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A psychologist is a professional or academic title used by individuals who are either:[1]

There are many different types of psychologists, as is reflected by the 56 different divisions of the American Psychological Association (APA).[3] Psychologists are generally described as being either "applied" or "research-oriented". The common terms used to describe this central division in psychology are "scientists" or "scholars" (those who conduct research) and "practitioners" or "professionals" (those who apply psychological knowledge). The training models endorsed by the APA require that applied psychologists be trained as both researchers and practitioners,[4] and that they possess advanced degrees.

Most typically, people encounter psychologists and think of the discipline as involving the work of clinical psychologists or counseling psychologists. While counseling and psychotherapy are common activities for psychologists, these applied fields are just one branch in the larger domain of psychology.[5] Research and teaching comprise a major role among psychologists. Technological advances in the future may increase the usage of computerized testing and assessment services in order to do some of the jobs of psychologists, including recognizing mental disorders.[6]


Licensing and regulation


In Australia the psychology profession and the use of the title 'psychologist' is regulated by an Act of Parliament, Health Practitioner Regulation (Administrative Arrangements) National Law Act 2008[1], following an agreement between the state and territory governments. Under the national law, registration of psychologists is administered by the Psychology Board of Australia (PsyBA).[7] Before July 2010, professional registration of psychologists was governed by various State and Territory Psychology Registration Board.[8] The Australian Psychology Accreditation Council (APAC) oversees education standards for the profession of psychology.

The minimum requirements for general registration in psychology and to use the title 'psychologist' is an APAC approved four year degree sequence in psychology followed by either: (1) a two year masters program or (2) two years supervised by a registered psychologist.[2]. Endorsement within a specific area of practice (e.g. Counselling, Clinical, Neuropsychological, Organisational, Forensic, or Educational Psychology) requires additional qualification.[9] These notations are not 'specialist' titles (Western Australian psychologists may use 'specialist' in their titles during a three year transitional period).[10]

Membership with Australian Psychological Society (APS) differs from registration as a psychologist. The standard route to full membership (MAPS) of the APS technically requires a masters or doctoral degree in psychology in an accredited course. An alternate route is available for academics and practitioners who have gained appropriate experience and made substantial contribution to the field of psychology. Association membership requires four years of APAC accredited undergraduate study.

Restrictions apply to all who want to use the title 'psychologist' in any form in all states and territories of Australia. However, the terms 'psychotherapist', 'social worker', and 'counselor' is currently self-regulated with several organizations campaigning for government regulation.[11]


In Belgium, the title "psychologist" is protected by law since 1993. It can only be used by people who are included as such on the list of a national government commission. The minimum requirement is a completed five years university training in psychology (Master's degree or equivalent). The title of "psychotherapist" is not legally protected (yet).


In Finland, the title "psychologist" is protected by law. Restriction is governed by National Supervisory Authority for Welfare and Health (Finland). It takes 330 ECTS-credits (about six years) to accomplish the studies.


In Germany, the use of the title 'Diplom-Psychologe' is restricted by law, and a practitioner is legally required to hold the corresponding academic title, which is comparable to a higher MSc degree and requires up to five years of training. With the current reforms, this degree will be replaced by a lower master's degree and a new Ph.D. degree in psychology. The academic degree of Diplom-Psychologe does not include a psychotherapeutical qualification, which requires three to five years of additional training. The psychotherapeutical training combines in-depth theoretical knowledge with supervised patient care and self-reflection units. After having completed the training requirements, psychologists take a state-run exam, which, upon successful completion, confers the official title of 'psychological psychotherapist' (psychologischer Psychotherapeut).[citation needed]


In Greece, the title "psychologist" has been protected by law since 1979. It can only be used by people who hold a relevant licence to practice as a psychologist. The minimum requirement is the completion of university training in psychology at a Greek university, or at a university recognized by the Greek authorities.[12]

The Netherlands

In the Netherlands, the title of "psychologist" is not restricted by law. The Dutch professional association of psychologists (NIP), using trademark law, therefore posited its own title "Psychologist NIP" (Psycholoog NIP), which is granted exclusively to holders of a Masters degree in psychology, after a year of postgraduate experience. The titles "psychotherapist" (psychotherapeut) and "healthcare psychologist" (gz-psycholoog / gezondheidszorgpsycholoog) are restricted through the Individual Healthcare Professions Act (wet BIG) to those who have followed further postgraduate (PsyD/DPsych or Licentiate level) training. The use of the titles "clinical psychologist" (klinisch psycholoog) and clinical neuropsychologist (klinisch neuropsycholoog) is reserved for those who have followed specialist post-licentiate training.

New Zealand

In New Zealand, the use of the title 'psychologist' is restricted by law. Initially, only 'clinical psychologist' and 'registered psychologist' were restricted (to people qualified as such). However, in 2004, the use of psychologist is now limited to only those registered psychologists (including clinical psychologists). This is to prevent the misrepresentation of other psychology qualifications in the mental health field. Academic psychologists (e.g., social psychologists) are now only able to refer to themselves as 'researchers in psychology'.

South Africa

In South Africa,[13] psychologists are qualified in one of Clinical-, Counselling-, Educational-, Organisational- or Research Psychology. To attain the qualification, one must complete a recognised Masters degree in Psychology and an appropriate practicum at a recognised training institution, and also sit an examination set by the Professional Board for Psychology.[14] Registration with the Health Professions Council of South Africa (HPCSA)[15] is required, and includes a Continuing Professional Development component. The practicum usually involves a full year internship, and in some specializations the HPCSA requires completion of an additional year of community service. The Master's comprises seminar- and coursework-based theoretical and practical training, and a dissertation of limited scope, and is (in most cases) two years in duration. Prior to enrolling for the Master’s, the student will have studied psychology for three years as an undergraduate (B.A., B.Sc., and, for Organisational Psychology, also B.Comm.), followed by an additional postgraduate honours degree in psychology; see List of universities in South Africa. Qualification thus requires at least five years of study, and at least one of internship. There are plans to change the requirements at a future date, which will probably include the requirement that a candidate achieve a doctoral degree.


In Sweden the titles "psychologist" and "practiced psychologist" are restricted in law. It can only be used after receiving a license from the government. The basic requirements are a completed five years specialised course in psychology (equivalent of a Master's degree) and 12 months of practice under supervision. All other uses are banned, though often challenged. "Psychotherapist" follows similar rules but the basic educational demands are another 1.5 years (spread out over three years) at a specialised course in psychotherapy (that do vary a lot concerning theoretical footing), in addition to an academical level degree within a field concerning the treatment of people (psychologist, social worker, psychiatrist a.s.o.). Others than psychologist usually have to complete their education with basic courses in psychotherapy to meet the demands for the applied psychotherapy classes.

United Kingdom

In the UK the following titles are restricted by law "registered psychologist" and "practitioner psychologist"; in addition the following specialist titles are restricted by law: "clinical psychologist", "counselling psychologist", "educational psychologist", "forensic psychologist", "health psychologist", "occupational psychologist" and "sport and exercise psychologist".[16] The Health Professions Council (HPC-UK) is the statutory regulator for practitioner psychologists in the UK. In the UK the use of the title "chartered psychologist" is also protected by statutory regulation. The title "chartered psychologist" simply means that the psychologist is a chartered member of the British Psychological Society but it does not necessarily signify the psychologist is registered with the HPC-UK. It is an offense for someone who is not in the appropriate section of the HPC-UK Register to provide clinical psychology services, counselling psychology services, educational psychology services, forensic psychology services, health psychology services, occupational psychology services or sport and exercise psychology services.[17] The threshold level of qualification for entry to the Register for clinical, counselling and educational psychologists is a professional doctorate (and in the case of the latter two the British Psychological Society's Professional Qualification which meets the standards of a professional doctorate).[18] The title ‘psychologist’ is not protected on its own.[19] Also the title of "neuropsychologist" is not protected at present.[19] The British Psychological Society is working with the HPC-UK to ensure that the title of "neuropsychologist" is regulated as a specialist title for practitioner psychologists; one of the options could be the use of post-doctoral level registers.

United States and Canada

Full membership with the American Psychological Association in United States and Canada requires doctoral training (except in some provinces like Alberta where a master's degree is sufficient). Associate membership requires at least two years of postgraduate studies in psychology or approved related discipline. The minimal requirement for full membership can be waived in certain circumstances where there is evidence that significant contribution or performance in the field of psychology has been made.[20]

A professional in the U.S. or Canada must hold a doctorate in psychology to use the title, "psychologist". To practice clinically, they must also hold a clinical license to practice as a psychologist. [21] The exception to this is the profession of a school psychologist who can be certified by boards of education to practice and use the title "psychologist" with a Masters level or Education Specialist (Ed.S) degree. The most commonly recognized psychology professionals are clinical and counseling psychologists, those who provide psychotherapy and/or administer and interpret psychological tests. There are state-by-state differences in requirements for academics in psychology and government employees.

Psychologists in the United States have campaigned for legislation changes to enable specially trained psychologists to prescribe psychiatric medicine. New legislation in Louisiana and New Mexico has granted those who take an additional masters program in psychopharmacology permission to prescribe medications for mental and emotional disorders in co-ordination with the patient's physician. Louisiana was the second state to provide such legislation.[22] This legislation has not come without considerable controversy. As of 2009, Louisiana is the only of the United States where the licensing and regulation of the practice of psychology by medical psychologists who prescribe medications is regulated by those in medicine (i.e., Louisiana State Board of Medical Examiners). While other states have pursued prescriptive privileges, they have yet to be successful. Similar legislation in the states of Hawaii and Oregon passed through the legislative House and Senate but it was vetoed by the Governor.[22]


In the United States the vast majority of 170,200 psychologist jobs, 152,000 are employed in clinical, counseling, and school positions, 2300 are employed in industrial-organizational, and 15,900 in "all-other" positions. Opportunities are very limited for Bachelor degree and Masters degrees holders, and they will face intense competition in the job market.[1]


In the U.S., The median salary for 2010 for clinical, counseling, and school psychologists was US$66,810 and the median salary for organizational psychologists was US$77,010.[1][23]

Offices of other health practitioners: $68,400 Elementary and secondary schools: $65,710 State government: $63,710 Outpatient care centers: $59,130 Individual and family services: $57,440

Contrast with psychiatrist

Although clinical psychologists and psychiatrists can be said to share a same fundamental aim—the alleviation of mental distress—their training, outlook, and methodologies are often quite different. Perhaps the most significant difference is that psychiatrists are licensed physicians. As such, psychiatrists often use the medical model to assess mental health problems and rely on psychotropic medications as the chief method of addressing mental health problems[24]—although many also employ psychotherapy as well. Psychologists receive extensive training in psychological test administration, scoring, interpretation and reporting. Examples include the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory II (MMPI-II), the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Test IV (WAIS-IV), and the Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory III (MCMI-III). These tests, along with others, help to inform diagnostic decisions and treatment planning. For example, in a medical center, a patient with a complicated clinical presentation who is being seen by a psychiatrist might be referred to a clinical psychologist for psychological testing to aid in diagnosis and treatment. In addition, psychologists (particularly those from PhD programs) spend several years in graduate school being trained to conduct behavioral research, including research design and advanced statistical analysis. While this training is available for physicians via dual MD/PhD programs, it is not typically included in medical education.

Psychologists generally do not prescribe medication, although there is a growing movement for clinical psychologists to have limited prescribing privileges. Clinical and other psychologists are experts at psychotherapy (typically clinical psychologists are trained in a number of psychological therapies, including, behavioural, cognitive, humanistic, existential, psychodynamic, and systemic approaches), and psychological testing (e.g. including neuropsychological testing). In two US states, specifically New Mexico and Louisiana, some psychologists with post-doctoral pharmacology training have been granted prescriptive authority for certain mental health disorders upon agreement with the patient's physician.[25]

See also


  1. ^ a b c U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics, Occupational Outlook Handbook: Psychologists
  2. ^ Peterson, Donald R. (1976). "Is psychology a profession?". American Psychologist 31 (8): 572–581. doi:10.1037/0003-066X.31.8.572. PMID 1008340.
  3. ^ Divisions of the APA
  4. ^ See: Scientist–practitioner model and Practitioner-scholar model
  5. ^ What is Psychology? at
  6. ^ Wiggins, J. G. (1994, June). Would you want your child to be a psychologist? American Psychologist, 49(6), 485-492. doi:10.1037/0003-066X.49.6.485
  7. ^ Psychology Board of Australia. Retrieved on 2011-11-22.
  8. ^ NSW Psychologist's Registration Board
  9. ^ "Psychology Board of Australia - Endorsement". 2010-07-01. Retrieved 2012-08-13.
  10. ^ Transition provisions for Western Australia psychologists Fact Sheet
  11. ^ e.g. Australian Counseling Association and Psychotherapy and Counseling Federation of Australia
  12. ^ "Ανακοίνωση του Διοικητικού Συμβουλίου του Συλλόγου Ελλήνων Ψυχολόγων". 2011-04-19. Retrieved 2012-08-13.
  13. ^ Sourced from the Departments of Psychology: University of Cape Town, University of the Witwatersrand, University of South Africa
  14. ^ Professional Board for Psychology. HPCSA. Retrieved on 2011-11-22.
  15. ^ HPCSA. HPCSA. Retrieved on 2011-11-22.
  16. ^ HPC – Health Professions Council – Becoming registered as a practitioner psychologist. Retrieved on 2011-11-22.
  17. ^ HPC – Health Professions Council – Protected titles. Retrieved on 2011-11-22.
  18. ^ HPC – Health Professions Council – News. (2009-06-11). Retrieved on 2011-11-22.
  19. ^ a b Practitioner psychologists
  20. ^ APA Membership information. Retrieved on 2011-11-22.
  21. ^ "Currently, all (State) jurisdictions have laws that limit the use of the term psychologist to those who are licensed or who are specifically exempt, as in an exempt setting." (Reference: American Psychological Association (APA) Division 14, Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology (SIOP))
  22. ^ a b Louisiana Psychological Association. Retrieved on 2011-11-22.
  23. ^ Clinical, Counseling, and School Psychologists. Retrieved on 2011-11-22.
  24. ^ Graybar, S. and Leonard, L. (2005). American Journal of Psychotherapy 59 (1): 1–19.
  25. ^ "Louisiana grants psychologists prescriptive authority". 5 May 2004. Retrieved 16 July 2009.

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