Protea

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Protea
The original South African "suikerbossie" (sugarbush) Protea repens
Scientific classification
Kingdom:Plantae
(unranked):Angiosperms
(unranked):Eudicots
Order:Proteales
Family:Proteaceae
Subfamily:Proteoideae
Genus:Protea
L.
Species

See text

 
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Protea
The original South African "suikerbossie" (sugarbush) Protea repens
Scientific classification
Kingdom:Plantae
(unranked):Angiosperms
(unranked):Eudicots
Order:Proteales
Family:Proteaceae
Subfamily:Proteoideae
Genus:Protea
L.
Species

See text

Protea /ˈprtə/[1] is both the botanical name and the English common name of a genus of South African flowering plants, sometimes also called sugarbushes (Afrikaans: suikerbos).

Etymology[edit]

The genus Protea was named in 1735 by Carl Linnaeus after the Greek god Proteus, who could change his form at will, because proteas have such a wide variety of forms. Linnaeus's genus was formed by merging a number of genera previously published by Herman Boerhaave, although precisely which of Boerhaave's genera were included in Linnaeus's Protea varied with each of Linnaeus's publications.

Taxonomy[edit]

The Proteaceae family to which proteas belong is an ancient one. Its ancestors grew in Gondwana, 300 million years ago. Proteaceae is divided into two subfamilies: the Proteoideae, best represented in southern Africa, and the Grevilleoideae, concentrated in Australia and South America and the other smaller segments of Gondwana that are now part of eastern Asia. Africa shares only one genus with Madagascar, whereas South America and Australia share many common genera — this indicates they separated from Africa before they separated from each other.

Distribution[edit]

Most protea occur south of the Limpopo River. However, Protea kilimanjaro is found in the chaparral zone of Mount Kenya National Park. 92% of the species occur only in the Cape Floristic Region, a narrow belt of mountainous coastal land from Clanwilliam to Grahamstown, South Africa. The extraordinary richness and diversity of species characteristic of the Cape Flora is thought to be caused in part by the diverse landscape where populations can become isolated from each other and in time develop into separate species.

Botanical history[edit]

Proteas attracted the attention of botanists visiting the Cape of Good Hope in the 17th century. Many species were introduced to Europe in the 18th century, enjoying a unique popularity at the time amongst botanists.

Classification[edit]

Within the huge family Proteaceae, they are a member of the subfamily Proteoideae, which has Southern African and Australian members.

Species[edit]

Protea caffra, the Common protea

(listed by section: a sect. has a name in two parts, consisting of the genus name and an epithet).

Dried head of Protea madiensis, the Tall woodland sugarbush, shedding mature fruit
Protea cynaroides, the type species of the genus. Common name: King protea


Protea compacta, the Bot river sugarbush
Protea roupelliae, the Silver sugarbush
Protea aristata, the Ladismith sugarbush
Protea repens, the "Suikerbossie"
Protea neriifolia, the Narrow-leafed protea
Protea aurea subsp. potbergensis, the Common shuttlecock sugarbush
Protea venusta, the Red sugarbush

National symbol[edit]

Together with the springbok antelope, the protea had been treated as a sometimes controversial national symbol in South Africa, both during and after apartheid.

Today the South Africa national cricket team is known as "The Proteas" and this has linked the flower to wider nationalist sentiments in South Africa.

The former South African Prime Minister and architect of apartheid, Hendrik Frensch Verwoerd, had a dream to change the flag of South Africa to have in its centre a leaping springbok antelope over a wreath of six proteas. This proposal, however, aroused too much controversy to be implemented.[citation needed]

After the demise of apartheid, the ANC government decreed that South African sporting teams, hitherto called "Springboks" were to be known as the "Proteas", although an exemption was made for the rugby union team, who remain "Springboks". In apartheid times, the "Proteas" was the Cape Coloured representative team.[2]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Protea". Oxford English Dictionary (3rd ed.). Oxford University Press. September 2005. 
    Sunset Western Garden Book, 1995:606–607
  2. ^ Today the national cricket team are known as "The Proteas".Grundlingh, A. M.; André Odendaal, S. B. Spies (1995). Beyond the Tryline: Rugby and South African Society. Ravan Press. p. 92. ISBN 0-86975-457-2. 

External links[edit]