Provinces of China

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formally
Provincial level divisions
Chinese name
Simplified Chinese省级行政区
Traditional Chinese省級行政區
Alternative Chinese name
Chinese
Tibetan name
Tibetanཞིང་ཆེན།
Zhuang name
ZhuangSwngj
Mongolian name
Mongolian scriptᠮᠤᠶᠶ
Uyghur name
Uyghur
ئۆلكە
 
  (Redirected from Provinces of the People's Republic of China)
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formally
Provincial level divisions
Chinese name
Simplified Chinese省级行政区
Traditional Chinese省級行政區
Alternative Chinese name
Chinese
Tibetan name
Tibetanཞིང་ཆེན།
Zhuang name
ZhuangSwngj
Mongolian name
Mongolian scriptᠮᠤᠶᠶ
Uyghur name
Uyghur
ئۆلكە

This article is part of the series:
Administrative divisions of China


History of the political divisions of China

A province (shěng or 省), formally provincial level division, is the highest-level Chinese administrative division. There are 34 such divisions, classified as 22 provinces, 4 municipalities, 5 autonomous regions, 2 Special Administrative Regions, and the claimed Taiwan Province.[1]

The PRC claims sovereignty over the territory administered by the Republic of China (ROC), claiming most of it as its Taiwan Province. The ROC also administers some offshore islands which form Fujian Province, ROC. These were part of an originally unified Fujian province, which since the stalemate of the Chinese Civil War in 1949 has been divided between the PRC and ROC.

Every province has a Communist Party of China provincial committee, headed by a secretary beside the two special administrative regions. The committee secretary is in charge of the province, rather than the governor of the provincial government.[citation needed]

Types of province[edit]

Municipality[edit]

Municipality (Chinese: 直辖市; pinyin: zhíxiáshì): A higher level of city which is directly under the Chinese government, with status equal to that of the provinces. In practice, their political status is higher than common provinces.

Province[edit]

Province (Chinese: ; pinyin: shěng): A provincial committee, headed by a secretary, nominally leads each standard provincial government. The committee secretary is first-in-charge of the province; second-in-command comes the governor of the provincial government.

The People's Republic of China claims the island of Taiwan and its surrounding islets, including Penghu, as "Taiwan Province". (Kinmen and the Matsu Islands are claimed by the PRC as part of its Fujian Province. Pratas and Itu Aba are claimed by the PRC as part of Guangdong and Hainan provinces respectively.) The territory is controlled by the Republic of China (ROC, commonly called "Taiwan").

Autonomous region[edit]

Autonomous region (simplified Chinese: 自治区; traditional Chinese: 自治區; pinyin: zìzhìqū): A minority subject which has a higher population of a particular minority ethnic group along with its own local government, but an autonomous region theoretically has more legislative rights than in actual practice. The governor of the Autonomous Regions is usually appointed from the respective minority ethnic group.

Special administrative region (SAR)[edit]

Special administrative region (SAR) (simplified Chinese: 特别行政区; traditional Chinese: 特別行政區; pinyin: tèbié xíngzhèngqū): A highly autonomous and self-governing subnational subject of the People's Republic of China that is directly under the Central People's Government. Each SAR has a provincial level[2][3][4] chief executive as head of the region and head of government. The region's government is not fully independent, as foreign policy and military defence are the responsibility of the central government, according to the basic laws.

List of provincial-level divisions[edit]

GB[5]ISO №[6]ProvinceChinese NameCapitalPopulation¹Density²Area³Abbreviation/Symbol
BJCN-11Beijing Municipality北京市
Běijīng Shì
Beijing19,612,3681,167.4016,800京(平)
Jīng (Píng)
TJCN-12Tianjin Municipality天津市
Tiānjīn Shì
Tianjin12,938,2241,144.4611,305津(沽)
Jīn (Gu)
HECN-13Hebei Province河北省
Héběi Shěng
Shijiazhuang71,854,202382.81187,700
SXCN-14Shanxi Province山西省
Shānxī Shěng
Taiyuan35,712,111228.48156,300
Jìn
NMCN-15Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region
Nei Mongol Autonomous Region
內蒙古自治区
Nèi Měnggǔ Zìzhìqū
Hohhot24,706,32120.881,183,000蒙(內蒙古)
Měng (Nèi Měnggǔ)
LNCN-21Liaoning Province辽宁省
Liáoníng Shěng
Shenyang43,746,323299.83145,900
Liáo
JLCN-22Jilin Province吉林省
Jílín Shěng
Changchun27,462,297146.54187,400
HLCN-23Heilongjiang Province黑龙江省
Hēilóngjiāng
Harbin38,312,22484.38454,000
Hēi
SHCN-31Shanghai Municipality上海市
Shànghǎi Shì
Shanghai23,019,1483,630.206,341沪(申)
Hù (Shen)
JSCN-32Jiangsu Province江苏省
Jiāngsū Shěng
Nanjing78,659,903766.66102,600
ZJCN-33Zhejiang Province浙江省
Zhèjiāng Shěng
Hangzhou54,426,891533.59102,000
Zhè
AHCN-34Anhui Province安徽省
Ānhuī Shěng
Hefei59,500,510425.91139,700
Wǎn
FJCN-35Fujian Province福建省
Fújiàn Shěng
Fuzhou36,894,216304.15121,300
Mǐn
JXCN-36Jiangxi Province江西省
Jiāngxī Shěng
Nanchang44,567,475266.87167,000
Gàn
SDCN-37Shandong Province山东省
Shāndōng Shěng
Jinan95,793,065622.84153,800鲁(齐)
Lǔ (Qí)
HACN-41Henan Province河南省
Hénán Shěng
Zhengzhou94,023,567563.01167,000
HBCN-42Hubei Province湖北省
Húběi Shěng
Wuhan57,237,740307.89185,900
È
HNCN-43Hunan Province湖南省
Húnán Shěng
Changsha65,683,722312.77210,000
Xiāng
GDCN-44Guangdong Province广东省
Guǎngdōng Shěng
Guangzhou104,303,132579.46180,000
Yuè
GXCN-45Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region广西壮族自治区
Guǎngxī Zhuàngzú Zìzhìqū
Nanning46,026,629195.02236,000
Guì
HICN-46Hainan Province海南省
Hǎinán Shěng
Haikou8,671,518255.0434,000
Qióng
CQCN-50Chongqing Municipality重庆市
Chóngqìng Shì
Chongqing28,846,170350.5082,300渝(巴)
Yú (Ba)
SCCN-51Sichuan Province四川省
Sìchuān Shěng
Chengdu80,418,200165.81485,000川(蜀)
Chuān (Shǔ)
GZCN-52Guizhou Province贵州省
Gùizhōu Shěng
Guiyang34,746,468197.42176,000贵(黔)
Guì (Qián)
YNCN-53Yunnan Province云南省
Yúnnán Shěng
Kunming45,966,239116.66394,000云(滇)
Yún (Diān)
XZCN-54Tibet Autonomous Region
Xizang Autonomous Region
西藏自治区
Xīzàng Zìzhìqū
Lhasa3,002,1662.441,228,400
Zàng
SNCN-61Shaanxi Province陕西省
Shǎnxī Shěng
Xi'an37,327,378181.55205,600陕(秦)
Shǎn (Qín)
GSCN-62Gansu Province甘肃省
Gānsù Shěng
Lanzhou25,575,25456.29454,300甘(陇)
Gān (Lǒng)
QHCN-63Qinghai Province青海省
Qīnghǎi Shěng
Xining5,626,7227.80721,200
Qīng
NXCN-64Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region宁夏回族自治区
Níngxià Huízú Zìzhìqū
Yinchuan6,301,35094.8966,400
Níng
XJCN-65Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region新疆维吾尔自治区
Xīnjiāng Wéiwú'ěr Zìzhìqū
Ürümqi21,813,33413.131,660,400
Xīn
HKCN-91Hong Kong Special Administrative Region
Xianggang Special Administrative Region
香港特别行政区
Xiānggǎng Tèbié Xíngzhèngqū
Hong Kong7,061,2006,396.011,104
Gǎng
MCCN-92Macau Special Administrative Region
Aomen Special Administrative Region
澳门特别行政区
Àomén Tèbié Xíngzhèngqū
Macau552,30019,044.8229
Ào
TWCN-71Taiwan Province *台湾省
Táiwān Shěng
Taipei23,140,000650.3435,581
Tái

Notes:

¹: as of 2010
²: per km²
³: km²
*: Since its founding in 1949, the People's Republic of China (PRC) has considered Taiwan to be its 23rd province. However, the PRC has never controlled Taiwan. The Republic of China (ROC, "Taiwan") currently administers Taiwan, Penghu, Kinmen and Matsu

Map[edit]

Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous RegionTibet (Xizang) Autonomous RegionQinghai ProvinceGansu ProvinceSichuan ProvinceYunnan ProvinceNingxia Hui Autonomous RegionInner Mongolia (Nei Mongol) Autonomous RegionShaanxi ProvinceMunicipality of ChongqingGuizhou ProvinceGuangxi Zhuang Autonomous RegionShanxi ProvinceHenan ProvinceHubei ProvinceHunan ProvinceGuangdong ProvinceHainan ProvinceHebei ProvinceHeilongjiang ProvinceJilin ProvinceLiaoning ProvinceMunicipality of BeijingMunicipality of TianjinShangdong ProvinceJiangsu ProvinceAnhui ProvinceMunicipality of ShanghaiZhejiang ProvinceJiangxi ProvinceFujian ProvinceHong Kong Special Administrative RegionMacau Special Administrative RegionTaiwan ProvinceChina administrative claimed included.svg
About this image


History[edit]

Map of the PRC in 1949.
Map comparing administrative divisions as drawn by the PRC and ROC.
Administrative divisions of the Republic of China (1912–49). Note: this map depicts the theoretical administrative divisions of the Republic of China, which are not synchronized with the actual administrative divisions of the People's Republic of China. The ROC controls Taiwan and nearby islands while the PRC controls Mainland China, Hong Kong, and Macau.

The rulers of China first set up provinces—initially 10 in number—during the Yuan Dynasty (1271–1368). By the time of the establishment of the Qing Dynasty in 1644 there were 18 provinces, all of them in China proper. These were:

Each province had a xunfu (巡撫; translated as "governor"), a political overseer on behalf of the emperor, and a tidu (提督; translated as "Captain General"), a military governor. In addition, there was a zongdu (總督), a general military inspector or governor general, for every two to three provinces.

Outer regions of China (those beyond China proper) were not divided into provinces. Military leaders or generals (將軍) oversaw Manchuria (consisting of Fengtian (now Liaoning), Jilin, Heilongjiang), Xinjiang, and Mongolia, while vice-dutong (副都統) and civilian leaders headed the leagues (盟長), a subdivision of Mongolia. The ambans (驻藏大臣) supervised the administration of Tibet.

In 1884 Xinjiang became a province; in 1907 Fengtian, Jilin, and Heilongjiang were made provinces as well. Taiwan became a province in 1885, but China ceded Taiwan to Japan in 1895. As a result, there were 22 provinces in China (Outer China and China proper) near the end of the Qing Dynasty.

The Republic of China, established in 1912, set up four more provinces in Inner Mongolia and two provinces in historic Tibet, bringing the total to 28. But China lost four provinces with the establishment of the Japanese puppet state of Manchukuo in Manchuria. After the defeat of Japan in World War II in 1945, China re-incorporated Manchuria as 10 provinces, and assumed control of Taiwan as a province. As a result, the Republic of China in 1946 had 35 provinces. Although the Republic of China now only controls one province (Taiwan), and some islands of a second province (Fujian), it continues to formally claim all 35 provinces.

List of former provinces[edit]

      abolished       claimed

Administrative divisions of China
Greater Administrative Areas
NameHanziPinyinTranslationCapitalHanziNotes
Huabei华北Huáběi"North China"Beijing北京1949–1954
Dongbei东北Dōngběi"Northeast"Shenyang沈阳1949–1954
Huadong华东Huádōng"East China"Shanghai上海1949–1954
Zhongnan中南Zhōngnán"South Central"Wuhan武汉1949–1954
Xibei西北Xīběi"Northwest"Xi'an西安1949–1954
Xinan西南Xīnán"Southwest"Chongqing重庆1949–1954
NameHanziPinyinAbbreviationCapitalHanziGAANote
Provinces
Andong安东Āndōng安 ānTonghua通化Dongbei1949 abolished → Liaodong, Jilin
Anhui安徽Ānhuī皖 wǎnHefei合肥Dongbei1949 abolished → Wanbei, Wannan; 1952 reverted
Chahar察哈尔Cháhā'ěr察 cháZhangjiakou张家口Huabei1952 abolished → Inner Mongolia, Hebei
Fujian福建Fújiàn闽 mǐnFuzhou福州Huadong
Gansu甘肃Gānsù甘 gānLanzhou兰州Xibei1958 Ningxia split into its own autonomous region
Guangdong广东Guǎngdōng粤 yuèGuangzhou广州Zhongnan1952 & 1965 Fangchenggang, Qinzhou, Beihai → Guangxi; 1955 reverted
1988 Hainan split into its own province
Guangxi广西Guǎngxī桂 guìNanning南宁Zhongnan1958 province → autonomous region
Guizhou贵州Guìzhōu黔 qiánGuiyang贵阳Xinan
Hainan海南Hǎinán琼 qióngHaikou海口Zhongnan
Hebei河北Héběi冀 jìBaoding (49-54; 67-68)
Tianjin (54-67)
Shijiazhuang (present)
保定
天津
石家庄
Huabei1967 Tianjin split into its own municipality
Hejiang合江Héjiāng合 héJiamusi佳木斯Dongbei1949 abolished → Heilongjiang
Heilongjiang黑龙江Hēilóngjiāng黑 hēiQiqihar (49-54)
Harbin (present)
齐齐哈尔
哈尔滨
Dongbei1952 part of Xing'an split into Inner Mongolia
Henan河南Hénán豫 yùKaifeng (49-54)
Zhengzhou (present)
开封
郑州
Zhongnan
Hubei湖北Húběi鄂 èWuhan武汉Zhongnan
Hunan湖南Húnán湘 xiāngChangsha长沙Zhongnan
Jiangsu江苏Jiāngsū苏 sūNanjing南京Huadong1949 abolished → Subei, Subnan; 1952 reverted
Jiangxi江西Jiāngxī赣 gànNanchang南昌Huadong
Jilin吉林Jílín吉 jíJilin (49-54)
Changchun (present)
吉林
长春
Dongbei1952 north part split into Inner Mongolia
Liaobei辽北Liáoběi洮 táoLiaoyuan辽源Dongbei1949 abolished → Jilin, Liaoning
Liaodong辽东Liáodōng关 guānDandong丹东Dongbei1954 abolished → Liaoning
Liaoning辽宁Liáoníng辽 liáoShenyang沈阳Dongbei1949 abolished → Liaodong, Liaoxi; 1954 reverted
1952 north part split into Inner Mongolia
Liaoxi辽西Liáoxī辽 liáoJinzhou锦州Dongbei1954 abolished → Liaoning
Nenjiang嫩江Nènjiāng嫩 nènQiqihar齐齐哈尔Dongbei1949 abolished → Heilongjiang
Ningxia宁夏Níngxià宁 níngYinchuan银川Xibei1954 province → Gansu
Mudanjiang牡丹江Mǔdānjiāng丹 dānMudanjiang牡丹江Dongbei1949 abolished → Heilongjiang
Pingyuan平原Píngyuán平 píngXinxiang新乡Zhongnan1952 abolished → Henan, Shandong
Qinghai青海Qīnghǎi青 qīngXining西宁Xibei
Rehe热河Rèhé热 rèChengde承德Dongbei1955 abolished → Inner Mongolia, & Liaoning
Sichuan四川Sìchuān川 chuānChengdu成都Xinan1949 abolished → Chuanbei, Chuandong, Chuannan, Chuanxi; 1952 reverted
1997 Chongqing split into its own municipality
Shaanxi陕西Shǎnxī陕 shǎnXi'an西安安Xibei
Shandong山东Shāndōng鲁 lǔJinan济南Huadong
Shanxi山西Shānxī晋 jìnTaiyuan太原Huabei
Songjiang松江Sōngjiāng松 sōngHarbin哈尔滨Dongbei1954 abolished → Heilongjiang
Suiyuan绥远Suíyuǎn绥 suíHohhot呼和浩特Huabei1954 abolished → Inner Mongolia
Taiwan台湾Táiwān台 táiTaibei台北Huadongclaimed since 1949 the founding of the PRC
Xikang西康Xīkāng康 kāngKangding (49-50)
Ya'an (50-55)
康定
雅安
Xinan1955 abolished → Sichuan & Qamdo
Xing'an兴安Xīkāng兴 xīngHulunbuir呼伦贝尔Dongbei1949 abolished → Heilongjiang
Xinjiang新疆Xīnjiāng疆 jiāngÜrümqi乌鲁木齐Xibei1955 province → autonomous region
Yunnan云南Yúnnán滇 diānKunming昆明Xinan
Zhejiang浙江Zhèjiāng浙 zhèHangzhou杭州Huadong
Autonomous Regions
Guangxi广西Guǎngxī桂 guìNanning南宁Zhongnan1958 province → autonomous region
Inner Mongolia內蒙古Nèi Měnggǔ蒙 měngUlaanhot (47-50)
Hohhot (present)
乌兰浩特
呼和浩特
Huabei1947 created; 1969 truncated → Liaoning, Heilongjiang,
Jilin, Gansu, Ningxia; 1979 reverted
Ningxia宁夏Níngxià宁 níngYinchuan银川Xibei1958 special region → autonomous region
Tibet西藏Xīzàng藏 zàngLhasa拉萨Xinan1965 region → autonomous region
Xinjiang新疆Xīnjiāng疆 jiāngÜrümqi乌鲁木齐Xibei1955 province → autonomous region
Municipalities
Anshan鞍山Ānshān鞍 ānTiedong District铁东区Dongbei1954 abolished → Liaoning
Beijing北京Běijīng京 jīngDongcheng District东城区Huabei
Benxi本溪Běnxī本 běnPingshan District平山区Dongbei1954 abolished → Liaoning
Changchun长春Chángchūn春 chūnNanguan District南关区Dongbei1953 created; 1954 abolished → Jilin
Chongqing重庆Chóngqìng渝 yúYuzhong District渝中区Xinan1954 abolished → Sichuan; 1997 reverted
Dalian → Lüda大连→旅大Dàlián连 liánXigang District西岗区Dongbei1949 abolished → Luda, 1950 reverted, 1954 abolished → Liaoning
Fushun抚顺Fǔshùn抚 fǔShuncheng District顺城区Dongbei1954 abolished → Liaoning
Harbin哈尔滨Hāěrbīn哈 hāNangang District南岗区Dongbei1953 created, 1954 abolished → Heilongjiang
Guangzhou广州Guǎngzhōu穗 suìYuexiu District越秀区Zhongnan1954 abolished → Guangdong
Nanjing南京Nánjīng宁 níngXuanwu District宣武区Huadong1952 abolished → Jiangsu
Shanghai上海Shànghǎi沪 hùHuangpu District黄浦区Huadong
Shenyang沈阳Shěnyáng沈 shěnShenhe District沈河区Dongbei1954 abolished → Liaoning
Tianjin天津Tiānjīn津 jīnHeping District和平区Huabei1954 abolished → Hebei, 1967 reverted
Hankou → Wuhan汉口→武汉Wǔhàn汉 hànJiang'an District江岸区Zhongnan1949 abolished → Hubei
Xi'an西安Xī'ān镐 hàoWeiyang District未央区Xibei1954 abolished → Shaanxi
Special Administrative Regions
Hainan海南Hǎinán琼 qióngHaikou海口Zhongnan1949 abolished → Guangdong
Hong Kong香港Xiānggǎng港 gǎngHong Kong香港Zhongnan1997 created (Transfer of sovereignty over Hong Kong)
Macau澳门Àomén澳 àoMacau澳门Zhongnan1999 created (Transfer of sovereignty over Macau)
Administrative Territories
Chuanbei川北Chuānběi充 chōngNanchong南充Xinan1950 created; 1952 abolished → Sichuan
Chuandong川东Chuāndōng渝 yúChongqing重庆Xinan1950 created; 1952 abolished → Sichuan
Chuannan川南Chuānnán泸 lúLuzhou泸州Xinan1950 created; 1952 abolished → Sichuan
Chuanxi川西Chuānxī蓉 róngChengdu成都Xinan1950 created; 1952 abolished → Sichuan
Subei苏北Sūběi扬 yángYangzhou扬州Huadong1949 created; 1952 abolished → Jiangsu
Sunan苏南Sūnán锡 xīWuxi无锡Huadong1949 created; 1952 abolished → Jiangsu
Wanbei皖北Wǎnběi合 héHefei合肥Huadong1949 created; 1952 abolished → Anhui
Wannan皖南Wǎnnán芜 wúWuhu芜湖Huadong1949 created; 1952 abolished → Anhui
Lüda旅大Lǚdà旅 LǚDalian大连Dongbei1949 created; 1950 abolished → Dalian
Regions
Tibet西藏Xīzàng藏 zàngLhasa拉萨Xinan1965 region → autonomous region
Territories
Qamdo昌都Chāngdū昌 chāngQamdo昌都Xinan1965 merge into Tibet

The People's Republic of China abolished many of the provinces in the 1950s and converted a number of them into autonomous regions. Hainan became a separate province in 1988, bringing the total number of provinces under PRC control to 22.

Economies[edit]

The provinces in south coastal area of China—such as Zhejiang, Jiangsu, Fujian and (mainly) Guangdong—tend to be more industrialized, with regions in the hinterland less developed.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

External links[edit]