken from Lake Tambukan located 10 km (6 mi) from Pyatigorsk, and the mild climate of the area. It is one of 116 historical towns of the Russian Federation. Russian poet Mikhail Lermontov was shot in a duel at Pyatigorsk on July 27, 1841. There is a museum in the city devoted to his memory. The Zionist activist Joseph Trumpeldor was born in Pyatigorsk.
The Circassian or Adyghe name is Beishto.

History[edit]

View of Pyatigorsk between 1890 and 1900.

The writings of the 14th-century Arabian traveler Ibn Battuta included the earliest known mention of the mineral springs. Peter the Great (reigned 1682-1725) fostered the earliest scientific study of them, but the information collected on his expedition has not survived. Interest revived at the end of the 18th century with the foundation of the first Russian settlement (Konstantinogorskaya fortress), erected at Mt. Mashuk in 1780.[5]

The value of the Caucasian mineral waters led to the construction of a resort in 1803, and studies of their medical properties began thereafter: on April 24, Alexander I signed a decree which made the mineral waters state property. Many settlements developed near the springs: first Goryachevodsk (now part of Pyatigorsk) at the bottom of Mt. Mashuk, then Kislovodsk, Yessentuki, and Zheleznovodsk.[9]

During World War II the German Wehrmacht temporarily occupied Pyatigorsk. The Einsatzkommando 12 of Einsatzgruppe D had its headquarters in Pyatigorsk in 1942.[10] The German occupation resulted in the killing of many Jewish inhabitants of the region.[11]

Geography and climate[edit]

The city is situated on a small plateau, 512 meters (1,680 ft) above sea level, at the foot of Beshtau, Mashuk, and three other outliers of the Caucasus Mountains, which protect it on the north. The snow-covered summits of Mount Elbrus are visible to the south.

The climate of Pyatigorsk falls within humid continental (Dfb) classification under the Köppen-Geiger climate classification system and is characterized by absence of sharp fluctuations of annual and daily temperatures. Summers are steadily warm with the average July temperature of +21 °C (70 °F) while winters, lasting two to three months, are cold, with the average January temperature of −4 °C (25 °F). Spring is cool, with a sharp transition by the summer, and a warm, dry, and long fall. There are an average of ninety-eight sunny days in a year.

Climate data for Pyatigorsk
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
Record high °C (°F)18.2
(64.8)
20.8
(69.4)
30.3
(86.5)
33.5
(92.3)
34.4
(93.9)
36.5
(97.7)
39.7
(103.5)
40.9
(105.6)
37.4
(99.3)
31.4
(88.5)
25.1
(77.2)
20.6
(69.1)
40.9
(105.6)
Average high °C (°F)0.8
(33.4)
1.3
(34.3)
5.9
(42.6)
14.9
(58.8)
20.3
(68.5)
24.1
(75.4)
27.0
(80.6)
26.5
(79.7)
21.4
(70.5)
14.6
(58.3)
7.7
(45.9)
2.9
(37.2)
14.1
(57.4)
Daily mean °C (°F)−3.8
(25.2)
−3.2
(26.2)
1.0
(33.8)
8.9
(48)
14.5
(58.1)
18.4
(65.1)
21.1
(70)
20.3
(68.5)
15.3
(59.5)
8.9
(48)
3.1
(37.6)
−1.5
(29.3)
8.7
(47.7)
Average low °C (°F)−7.7
(18.1)
−7.0
(19.4)
−2.9
(26.8)
3.6
(38.5)
8.8
(47.8)
12.6
(54.7)
15.4
(59.7)
14.7
(58.5)
10.1
(50.2)
4.2
(39.6)
−0.7
(30.7)
−5.2
(22.6)
3.9
(39)
Record low °C (°F)−32.5
(−26.5)
−31.6
(−24.9)
−23.4
(−10.1)
−11.9
(10.6)
−4.8
(23.4)
1.5
(34.7)
7.0
(44.6)
3.3
(37.9)
−3.2
(26.2)
−9.6
(14.7)
−22.3
(−8.1)
−25.8
(−14.4)
−32.5
(−26.5)
Precipitation mm (inches)18.3
(0.72)
19.0
(0.748)
26.4
(1.039)
48.0
(1.89)
72.8
(2.866)
86.4
(3.402)
70.0
(2.756)
51.7
(2.035)
43.6
(1.717)
32.7
(1.287)
25.7
(1.012)
23.7
(0.933)
518.3
(20.405)
Avg. precipitation days16.816.116.213.711.79.77.16.510.715.413.716.4154
Source: climatebase.ru[12]

Administrative and municipal status[edit]

Within the framework of administrative divisions, it is, together with two urban-type settlements (Goryachevodsky and Svobody) and five rural localities, incorporated as the city of krai significance of Pyatigorsk—an administrative unit with the status equal to that of the districts.[1] As a municipal division, the city of krai significance of Pyatigorsk is incorporated as Pyatigorsk Urban Okrug.[2]

Economy[edit]

The industry of Pyatigorsk is primarily oriented towards service of the health resort. There is also food industry (a meat-processing plant, a winery, a dairy, a brewery, a confectionery), textiles (clothing, shoe plant, carpet factories), machine industry and metal working (PО Pyatigorskselmash specializes in machines and equipment for aviculture; a special automobile equipment works, an electromechanical plant, etc.); a chemical factory and a ceramics factory who specialize in porcelain and ceramic gifts such as samovars, figurines, vases, and decorative ceramic wall hanging panels.

In 1991, the Pyatigorsk health resort had ten sanatoria, four boarding houses and five sanatoria-preventoria. The number of people who stayed at the health resort within a year totalled about 170,000.

Points of interest[edit]

The monument marks the place of Lermontov's duel

The state memorial estate of Mikhail Lermontov was founded in 1973. It unites all of the Lermontov memorial places in the region: the place where he fought his duel and was killed, a necropolis, Lermontov's small house, Verzilin's houses, the house of Alexander Alyabyev, the Lermontov square, and monument.

The Aeolian harp is a small stone pavilion in the classical style, constructed by the brothers Bernardacci in 1828.

Diana's grotto was built in 1830, in honor of the first ascent of Mount Elbrus.

Pyatigorsk is well known in the Caucasus region for its excellent restaurants and nightlife, as well as for its extremely large marketplace. A major thoroughfare is known to locals as "Broadway", which runs through the center of the city, and on which most of the best restaurants, nightclubs, and attractions are located. Broadway is also a popular spot for people watching. The influence of the Caucasus region is felt here most noticeably in the music and cuisine, which incorporate aspects of many former Soviet republics such as Armenia.

Pyatigorsk features prominently in Jonathan Littell's 2009 novel, The Kindly Ones.

Honors[edit]

Asteroid 2192 Pyatigoriya discovered in 1972 by Soviet astronomer Tamara Smirnova is named after the city.[13]

International relations[edit]

Pyatigorsk is twinned with:

References[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e Resolution #63-p
  2. ^ a b c Law #88-kz
  3. ^ a b Russian Federal State Statistics Service (2011). "Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года. Том 1" [2010 All-Russian Population Census, vol. 1]. Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года (2010 All-Russia Population Census) (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service. Retrieved June 29, 2012. 
  4. ^ Правительство Российской Федерации. Федеральный закон №107-ФЗ от 3 июня 2011 г. «Об исчислении времени», в ред. Федерального закона №248-ФЗ от 21 июля 2014 г. «О внесении изменений в Федеральный закон "Об исчислении времени"». Вступил в силу по истечении шестидесяти дней после дня официального опубликования (6 августа 2011 г.). Опубликован: "Российская газета", №120, 6 июня 2011 г. (Government of the Russian Federation. Federal Law #107-FZ of June 31, 2011 On Calculating Time, as amended by the Federal Law #248-FZ of July 21, 2014 On Amending Federal Law "On Calculating Time". Effective as of after sixty days following the day of the official publication.).
  5. ^ a b c "Пятигорск". http://megabook.ru/. Retrieved 2014-07-27. 
  6. ^ Почта России. Информационно-вычислительный центр ОАСУ РПО. (Russian Post). Поиск объектов почтовой связи (Postal Objects Search) (Russian)
  7. ^ Russian Federal State Statistics Service (May 21, 2004). "Численность населения России, субъектов Российской Федерации в составе федеральных округов, районов, городских поселений, сельских населённых пунктов – районных центров и сельских населённых пунктов с населением 3 тысячи и более человек" [Population of Russia, Its Federal Districts, Federal Subjects, Districts, Urban Localities, Rural Localities—Administrative Centers, and Rural Localities with Population of Over 3,000] (XLS). Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года [All-Russia Population Census of 2002] (in Russian). Retrieved August 9, 2014. 
  8. ^ Demoscope Weekly (1989). "Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 г. Численность наличного населения союзных и автономных республик, автономных областей и округов, краёв, областей, районов, городских поселений и сёл-райцентров" [All Union Population Census of 1989: Present Population of Union and Autonomous Republics, Autonomous Oblasts and Okrugs, Krais, Oblasts, Districts, Urban Settlements, and Villages Serving as District Administrative Centers]. Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 года[All-Union Population Census of 1989] (in Russian). Институт демографии Национального исследовательского университета: Высшая школа экономики [Institute of Demography at the National Research University: Higher School of Economics]. Retrieved August 9, 2014. 
  9. ^ "Pyatigorsk". Newtime21v.narod.ru. 2007-01-30. Retrieved 2012-08-08. 
  10. ^ (German) Jonathan Littell: Die Wohlgesinnten - Materialienband. Berlin 2006. P. 66
  11. ^ "Russia // Kira Belkova". The Jewish Foundation for the Righteous. 
  12. ^ "Climatebase". Retrieved June 26, 2012. 
  13. ^ Schmadel, Lutz D. (2003). Dictionary of Minor Planet Names (5th ed.). New York: Springer Verlag. p. 178. ISBN 3-540-00238-3. 
  14. ^ "Twinnings". Central Union of Municipalities & Communities of Greece. Retrieved August 25, 2013. 

Sources[edit]

External links[edit]