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|Dynasties of Ancient Egypt|
The Ptolemaic dynasty // (Ancient Greek: Πτολεμαῖοι, Ptolemaioi), sometimes also known as the Lagids // or Lagidae // (Ancient Greek: Λαγίδαι, Lagidai, after Lagus, Ptolemy I's father), was a Macedonian Greek royal family which ruled the Ptolemaic Empire in Egypt during the Hellenistic period. Their rule lasted for 275 years, from 305 BC to 30 BC. They were the last dynasty of ancient Egypt.
Ptolemy, one of the six somatophylakes (bodyguards) who served as Alexander the Great's generals and deputies, was appointed satrap of Egypt after Alexander's death in 323 BC. In 305 BC, he declared himself King Ptolemy I, later known as "Soter" (saviour). The Egyptians soon accepted the Ptolemies as the successors to the pharaohs of independent Egypt. Ptolemy's family ruled Egypt until the Roman conquest of 30 BC.
All the male rulers of the dynasty took the name Ptolemy. Ptolemaic queens, some of whom were the sisters of their husbands, were usually called Cleopatra, Arsinoe or Berenice. The most famous member of the line was the last queen, Cleopatra VII, known for her role in the Roman political battles between Julius Caesar and Pompey, and later between Octavian and Mark Antony. Her apparent suicide at the conquest by Rome marked the end of Ptolemaic rule in Egypt.
Dates in brackets represent the regnal dates of the Ptolemaic pharaohs. They frequently ruled jointly with their wives, who were often also their sisters. Several queens exercised regal authority, but the most famous and successful was Cleopatra VII (51–30 BC), with her two brothers and her son as successive nominal co-rulers. Several systems exist for numbering the later rulers; the one used here is the one most widely used by modern scholars. Dates are years of reign.
|Ptolemy I Soter||Berenice I of Egypt||Philip|
|Arsinoe II of Egypt||Ptolemy II Philadelphus||Arsinoe I of Egypt||Magas of Cyrene|
|Ptolemy III Euergetes||Berenice II of Egypt|
|Ptolemy IV Philopator||Arsinoe III of Egypt|
|Ptolemy V Epiphanes||Cleopatra I of Egypt|
|Ptolemy VI Philometor||Cleopatra II of Egypt||Ptolemy VIII Physcon||Eirene|
|Ptolemy VII Neos Philopator||Cleopatra III of Egypt||Ptolemy Memphites||Ptolemy Apion|
|Cleopatra IV of Egypt||Ptolemy IX Lathyros||Cleopatra Selene I||Ptolemy X Alexander I|
|Berenice III of Egypt||Ptolemy XI Alexander II|
|Ptolemy XII Auletes||Cleopatra V of Egypt|
|Cleopatra VI of Egypt||Berenice IV of Egypt||Julius Caesar||Ptolemy XIII Theos Philopator||Cleopatra VII Thea Philopator||Ptolemy XIV||Mark Antony||Arsinoe IV of Egypt|
|Ptolemy XV Caesarion||Alexander Helios||Ptolemy XVI Philadelphus||Cleopatra Selene II|
Contemporaries describe a number of the Ptolemaic dynasty as extremely obese, whilst sculptures and coins reveal prominent eyes and swollen necks. Familial Graves' disease could explain the swollen necks and eye prominence (exophthalmos), although this is unlikely to occur in the presence of morbid obesity.
In view of the familial nature of these findings, members of this dynasty likely suffered from a multi-organ fibrotic condition such as Erdheim–Chester disease or a familial multifocal fibrosclerosis where thyroiditis, obesity and ocular proptosis may have all occurred concurrently.
They were members of the Ptolemaic dynasty of Macedonian Greeks, who ruled Egypt after the death of its conqueror, Alexander the Great.
while Ptolemaic Egypt was a monarchy with a Greek ruling class.
Cleopatra VII was born to Ptolemy XII Auletes (80–57 BCE, ruled 55–51 BCE) and Cleopatra, both parents being Macedonian Greeks.
Ptolemaic kings were still crowned at Memphis and the city was popularly regarded as the Egyptian rival to Alexandria, founded by the Macedonian Greeks.
During the Ptolemaic period, when Egypt was governed by rulers of Greek descent...
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