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The Pueblo people are Native American people in the Southwestern United States comprising several different language groups and two major cultural divisions, one organized by matrilineal kinship systems and the other having a patrilineal system. These determine the clan membership of children, and lines of inheritance and descent. Their traditional economy is based on agriculture and trade. At the time of Spanish encounter in the 16th century, they were living in villages that the Spanish called pueblos, meaning "towns".
Numerous subdivisions of Pueblo peoples have been published in the literature of anthropology. Kirchhoff (1954) published a subdivision of the Pueblo People into two groups based on culture: one includes Hopi, Zuñi, Keres, and Jemez, which share exogamous matrilineal clans as the basis of their kinship system and have multiple kivas. They believe in the emergence of people from the underground as their creation story, emphasize four or six directions in their culture, beginning in the north; and consider four and seven to be significant ritual numbers. In contrast, the Tanoan-speaking Pueblos (other than Jemez) have endogamous patrilineal clans, and two kivas or two groups of kivas. Their belief system is based in dualism, the creation story recounts the emergence of the people from underwater, and they use five directions beginning in the west. Their ritual numbers are based on multiples of three.
Eggan (1950) in contrast, posed a dichotomy between Eastern and Western Pueblos, based largely on subsistence farming techniques. He noted the differences of the Western or Desert Pueblos of Zuñi and Hopi dry-farmers, compared to the irrigation farmers of the Eastern or River Pueblos. Both groups cultivated mostly maize (corn).
Linguistic differences among the Pueblo point to their diverse ethnic origins. The Hopi language is Uto-Aztecan; Zuñi is a language isolate; and Keresan is a dialect continuum that includes Acoma, Laguna, Santa Ana, Zia, Cochiti, Santo Domingo, and San Felipe. The Tanoan is an areal grouping of three branches consisting of 6 languages: Towa (Jemez), Tewa (San Juan, San Ildefonso, Santa Clara, Tesuque, Nambe, Pojoaque, and Hano); and the 3 Tiwa languages Taos, Picuris, and Southern Tiwa (Sandia, Isleta).
The Pueblos are believed to be descended from the three major cultures that dominated the region before European contact:
During the colonial period, Spanish missionaries converted many Pueblo people to Catholicism, and missions were established at each pueblo. But the Pueblo tribes have maintained much of their traditional cultures and have created a syncretic Catholicism. In the 21st century, some 35,000 Pueblo Indians live mostly in New Mexico and Arizona along the Rio Grande and Colorado River.
In 1680 the ancestors of these peoples mounted the Pueblo Revolt and were the first Native American group to successfully revolt against the Spanish; they expelled the Spanish colonists from the area for 12 years. The code for the action was a knotted rope carried from the leaders to each pueblo by a runner; the number of knots signified the number of days to wait before beginning the uprising. It began one day early, August 10, 1680; by August 21, Santa Fe fell to 2,500 Pueblo warriors.
In 1844 Josiah Gregg described the historic Pueblo people in Commerce of the Prairies: or, The journal of a Santa Fé trader, 1831–1839 as follows:
When these regions were first discovered it appears that the inhabitants lived in comfortable houses and cultivated the soil, as they have continued to do up to the present time. Indeed, they are now considered the best horticulturists in the country, furnishing most of the fruits and a large portion of the vegetable supplies that are to be found in the markets. They were until very lately the only people in New Mexico who cultivated the grape. They also maintain at the present time considerable herds of cattle, horses, etc. They are, in short, a remarkably sober and industrious race, conspicuous for morality and honesty, and very little given to quarrelling or dissipation...
On September 22, 2005, the statue of Po'pay, (Popé) the leader of the Pueblo Revolt, was unveiled in the Capitol Rotunda in Washington D.C. The statue was the second commissioned by the state of New Mexico for Statuary Hall; it was the 100th and last to be added to the collection, which represents the Senate. It was created by Cliff Fragua, a Puebloan from Jemez Pueblo. It is the only statue in the collection created by a Native American.
Pueblo prayer included substances as well as words; one common prayer material was ground-up maize—white cornmeal. Thus a man might bless his son, or some land, or the town by sprinkling a handful of meal as he uttered a blessing. Once, after the 1692 re-conquest, the Spanish were prevented from entering a town when they were met by a handful of men who uttered imprecations and cast a single pinch of a sacred substance.
The Pueblo peoples used ritual prayer sticks which were colorfully decorated with beads, fur, and feathers. These prayer sticks (or talking sticks) were similar to those used by other Native American nations.
By the 13th century, Puebloans used turkey feather blankets for warmth. Cloth and weaving were known to the Puebloans before the conquest. It is not known whether they knew of weaving before or after the Aztecs. Since clothing was expensive, they did not always dress their whole bodies until after the conquest and breechcloths were not uncommon.
Corn was a staple food for the Pueblo people. They were what was called "dry farmers". Because there was limited water in New Mexico, the farmers relied on crops that could survive the conditions. They mainly cultivated many types of corn, beans and squash (often described as the Three Sisters). The women made and used pottery to hold their food and water. (See also: Agriculture in the prehistoric Southwest)
The most highly developed Native communities of the Southwest were large villages or pueblos situated at the top of the mesas, the rocky tablelands typical to the region. In their belief system, the archetypal deities appear as visionary beings who bring blessings and receive love. A vast collection of myths explores the relationships among people and nature, including plants and animals. Spider Grandmother and kachina spirits figure prominently in some myths. Children led the religious ceremonies to create a more pure and holy ritual.
Most of the Pueblos hold annual sacred ceremonies, many of which are now open to the public. One such ceremony is the Pueblo's feast day, held on the day sacred to its Roman Catholic patron saint. (Spanish missionaries assigned particular saints as patrons so that each Pueblo's feast day would coincide with one of their existing traditional ceremonies.) Some Pueblos also have ceremonies around the Christmas and at other times of the year.
The ceremonies usually feature traditional dances that are held outdoors, accompanied by singing and drumming. Non-public ceremonies take place in the kivas. The public observances may also include a Roman Catholic Mass and processions. Traditionally, all outside visitors to a public dance would be offered a meal afterward in a Pueblo home. Because of the large number of tourists in the pueblos since the late 20th century, such meals are now open by personal invitation only.
November Jemez Pueblo Feast Day: November 12
There is a short history of creating pottery among the various Pueblo communities. Mera, in his discussion of the "Rain Bird" motif, a common and popular design element in pueblo pottery states that, "In tracing the ancestry of the "Rain Bird" design it will be necessary to go back to the very beginnings of decorated pottery in the Southwest to a ceramic type which as reckoned by present day archaeologists came into existence some time during the early centuries of the Christian era." 
Bird effigy, pottery, Cochiti Pueblo. Field Museum
Pottery Bowl, Jemez Pueblo, Field Museum, Chicago
Ancestral Hopi bowl, ca. 1300 AD
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|Wikisource has the text of the 1879 American Cyclopædia article Pueblo Indians.|