Psychokinesis

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Artist conception of alleged spontaneous psychokinesis from 1911 French magazine La Vie Mysterieuse.

Psychokinesis (Greek ψυχή κίνησις, "mind movement"),[1][2] or telekinesis[3] (Greek τῆλε κίνησις, "distant-movement") is an alleged psychic ability allowing a person to influence a physical system without physical interaction. Psychokinesis and telekinesis are sometimes abbreviated as PK and TK respectively.[4] Examples of psychokinesis could include moving an object, levitating and teleporting.[5]

The study of phenomena said to be psychokinetic is part of parapsychology. Some parapsychologists claim psychokinesis exists and deserves further study. Current research has shifted focus away from large-scale phenomena to attempts to influence dice and random number generators.[6][7][8][9]

There is no scientific evidence that psychokinesis or telekinesis are real phenomena.[10][11] PK experiments have historically been criticized for lack of proper controls and repeatability.[12][13][14] Furthermore, some experiments have created illusions of PK where none exists, and these illusions depend to an extent on the subject's prior belief in PK.[15][16]

Etymology[edit]

Spirit photography hoaxer Édouard Isidore Buguet[17] (1840-1901) of France fakes telekinesis in this 1875 cabinet card photograph titled Fluidic Effect.

The word psychokinesis is from the Greek language ψυχή, "psyche", meaning mind, soul, spirit, heart, or breath; and κίνησις, "kinesis", meaning motion, movement; literally "mind-movement".[1][2] Telekinesis is also from Greek,[3] τῆλε and κίνησις, literally "distant-movement".[citation needed]

The term "telekinesis" was coined in 1890 by Russian psychical researcher Alexander N. Aksakof (also spelled Aksakov).[18][19] The term "Psychokinesis" was coined in 1914[20] by American author-publisher Henry Holt in his book On the Cosmic Relations[21][22] and adopted by his friend, American parapsychologist J. B. Rhine in 1934 in connection with experiments to determine if a person could influence the outcome of falling dice.[23][24] Both concepts have been described by other terms, such as "remote influencing", "distant influencing"[25] "remote mental influence", "distant mental influence",[26] "directed conscious intention", "anomalous perturbation",[27] and "mind over matter."[28] Originally telekinesis was coined to refer to the movement of objects thought to be caused by ghosts of deceased persons, mischievous spirits, angels, demons, or other supernatural forces.[28]

Later, the terms began to refer to an ability allegedly possessed by living people.[29] It was speculated that certain people could cause movement without any connection to a spiritualistic setting, such as in a darkened séance room, and psychokinesis was added to the lexicon.[28] Eventually, psychokinesis became the term preferred by the parapsychological community.[23] Popular usage favors the word "telekinesis" to describe the paranormal movement of objects, perhaps due to the word's resemblance to other terms, such as telepathy and teleportation. Some early researchers who studied psychokinesis speculated that within the human body an unidentified fluid termed the "psychode", "psychic force" or "ectenic force" existed and was capable of being released to influence matter.[30] This view was held by Camille Flammarion[31] and William Crookes, however a later psychical researcher Hereward Carrington pointed out that the fluid was hypothetical and has never been discovered.[32]

Modern usage[edit]

Modern usage favors psychokinesis as an umbrella term that is used to describe a variety of psychic abilities involving mental force[33] while telekinesis is used to refer specifically to the mental movement of physical objects.[33][34][35]

Within parapsychology, fictional universes, and certain New Age beliefs, psychokinesis is said to describe the following abilities:

Reports of psychokinesis[edit]

Parapsychologists describe two types of psychokinetic effects: Micro-PK and Macro-PK.[26][28][51] Micro-PK refers to a very small effect, such as the manipulation of molecules, atoms,[26] or subatomic particles[26] which can only be observed with equipment such as a microscope. Macro-PK is a large effect that can be seen with the unaided eye.[51]

Parapsychologist William G. Roll coined the term "recurrent spontaneous psychokinesis" (RSPK) in 1958 to refer to reports of spontaneous movement of objects.[52][53] The sudden movement of objects without deliberate intention is thought by some parapsychologists to be related to PK/TK processes of the subconscious mind.[33] Parapsychologists use the term "PK agent", especially in spontaneous cases, to describe someone who they suspect of being the source of the psychokinesis.[33][54] Spontaneous movement, especially involving violent or physiological effects, such as objects hitting people or scratches appearing on the body, are sometimes investigated by parapsychologists as poltergeists.[55]

Belief[edit]

In September 2006, a survey about belief in various religious and paranormal topics conducted by phone and mail-in questionnaire polled 1,721 Americans on their belief in telekinesis. Of these participants, 28% of male participants and 31% of female participants selected "agree" or "strongly agree" with the statement "It is possible to influence the world through the mind alone".[56]

In April 2008, British psychologist and skeptic Richard Wiseman published the results of an online survey he conducted entitled "Magicians and the Paranormal: A Survey", in which 400 magicians worldwide participated. For the question Do you believe that psychokinesis exists (i.e., that some people can, by paranormal means, apply a noticeable force to an object or alter its physical characteristics)?, the results were as follows: No 83.5%, Yes 9%, Uncertain 7.5%.[57]

Notable claimants of psychokinetic ability[edit]

Eusapia Palladino "levitates" a table while researcher Alexander Aksakof (right) monitors for fraud, Milan, 1892.
Magician William Marriott reveals the trick of the medium Stanisława Tomczyk's levitation of a glass tumbler. Pearson's Magazine, June 1910

Notable reports[edit]

Alleged psychokinetic events have been reported throughout the world.[80][81][82][83]

Robert M. Schoch has written "I do believe that some psychokinesis is real" referring to the evidence for micro-psychokinesis obtained by the Princeton Engineering Anomalies Research (PEAR) Lab experiments and similar studies and some reports of macro-RSPK observed in poltergeist cases. He reports once seeing a book "jumping off a shelf" while in a room where a female psychokinesis agent was also present.[84] Michael Crichton described what he termed a "successful experience" with psychokinesis at a "spoon bending party" in his 1988 book Travels.[85][86] Dean Radin has reported that he, like Michael Crichton, was able to bend the bowl of a spoon over with unexplained ease of force with witnesses present at a different informal PK experiment gathering. He described his experience in his 2006 book Entangled Minds: Extrasensory Experiences in a Quantum Reality.[81] Michael Talbot described a variety of spontaneous psychokinetic events he claimed to experience in two of his books, Beyond the Quantum and The Holographic Universe.

Remy Chauvin carried out a number of experiments to test psychokinesis.[87] Chauvin's experiment involved using a uranium isotope, a Geiger counter and several assistants. Some parapsychologists have written that ordinary people may be able to influence biological organisms from distance such as the growth rates of fungi and bacteria.[88] Carroll Nash reported that human subjects could use their psychokinetic ability to influence the rate at which bacterial genes mutate.[89]

Anecdotes such as these, stories by eyewitnesses outside of controlled conditions, are considered insufficient evidence by the scientific community to demonstrate psychokinesis, and properly controlled experiments performed by scientists and parapsychologists have not shown the existence of any psychic ability.[26][90]

PK Parties[edit]

"PK Parties" were a cultural fad in the 1980s, begun by Jack Houck,[91] where groups of people were guided through rituals and chants to awaken metal-bending powers. They were encouraged to shout at the items of cutlery they had brought and to jump and scream to create an atmosphere of pandemonium (or what scientific investigators called heightened suggestibility). Critics were excluded and participants were told to avoid looking at their hands. Thousands of people attended these emotionally charged parties, and many became convinced that they had bent silverware by paranormal means.[92] Two of those who claimed to have folded over the bowls of spoons while attending one of these events were author Michael Crichton and parapsychologist Dean Radin.

Scientific research[edit]

The ideas of psychokinesis and telekinesis violate some well-established laws of physics, including the inverse square law, the second law of thermodynamics, and the conservation of momentum.[93][94] Hence scientists have demanded a high standard of evidence for PK, in line with Marcello Truzzi's dictum "Extraordinary claims require extraordinary proof".[13][95] When apparent PK can be produced in ordinary ways—by trickery, special effects or by poor experimental design—scientists accept that explanation as more parsimonious than to accept that the laws of physics should be rewritten.[26]

Carl Sagan included telekinesis in a long list of "offerings of pseudoscience and superstition" which "it would be foolish to accept (...) without solid scientific data".[96] Nobel Prize laureate Richard Feynman advocated a similar position.[97]

In 1991, Brian Josephson and Fotini Pallikara-Viras published Biological Utilization of Quantum Nonlocality, proposing that explanations for both psychokinesis and telepathy might be found in quantum physics.[98][99] Gerald Feinberg's concept of a tachyon, a theoretical particle that travels faster than the speed of light has been advocated by some parapsychologists who claim that it could explain psychokinesis.[100] Haakon Forwald suggested that psychokinesis of objects could occur due to gravitational fields produced by mental influence acting on neutrons in the atoms inside the objects, however his hypothesis has never been proven and critics have pointed out his hypothesis is contradicted by general relativity.[101][102]

There is a broad consensus, including several proponents of parapsychology, that PK research, and parapsychology more generally, has not produced a reliable, repeatable demonstration.[10][13][103][104]

In 1984, the United States National Academy of Sciences, at the request of the US Army Research Institute, formed a scientific panel to assess the best evidence from 130 years of parapsychology. Part of its purpose was to investigate military applications of PK, for example to remotely jam or disrupt enemy weaponry. The panel heard from a variety of military staff who believed in PK and made visits to the PEAR laboratory and two other laboratories that had claimed positive results from micro-PK experiments.

The panel criticized macro-PK experiments for being open to deception by conjurors, and said that virtually all micro-PK experiments "depart from good scientific practice in a variety of ways". Their conclusion, published in a 1987 report, was that there was no scientific evidence for the existence of psychokinesis.[105]

Some proponents of psychokinesis have used signal detection theory to posit that the effect of PK is a weak but real signal hidden in the noise of experimental results. If true, an effect too weak to be demonstrated in a replicable experiment could still show up as a statistically significant effect in a large set of data. Parapsychologists carried out meta-analyses of large data sets, with apparently impressive positive results,[106] but since the original studies are too dissimilar, the resulting statistics were not meaningful.[9] A 2006 meta-analysis of 380 studies found a small positive effect that can be explained by publication bias.[8]

Physicist Robert L. Park finds it suspicious that a phenomenon should only ever appear at the limits of detectability of questionable statistical techniques. He cites this feature as one of Irving Langmuir's indicators of pathological science. Park argues that if PK really existed it would be easily and unambiguously detectable, for example using modern microbalances which can detect tiny amounts of force.[104]

PK hypotheses are also tested implicitly in a number of contexts outside parapsychological experiments. Gardner considers a dice game played in casinos, where gamblers have a large incentive to affect the numbers that come up. This is in effect a large sample-size test of the same hypothesis as the J. B. Rhine dice experiments, but year after year the house takings are exactly those predicted by chance.[107] Psychologist Nicholas Humphrey argues that many experiments in psychology, biology or physics assume that the intentions of the subjects or experimenter do not physically distort the apparatus. Humphrey counts them as implicit replications of PK experiments in which PK fails to appear.[13]

Explanations in terms of bias[edit]

Cognitive bias research has suggested that people are susceptible to illusions of PK. These include both the illusion that they themselves have the power, and that events they witness are real demonstrations of PK.[108] For example, Illusion of control is an illusory correlation between intention and external events, and believers in the paranormal have been shown to be more susceptible to this illusion than others.[15][109] Psychologist Thomas Gilovich explains this as a biased interpretation of personal experience. For example, to someone in a dice game willing for a high score, high numbers can be interpreted as "success" and low numbers as "not enough concentration."[94] Bias towards belief in PK may be an example of the human tendency to see patterns where none exist, called the Clustering illusion, which believers are also more susceptible to.[108]

A 1952 study tested for experimenter's bias with respect to psychokinesis. Richard Kaufman of Yale University gave subjects the task of trying to influence eight dice and allowed them to record their own scores. They were secretly filmed, so their records could be checked for errors. Believers in psychokinesis made errors that favored its existence, while disbelievers made opposite errors. A similar pattern of errors was found in J. B. Rhine's dice experiments, which at that time were considered the strongest evidence for PK.[110]

In 1995, Wiseman and Morris showed subjects an unedited videotape of a magician's performance in which a fork bent and eventually broke. Believers in the paranormal were significantly more likely to misinterpret the tape as a demonstration of PK, and were more likely to misremember crucial details of the presentation. This suggests that confirmation bias affects people's interpretation of PK demonstrations.[16] Psychologist Robert Sternberg cites confirmation bias as an explanation of why belief in psychic phenomena persists, despite the lack of evidence:

"Some of the worst examples of confirmation bias are in research on parapsychology (...) Arguably, there is a whole field here with no powerful confirming data at all. But people want to believe, and so they find ways to believe."[111]

Psychologist Daniel Wegner has argued that an introspection illusion contributes to belief in psychokinesis.[112] He observes that in everyday experience, intention (such as wanting to turn on a light) is followed by action (such as flicking a light switch) in a reliable way, but the underlying neural mechanisms are outside awareness. Hence, though subjects may feel that they directly introspect their own free will, the experience of control is actually inferred from relations between the thought and the action. This theory of apparent mental causation acknowledges the influence of David Hume's view of the mind.[112] This process for detecting when one is responsible for an action is not totally reliable, and when it goes wrong there can be an illusion of control. This could happen when an external event follows, and is congruent with, a thought in someone's mind, without an actual causal link.[112]

As evidence, Wegner cites a series of experiments on magical thinking in which subjects were induced to think they had influenced external events. In one experiment, subjects watched a basketball player taking a series of free throws. When they were instructed to visualize him making his shots, they felt that they had contributed to his success.[113]

Magic and special effects[edit]

An advertising poster depicting magician Harry Kellar performing the "Levitation of Princess Karnac" illusion, 1894, U.S. Library of Congress.

Magicians have successfully simulated some of the specialized abilities of psychokinesis, such as object movement, spoon bending, levitation and teleportation.[26] According to Robert Todd Carroll, there are many impressive magic tricks available to amateurs and professionals to simulate psychokinetic powers.[114] Metal objects such as keys or cutlery can be bent using a number of different techniques, even if the performer has not had access to the items beforehand.[115] Amateur videos alleging to show feats of psychokinesis, particularly spoon bending and the telekinetic movement of objects, can be found on video-sharing websites such as YouTube. Due to the advent of the internet and video editing, it is now possible for the average person to fake psychokinetic events.[116]

Between 1979 and 1981, the McDonnell Laboratory for Psychical Research at Washington University reported a series of experiments they named Project Alpha, in which two teenaged male subjects had demonstrated PK phenomena (including metal-bending and causing images to appear on film) under less than stringent laboratory conditions. James Randi eventually revealed that the subjects were two of his associates, amateur conjurers Steve Shaw and Michael Edwards. The pair had created the effects by standard trickery, but the researchers, being unfamiliar with magic techniques, interpreted them as proof of PK.[117]

Prize money for proof of psychokinesis[edit]

Internationally, there are several individual skeptics of the paranormal and skeptics' organizations who offer cash prize money for demonstration of the existence of an extraordinary psychic power, such as psychokinesis. Experimental design must be agreed upon prior to execution, and additional conditions, such as a minimum level of fame, may be imposed. Prizes have been offered specifically for PK demonstrations, for example businessman Gerald Fleming's offer of £250,000 to Uri Geller if he can bend a spoon under controlled conditions.[118] These prizes remain uncollected by people claiming to possess paranormal abilities.

The James Randi Educational Foundation offers the One Million Dollar Paranormal Challenge to anyone who claims to be able to produce a paranormal event in a controlled, mutually agreed upon experiment. Over a thousand people have applied to take the challenge, but to date no one has been able to demonstrate their claimed abilities under the testing conditions.

In religion, mythology and popular culture[edit]

There are written accounts and oral legends of events fitting the description of psychokinesis dating back to early history, most notably in the stories found in various religions and mythology.

In the Indian epic Mahabharata, Shakuni uses his power to manipulate dice in a game between Bhishma's grandchildren. Using his power, Shakuni makes sure that Pandavas lose to Kauravas.[citation needed]

In the Bible, Jesus is described as performing various miracles that have been described as psychokinesis,[119][120] including turning water into wine,[119] healing the sick,[120] and multiplying food.[120]

Mythological beings, such as witches, have been described as levitating people, animals, and objects.[121] The wizard Merlin of the King Arthur legend is portrayed in stories as having numerous powers, including telekinesis, invisibility, and shapeshifting.[122]

Psychokinesis has been an aspect in movies, television, computer games, literature, and other forms of popular culture, often presented as a superpower.[123][124][125] An early example is the 1952 novella Telek by Jack Vance.[126] Notable portrayals of psychokinetic characters include Sissy Spacek as a troubled high school student in the 1976 film Carrie, based on the Stephen King novel of the same name;[127] Ellen Burstyn in the healer-themed film Resurrection (1980);[128] the Jedi[129] and Sith[129] in Star Wars; the Scanners in the film Scanners;[130] and three high school seniors in the 2012 film Chronicle.[131] Psychokinesis is also commonly used as a power in a number of videogames[125] and role playing games.[citation needed]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

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  53. ^ "Parapsychological Association - Glossary: "RSPK"". Retrieved January 5, 2007. 
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  55. ^ Reader's digest ; [chief contributing writer, Richard Marshall ; contributing writers, Monte Davis, Valerie Moolman, Georg Zappler]. (1990). Mysteries of the Unexplained. Readers Digest Association. p. 181. ISBN 978-0-89577-146-9. OCLC 10605367. "Attempting to understand the forces at work, researchers in parapsychology have hypothesized that the poltergeist's feats in moving objects (which are seen to fly in violation of the laws of gravity, gliding, rising, and turning corners) are examples of psychokinesis, or PK — the ability to influence inanimate objects by mind power." 
  56. ^ Study conducted by the Gallup Organization between October 8, 2005 and December 12, 2005 on behalf of the Baylor Institute for Studies of Religion, Baylor University, of Waco, Texas, in the United States.
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  61. ^ Auerbach, Loyd (June 2004). "The Psychokinetic Zone". Fate (Lakeville, USA: Galde Press, Inc.).  Monthly column "Psychic Frontiers"
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  64. ^ Hines, Terence (2003). Pseudoscience and the Paranormal (2nd ed.). Prometheus. p. 130. ISBN 978-1-57392-979-0. 
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  66. ^ J. Gaither Pratt; H. H. Jürgen Keil (1973). First Hand Observations of Nina S. Kulagina Suggestive of PK on Static Objects 67. Journal of the American Society for Psychical Research. pp. 381–390. 
  67. ^ Jürgen Keil (1984). Parapsychologie in der Sowjetunion (in German) 26. Zeitschrift für Parapsychologie und Grenzgebiete der Psychologie. pp. 191–210. 
  68. ^ Paraphysics R&D - Warsaw Pact (U). Prepared by U.S. Air Force, Air Force Systems Command Foreign Technology Division. DST-1810S-202-78, Nr. DIA TASK NO. PT-1810-18-76. Defense Intelligence Agency. 30. March 1978. pp. 7–8. "G.A. Sergevev is known to have studied Nina Kulagina, a well-known psychic from Leningrad. Although no detailed results are available, Sergevev's inferences are that she was successful in repeating psychokinetic phenomena under controlled conditions. G.A. Sergevev is a well-respected researcher and has been active in paraphysics research since the early 1960s."  [dead link]
  69. ^ Green, Elmer; Alyce Green (1977). Beyond Biofeedback. Knoll Publishing Co. pp. 197–218. ISBN 978-0-440-00583-4. 
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  71. ^ Fodo, Nandor (1934). "21". Possessed of Power over the Soul of Things. Rider & Co. Retrieved November 16, 2013. 
  72. ^ "Stanisława Tomczyk photo description at Diomedia". Retrieved November 18, 2013.  Description page at a stock photo agency representing the Mary Evans Picture Library, where the date is also given as 1909. She visited the researcher in 1908 and 1909; hence, the exact year is uncertain and reported as 1908 elsewhere.
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  81. ^ a b "Official website of Dean Radin". Retrieved June 9, 2007. 
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  83. ^ "Official website of Pamela Heath". Retrieved June 9, 2007. 
  84. ^ Schoch, Robert M. (January/February 2008). "Psychokinesis: A Scientist Searches for the Reality Behind PK's Representations". Atlantis Rising (Livingston, Montana USA): 42–43, 70–71. 
  85. ^ "Official website of Michael Crichton". Retrieved March 27, 2012. 
  86. ^ "MichaelCrichton.com | Travels | Spoonbending". Crichton-official.com. Retrieved 2014-01-21. 
  87. ^ Znanie-Sila magazine, No 9, 1967 U.S.S.R.
  88. ^ Barry, J. (1968). General and comparative study of the psychokinetic effect on fungus culture. Journal of Parapsychology, 32, 237–243 also see Barry, J. (1968). PK on fungus growth. Journal of Parapsychology, 32, 55. (Abstract.)
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  91. ^ "Obituary: George Brandt (Jack) Houck". Retrieved May 16, 2013.  Published in the Los Angeles Times, March 31, 2013.
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  93. ^ Gardner, Martin (September 1981). "Einstein and ESP". In Kendrick Frazier. Paranormal Borderlands of Science. Prometheus. pp. 60–65. ISBN 978-0-87975-148-7. 
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  95. ^ Sutherland, Stuart (1994). Irrationality: the enemy within. Penguin books. p. 309. ISBN 978-0-14-016726-9. "[T]he movement of objects without the application of physical force would, if proven, require a complete revision of the laws of physics. (...) [T]he more improbable something is, the better the evidence needed to accept it" 
  96. ^ Sagan, Carl (1995). The Demon-Haunted World: Science as a candle in the dark. Headline. pp. 208–212. ISBN 978-0-7472-7745-3. 
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  99. ^ Michael Hanlon (2007-05-29). 10 Questions Science Can't Answer (Yet). New York: Macmillan. pp. 165–166. ISBN 978-0-230-51758-5. 
  100. ^ Marc Seifer, Stanley Krippner Transcending the Speed of Light 2008, p. 52
  101. ^ Haakon Forwald Mind, matter, and gravitation: a theoretical and experimental study Parapsychology Foundation, 1969
  102. ^ The Journal of parapsychology, Volume 48, Duke University Press, 1984, p. 302
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  104. ^ a b Park, Robert L. (July 2002). Voodoo Science: The road from foolishness to fraud. Oxford University Press. pp. 198–200. ISBN 978-0-19-860443-3. 
  105. ^ Frazier, Kendrick (1990-12-31). "Improving Human Performance: What About Parapsychology?". In Kendrick Frazier. The Hundredth Monkey and Other Paradigms of the Paranormal. Prometheus Books. pp. 149–161. ISBN 978-0-87975-655-0. 
  106. ^ Radin, Dean (1997). The Conscious Universe: The Scientific Truth of Psychic Phenomena. HarperEdge. 
  107. ^ Gardner, Martin (1957). Fads & Fallacies in the Name of Science. Dover. p. 307. ISBN 978-0-486-20394-2. 
  108. ^ a b Blackmore, Susan J. (1992). "Psychic Experiences: Psychic Illusions". Skeptical Inquirer 16: 367–376. 
  109. ^ Blackmore, Susan J.; Tom Trościanko (1985). "Belief in the paranormal Probability judgements, illusory control, and the "chance baseline shift."". British Journal of Psychology 76 (4): 459–468. doi:10.1111/j.2044-8295.1985.tb01969.x. Retrieved 2008-11-16. 
  110. ^ Gardner, Martin (1957). Fads & Fallacies in the Name of Science. Dover. p. 306. ISBN 978-0-486-20394-2. 
  111. ^ Sternberg, Robert J. (2007). "Critical Thinking in Psychology: It really is critical". In Robert J. Sternberg, Henry L. Roediger, Diane F. Halpern. Critical Thinking in Psychology. Henry L. Roediger, Diane F. Halpern. Cambridge University Press. p. 292. ISBN 978-0-521-60834-3. "Some of the worst examples of confirmation bias are in research on parapsychology (...) Arguably, there is a whole field here with no powerful confirming data at all. But people want to believe, and so they find ways to believe." 
  112. ^ a b c John Baer; Wegner, Daniel M. (2008). "Self is Magic". In John Baer, James C. Kaufman, Roy F. Baumeister. Are we free?: psychology and free will. James C. Kaufman, Roy F. Baumeister. New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-518963-6. Retrieved 2008-07-02. 
  113. ^ Pronin, Emily (2006). "Everyday Magical Powers: The Role of Apparent Mental Causation in the Overestimation of Personal Influence". Daniel M. Wegner, Kimberly McCarthy, Sylvia Rodriguez. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology (American Psychological Association) 91 (2): 218–231. doi:10.1037/0022-3514.91.2.218. ISSN 0022-3514. PMID 16881760. Retrieved 2009-07-03. 
  114. ^ Carroll, Robert Todd (2003-07-17). "Psychokinesis". The Skeptic's Dictionary: a collection of strange beliefs, amusing deceptions, and dangerous delusions. Wiley. p. 316. ISBN 978-0-471-27242-7. 
  115. ^ Hines, Terence (2003). Pseudoscience and the Paranormal (2nd ed.). Prometheus. pp. 127–131. ISBN 978-1-57392-979-0. 
  116. ^ Genzmer, Herbert; Hellenbrand, Ulrich (March 2007). "Psychokinesis". Mysteries of the World: Unexplained Wonders and Mysterious Phenomena. Bath, United Kingdom: Parragon Books Ltd. p. 194. ISBN 978-1-4054-9022-1.  Republished in 2012 as Myths and Mysteries of the World, same publisher and cited page number, new ISBN 978-1-4454-9026-7. The 2012 version is a boxed set that includes a DVD documentary. Page 194 (parenthetical material appears in the original): "One of the most puzzling categories within the parasciences is telekinesis or psychokinesis, an ability demonstrated by certain people who, using solely mental power and concentration, can move and change objects or leave them suspended in space and time. . . . Other related phenomena are the changing of particulars of the past (retropsychokinesis), starting fires using mental powers (pyrokinesis), transforming water into ice (cryokinesis) and manipulating wind (aerokinesis)." Page 195: "Unfortunately, in our day, a tidal wave of fraud has inundated psychokinesis. The perpetrators use methods similar to those of magicians and trick artists in variety shows. This ensures that the existence of telekinesis remains controversial."
  117. ^ Colman, Andrew M. (1987). Facts, Fallacies and Frauds in Psychology. Unwin Hyman. pp. 195–6. ISBN 978-0-09-173041-3. 
  118. ^ Hutchinson, Mike (1988). "A Thorn in Geller's Side". British and Irish Skeptic (July/August): 2–4. 
  119. ^ a b Brian, Denis (November 2000). The Voice of Genius: Conversations with Nobel Scientists and Other Luminaries. New York: Basic Books, imprint of Perseus Books. p. 288. ISBN 978-0-7382-0447-5. ". . . parapsychologists are studying some of the unusual events recorded in the Bible: changing water into wine could be called psychokinesis; ... People have spoken of such things from early times and they seem to occur in every civilization." 
  120. ^ a b c Heath, Pamela Rae, M.D., Psy.D. (July 2003). The PK Zone: A Cross-Cultural review of Psychokinesis. Bloomington, Indiana: iUniverse. p. 3. ISBN 978-0-595-27658-5. "Religion has seemed to provide fertile ground for both spontaneous and intentional PK. Every great religious tract of mankind includes stories of people with the ability to heal and to multiply food, such as the Bible says were performed by Jesus Christ." 
  121. ^ Guiley, Rosemary Ellen (1989). The Encyclopedia of Witches and Witchcraft. New York: Facts On File. p. 201. ISBN 0-8160-1793X. "In hauntings, witches, poltergeists, and fairies have been blamed for levitating people, animals, and objects." 
  122. ^ Sklar, Elizabeth Sherr; Hoffman, Donald L., eds. (2002). King Aurthur in Popular Culture. Mcfarland & Co Inc. Retrieved November 16, 2013.  Page 226: "Such examples of Merlin's all-encompassing expertise overlap the most prolific category of all: that of wizard, through which the figure of Merlin has historically accreted new knowledge and skills as they are discovered. . . . oracular divination, levitation and telekinesis, invisibility, and shape-shifting."
  123. ^ "Twenty Technologies That Can Give You Super Powers". Retrieved August 27, 2013.  Toy description: "Super Power: Psychokinesis. Superhero with this power: Jean Grey. . . . Mattel's Mindflex allows players to move a ball around an obstacle course with their minds by reading brain waves, . . ."
  124. ^ Gresh, Lois H.; Weinberg, Robert (2002). The Science of Superheroes. Hoboken, New Jersey: John Wile & Sons, Inc. ISBN 978-0471024606.  Page 131: "Every member of the X-Men had a code name that matched his or her super power. Thus, Archangel, Warren Worthington III, had wings and could fly. Cyclops, Scott Summers, shot deadly power beams from his eyes. Jean Grey, Marvel Girl, was a telekinetic and also a telepath. . . ."
  125. ^ a b "Sony Playstation CellFactor®: Psychokinetic Wars". Retrieved August 27, 2013.  Computer game description: "Manipulate your environment and kill your enemies with your choice of gunfire and/or telekinetic superpowers."
  126. ^ Vance, Jack (January 1952). "Telek". Astounding Science Fiction. 
  127. ^ "Carrie:Overview". Retrieved September 30, 2011. 
  128. ^ 2 "Resurrection:Awards & Nominations". Retrieved September 30, 2011. 
  129. ^ a b Windham, Ryder (2005, 2007, 2012). Star Wars: The Ultimate Visual Guide. New York City: Dorling Kindersley. ISBN 978-0-7566-9248-3.  Page 19 "Object Movement": "Although such ability is commonly known as a Jedi's 'object movement' power, it is more accurately described as a manipulation of the Force — the energy field that surrounds and binds everything — to control the direction of objects through space. Jedi utilize this talent not only to push, pull, and lift objects, but also to redirect projectiles and guide their starships through combat." Page 21 "Sith Powers" [illustration caption]: "Levitating his adversary and choking him in a telekinetic stranglehold, Dooku simultaneously relieves Vos of his lightsaber."
  130. ^ "Scanners (1981) - Rotten Tomatoes". Retrieved August 9, 2013.  Quote: "The title of this David Cronenberg sci-fi horror film refers to a group of people who have telekinetic powers that allow them to read minds and give them the ability to make other people's heads explode."
  131. ^ "Review: 'Chronicle' is smart about its telekinetic teens". Retrieved August 9, 2013.  Los Angeles Times, February 3, 2012, by Betsy Sharkey, film critic.

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