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The provinces and territories of Canada combine to make up the world's second-largest country by area. Originally three provinces of British North America, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia and the Province of Canada (which would become Ontario and Quebec) united to form the new nation. Since then, Canada's external borders have changed several times, and has grown from four initial provinces to ten provinces and three territories as of 1999. The ten provinces are Alberta, British Columbia, Manitoba, New Brunswick, Newfoundland and Labrador, Nova Scotia, Ontario, Prince Edward Island, Quebec, and Saskatchewan. The three territories are Northwest Territories, Nunavut, and Yukon.
The major difference between a Canadian province and a territory is that provinces are jurisdictions that receive their power and authority directly from the Constitution Act, 1867 (formerly called the British North America Act, 1867), whereas territories derive their mandates and powers from the federal government. In modern Canadian constitutional theory, the provinces are considered to be co-sovereign divisions, and each province has its own "Crown" represented by the lieutenant governor, whereas the territories are not sovereign, but simply parts of the federal realm, and have a commissioner.
|Area: land (km2)||Area: water (km2)||Area: total (km2)||Official language(s)||Federal Parliament: Commons seats||Federal Parliament: Senate seats|
|Ontario||ON||Toronto||Toronto||July 1, 1867||12,851,821||917,741||158,654||1,076,395||EnglishA||106||24|
|Quebec||QC||Quebec City||Montreal||July 1, 1867||7,903,001||1,356,128||185,928||1,542,056||FrenchB||75||24|
|Nova Scotia||NS||Halifax||HalifaxC||July 1, 1867||921,727||53,338||1,946||55,284||EnglishD||11||10|
|New Brunswick||NB||Fredericton||Saint John||July 1, 1867||751,171||71,450||1,458||72,908||EnglishE|
|Manitoba||MB||Winnipeg||Winnipeg||July 15, 1870||1,208,268||553,556||94,241||647,797||EnglishA, F||14||6|
|British Columbia||BC||Victoria||Vancouver||July 20, 1871||4,400,057||925,186||19,549||944,735||EnglishA||36||6|
|Prince Edward Island||PE||Charlottetown||Charlottetown||July 1, 1873||140,204||5,660||0||5,660||EnglishA||4||4|
|Saskatchewan||SK||Regina||Saskatoon||September 1, 1905||1,033,381||591,670||59,366||651,036||EnglishA||14||6|
|Alberta||AB||Edmonton||Calgary||September 1, 1905||3,645,257||642,317||19,531||661,848||EnglishA||28||6|
|Newfoundland and Labrador||NL||St. John's||St. John's||March 31, 1949||514,536||373,872||31,340||405,212||EnglishA||7||6|
There are three territories in Canada. Unlike the provinces, the territories of Canada have no inherent jurisdiction and have only those powers delegated to them by the federal government. They include all of mainland Canada north of latitude 60° north and west of Hudson Bay, as well as all islands north of the Canadian mainland (from those in James Bay to the Canadian Arctic islands). The following table lists the territories in order of precedence (each province has precedence over all the territories, regardless of the date each territory was created).
|Capital and largest city||Entered Confederation||Population|
|Area: land (km2)||Area: water (km2)||Area: total (km2)||Official languages||Federal Parliament: Commons seats||Federal Parliament: Senate seats|
|Northwest Territories||NT||Yellowknife||July 15, 1870||41,462||1,183,085||163,021||1,346,106||Chipewyan, Cree, English, French, Gwich’in, Inuinnaqtun, Inuktitut, Inuvialuktun, North Slavey, South Slavey, Tłįchǫ||1||1|
|Yukon||YT||Whitehorse||June 13, 1898||33,897||474,391||8,052||482,443||English|
|Nunavut||NU||Iqaluit||April 1, 1999||31,906||1,936,113||157,077||2,093,190||Inuinnaqtun, Inuktitut,|
Ontario, Quebec, New Brunswick, and Nova Scotia are the original provinces, formed when British North American colonies federated on July 1, 1867, into the Dominion of Canada and by stages began accruing the indicia of sovereignty from the United Kingdom. Ontario and Quebec were united before Confederation as the Province of Canada. Over the following six years, Manitoba, British Columbia, and Prince Edward Island were added as provinces.
The Hudson's Bay Company maintained control of large swathes of western Canada referred to as Rupert's Land until 1870, when it turned over the land to the Government of Canada, forming part of the Northwest Territories. Manitoba and the Northwest Territories were created in 1870 from Rupert's Land and the North-Western Territory. At the time, the land comprising the Northwest Territories was all of current northern and western Canada, including the northern two thirds of Ontario and Quebec, with exception of the Arctic Islands, British Columbia and a small portion of southern Manitoba. On September 1, 1905, a portion of the Northwest Territories south of the 60° parallel became the provinces of Alberta and Saskatchewan. In 1912, the boundaries of Quebec, Ontario and Manitoba were expanded northward: Manitoba's to the 60° parallel, Ontario's to Hudson Bay and Quebec's to encompass the District of Ungava.
In 1869, the people of Newfoundland voted to remain a British colony over concerns of an increase in taxation and economic policy vested towards mainland industries. In 1907, Newfoundland acquired dominion status. In the middle of the Great Depression in Canada with Newfoundland facing national bankruptcy, the legislature turned over political control to the Commission of Government in 1933. Following Canada's participation in World War II, in a 1948 referendum, a narrow majority of Newfoundland citizens voted to join Confederation and, on March 31, 1949, Newfoundland became Canada's tenth province. In 2001 it was officially renamed Newfoundland and Labrador.
In 1903, the Alaska Panhandle Dispute fixed British Columbia's northwestern boundary. This was one of only two provinces in Canadian history to have its size reduced. The second, in 1927, occurred when a boundary dispute between Canada and the Dominion of Newfoundland saw Labrador increased at Quebec's expense. In 1999, Nunavut was created from the eastern portion of the Northwest Territories. Yukon lies in the western portion of The North, while Nunavut is in the east.
All three territories combined are the most sparsely populated region in Canada spread across a huge area covering 250,000 kilometres (160,000 mi). They are often referred to as a single region, The North, for organisational and economic purposes. For much of the Northwest Territories early history it was divided into several districts for ease of administration. The District of Keewatin was created as a separate territory from 1876 to 1905, after which, as the Keewatin Region, it became an administration district of the Northwest Territories. In 1999, it was dissolved when it became part of Nunavut.
Theoretically, provinces have a great deal of power relative to the federal government, with jurisdiction over many public goods such as health care, education, welfare, and intra-provincial transportation. They receive "transfer payments" from the federal government to pay for these, as well as exacting their own taxes. In practice, however, the federal government can use these transfer payments to influence these provincial areas. For instance in order to receive healthcare funding under medicare, provinces must agree to meet certain federal mandates, such as universal access to required medical treatment.
Provincial and territorial legislatures have no second chamber like the Canadian Senate. Originally, most provinces did have such bodies, known as legislative councils, but these were subsequently abolished, Quebec's being the last in 1968. In most provinces, the single house of the legislature is known as the Legislative Assembly except in Nova Scotia and Newfoundland and Labrador, where it is called the House of Assembly, and Quebec where it is generally called the National Assembly. Ontario has a Legislative Assembly but its members are called Members of the Provincial Parliament or MPPs. The legislative assemblies use a procedure similar to that of the Canadian House of Commons. The head of government of each province, called the premier, is generally the head of the party with the most seats. This is also the case in Yukon, but the Northwest Territories and Nunavut have no political parties at the territorial level. The Queen's representative to each province is the Lieutenant Governor. In each of the territories there is an analogous Commissioner, but he or she represents the federal government and not the monarch per se.
|Canada||Governor General||Prime Minister||Parliament||Parliamentarian|
|Senate||House of Commons||Senator||Member of Parliament|
|Ontario||Lieutenant Governor||Premier||n/a*||Legislative Assembly||n/a*||Member of the Provincial Parliament (MPP)|
|Quebec||National Assembly||Member of the National Assembly (MNA)|
|House of Assembly||Member of the House of Assembly (MHA)|
|Nova Scotia||Member of the Legislative Assembly (MLA)|
|Other provinces||Legislative Assembly|
|*There were historically provincial Legislative Councils analogous to the federal Senate in Quebec, Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, Manitoba, Prince Edward Island, and pre-confederation in Lower Canada, Upper Canada, Province of Canada, British Columbia, and Newfoundland. The last of these was abolished in 1968.|
Each of the territories elects one Member of Parliament. Canadian territories are each entitled to elect one full voting representative to the Canadian House of Commons. With the sole exception of Prince Edward Island having slightly greater per capita representation than the Northwest Territories. Territories has considerably greater per capita representation in the Commons than every other province, but have more limited autonomy than the provinces. Each territory also has one Senator.
Most provinces have provincial counterparts to the three national federal parties. However, some provincial parties are not formally linked to the federal parties that share the same name. The New Democratic Party is the only party that has integrated membership between the provincial and federal wings. Some provinces have regional political parties, such as the Saskatchewan Party.
The provincial political climate of Quebec is quite different: the main split is between sovereignty, represented by the Parti Québécois, and federalism, represented primarily by the Quebec Liberal Party.
The provincial Progressive Conservative parties are also now separate from the federal Conservative Party, which resulted from a merger between the Progressive Conservatives and the Canadian Alliance. In British Columbia, the Liberal Party separated from the federal Liberal Party and is now an independent entity.
|Premier||Party in government||Majority/Minority|
|Ontario||David Onley||Kathleen Wynne||Ontario Liberal Party||Minority|
|Quebec||Pierre Duchesne||Pauline Marois||Parti québécois||Minority|
|Nova Scotia||John James Grant||Stephen McNeil||Nova Scotia Liberal Party||Majority|
|New Brunswick||Graydon Nicholas||David Alward||New Brunswick Progressive Conservative Party||Majority|
|Manitoba||Philip S. Lee||Greg Selinger||New Democratic Party of Manitoba||Majority|
|British Columbia||Judith Guichon||Christy Clark||British Columbia Liberal Party||Majority|
|Prince Edward Island||Frank Lewis||Robert Ghiz||Prince Edward Island Liberal Party||Majority|
|Saskatchewan||Vaughn Solomon Schofield||Brad Wall||Saskatchewan Party||Majority|
|Alberta||Donald Ethell||Alison Redford||Progressive Conservative Association of Alberta||Majority|
|Newfoundland and Labrador||Frank Fagan||Kathy Dunderdale||Progressive Conservative Party of Newfoundland and Labrador||Majority|
|Northwest Territories||George Tuccaro||Bob McLeod||Consensus government||None|
|Yukon||Doug Phillips||Darrell Pasloski||Yukon Party||Majority|
|Nunavut||Edna Elias||Peter Taptuna||Consensus government||None|
The Canadian National Vimy Memorial, near Vimy, Pas-de-Calais, and the Beaumont-Hamel Newfoundland Memorial, near Beaumont-Hamel, France are ceremonially considered Canadian territory. In 1922, the French government donated the land used for the Vimy Memorial "freely, and for all time, to the Government of Canada the free use of the land exempt from all taxes". The site of the Somme battlefield near Beaumont-Hamel site was purchased in 1921 by the people of the Dominion of Newfoundland. These sites do not, however, enjoy extraterritorial status and are thus subject to French law.
Since Confederation in 1867, there have been several proposals for new Canadian provinces and territories. The Constitution of Canada requires an amendment for the creation of a new province but the creation of a new territory requires only an act of Parliament; therefore, it is easier legislatively to create a territory than a province.
In late 2004, Prime Minister Paul Martin surprised some observers by expressing his personal support for all three territories gaining provincial status "eventually". He cited their importance to the country as a whole and the ongoing need to assert sovereignty in the Arctic, particularly as global warming could make that region more open to exploitation leading to more complex international waters disputes.
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