Wild privet, also sometimes known as Common privet or European privet (
privet is a flowering plant in the genus . The genus contains about 50 Ligustrum species of erect, deciduous or evergreen shrubs, sometimes forming small or medium-sized trees, [1 ] native to Europe, north Africa, Asia and Australasia. [2 ] Privet was originally the name for the European semi-evergreen shrub , and later also for the more reliably evergreen Ligustrum vulgare used extensively for privacy Ligustrum ovalifolium hedging, though now the name is applied to all members of the genus. The generic name was applied by Pliny the Elder (23 CE – 79) to L. vulgare. It is often suggested that the name [3 ] privet is related to private, but the OED states that there is no evidence to support this. [4 ] Description [edit ]
Ligustrum) is a group of shrubs and small trees of southern and eastern Asia, from the Himalaya extending into Australia. They may be evergreen or deciduous, and are tolerant of different soil types. They often have conspicuous flower heads. [5 ] Uses and cultivation [edit ]
In addition to being cultivated to create ornamental hedges and
foliage, privet is also widely used in horticulture and flower arrangements. The Oval leaf privet [6 ] is used for Ligustrum ovalifolium hedges, while its flexible twigs are sometimes used as cords for lashing. The tree species, especially [6 ] Chinese privet is frequently used as a street tree in Europe, while other species including and Ligustrum japonicum are among the others also sometimes used as Ligustrum quihoui ornamental plants in gardens. [7 ]
Chinese privet is used in traditional
herbal medicine. The [8 ] decoction of privet leaves or bark helps to treat diarrhea, stomach ulcers, chronic bowel problems, chapped lips, sore mouths and throats, and a wash for skin problems. Privet leaves and bark have bitter properties that make a useful tea for improving appetite and digestion in chemotherapy patients. [8 ] [8 ]
Some species produce a fruit, which is mildly toxic to humans.
[6 ] Symptoms from eating privet fruit include [9 ] nausea, headache, abdominal pain, vomiting, diarrhea, weakness, low blood pressure, and low body temperature. In large amounts, the odor produced from privet’s flowers can cause respiratory irritation and its pollen can cause an allergic reaction. [6 ] [6 ] Ecology [edit ]
A plant may produce thousands of fruits, most of which are eaten by birds. Privet is used as a food plant by the larvae of some Lepidoptera species including
Common Emerald, Common Marbled Carpet, Copper Underling, the Engrailed, Mottled Beauty, Scalloped Hazel, Small Angle Shades, The V-pug and Willow Beauty. Invasiveness [edit ]
Privet is a successful invasive species because of its ability to
outcompete and therefore displace native vegetation, due to its adaptability. Various species are now a problem in North America and Australasia. Selected species [edit ]
Integrated Taxonomic Information System lists eleven "accepted" species of Ligustrum. Additional species are listed in other references. [10 ] [11 ] [12 ] [13 ] (China) Ligustrum amamianum – Amur privet (Northern China) Ligustrum amurense Ligustrum angustum (China) Ligustrum australianum F.Muell. (1865) – Australian privet (Endemic, Wet Tropics, NE. & C. Qld, Australia) [14 ] Ligustrum chenaultii (Yunnan Province, China) Ligustrum compactum (Himalayas, southwest China) Ligustrum confusum (Himalayas, Khasi Hills) Ligustrum delavayanum (Southwest China, Myanmar) Ligustrum expansum (China) (Thailand, Malesia) Ligustrum glomeratum Ligustrum gracile (China) Ligustrum henryi (Central China) Ligustrum ibota (Japan) Ligustrum indicum (Himalayas, Indochina) (Japan, Korea) Ligustrum japonicum Ligustrum leucanthum (China) Ligustrum lianum (China) Ligustrum liukiuense (Taiwan) Ligustrum longitubum (China) - Chinese privet, Glossy privet (China, Japan, Korea) Ligustrum lucidum Ligustrum massalongianum (Himalayas) (Taiwan); often included in Ligustrum microcarpum L. sinense. Ligustrum morrisonense (Taiwan) Ligustrum obovatilimbum (China) – Japanese deciduous privet ( Ligustrum obtusifolium East Asia) – Japanese privet, Oval-leaved privet (Japan) Ligustrum ovalifolium Ligustrum pedunculare (China) (Taiwan) Ligustrum pricei Ligustrum punctifolium (China) Ligustrum quihoui Ligustrum retusum (China) (China) Ligustrum robustum Ligustrum sempervirens (Western China) – Chinese privet (China, Taiwan) Ligustrum sinense Ligustrum strongylophyllum (Central China) Ligustrum tenuipes. (China) Ligustrum tschonoskii (Japan) – Common privet, European privet (Europe, northwest Africa, southwest Asia) Ligustrum vulgare Ligustrum xingrenense (China) Ligustrum yunguiense (China) See also [edit ] References [edit ] ^ Webb, C. J.; Sykes, W. R.; Garnock-Jones, P. J. 1988: Flora of New Zealand. Vol. IV. Naturalised Pteridophytes, Gymnosperms, Dicotyledons. 4. Christchurch, New Zealand, Botany Division, D.S.I.R.. ^ RHS A-Z encyclopedia of garden plants. United Kingdom: Dorling Kindersley. 2008. p. 1136. ISBN 1405332964. ^ Foster, Steven; Rebecca Johnson (2008). . National Geographic Books. p. 116. National Geographic Desk Reference to Nature's Medicine ISBN 978-1-4262-0293-3. ^ Oxford English Dictionary. privet, n.1 http://dictionary.oed.com/cgi/entry/50188940 ^ The Hillier Manual of Trees and Shrubs ^ a b c d e Urbatch, L. Chinese Privet: Plant Guide. USDA and NRCS.< http://plants.usda.gov/plantguide/pdf/pg_lisi.pdf>Retrieved March 15, 2013 ^ European Garden Flora 2nd Edition Volume 4 ^ a b c National Geographic Desk Reference to Nature’s Medicine < http://books.google.com/books?id=mE0z2MnIsloC&pg=PA116&lpg=PA116&dq=privet+leaves+or+bark+is+helpful+for+treating+diarrhea,+stomach+ulcers,+chronic+bowel+problems,+chapped+lips,+sore+mouths+and+throats,+and+a+wash+for+skin+problems.&source=bl&ots=52ZdiFT0GR&sig=CuYTZpv15WJEOqOH4Cp2Px5MrEc&hl=en&sa=X&ei=WXF0UbsZj6TyBJTDgOgF&ved=0CDEQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=privet%20leaves%20or%20bark%20is%20helpful%20for%20treating%20diarrhea%2C%20stomach%20ulcers%2C%20chronic%20bowel%20problems%2C%20chapped%20lips%2C%20sore%20mouths%20and%20throats%2C%20and%20a%20wash%20for%20skin%20problems.&f=false> Retrieved March 15, 2013 ^ Plants for a Future, http://www.pfaf.org/database/plants.php?Ligustrum+japonicum ^ "ITIS Standard Report Page - Ligustrum". Integrated Taxonomic Information System . Retrieved 2011-06-20. ^ Flora of China: Ligustrum ^ Flora of Taiwan: Ligustrum ^ Flora Europaea: Ligustrum ^ Hyland, B. P. M.; Whiffin, T.; Zich, F. A. et al. (Dec 2010). "Factsheet – . Ligustrum australianum" . Edition 6.1, online version [RFK 6.1]. Cairns, Australia: Australian Tropical Rainforest Plants Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation, through its Division of Plant Industry; the Centre for Australian National Biodiversity Research; the Australian Tropical Herbarium, James Cook University . Retrieved 27 June 2013.