President pro tempore of the United States Senate

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President Pro Tempore of
the United States Senate
President Pro Tempore US Senate Seal.svg
Leahy2009.jpg
Incumbent
Patrick Leahy

since December 17, 2012
StyleMr. President
(Informal and within the Senate)
The Honorable
(Formal)
AppointerElected by the U.S. Senate
Inaugural holderJohn Langdon
April 6, 1789
FormationU.S. Constitution
March 4, 1789
SuccessionThird
 
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President Pro Tempore of
the United States Senate
President Pro Tempore US Senate Seal.svg
Leahy2009.jpg
Incumbent
Patrick Leahy

since December 17, 2012
StyleMr. President
(Informal and within the Senate)
The Honorable
(Formal)
AppointerElected by the U.S. Senate
Inaugural holderJohn Langdon
April 6, 1789
FormationU.S. Constitution
March 4, 1789
SuccessionThird
Great Seal of the United States (obverse).svg
This article is part of a series on the
politics and government of
the United States

The President pro tempore (/ˌpr ˈtɛmpər/ or /ˌpr ˈtɛmpər/),[1] also president pro tem, is the second-highest-ranking official of the United States Senate. The United States Constitution states that the Vice President of the United States is the President of the Senate, despite not being a senator, and that the Senate must choose a president pro tempore. Since 1890, the most senior senator in the majority party has generally been chosen to be president pro tempore; this tradition has been observed without interruption since 1949.[2]

During the Vice President's absence, the president pro tempore is empowered to preside over Senate sessions. In practice, neither the Vice President nor the President pro tempore usually presides; instead, the duty of presiding officer is rotated among junior senators of the majority party to give them experience in parliamentary procedure.[3]

The president pro tempore is third in the line of succession to the presidency, after the Vice President and the Speaker of the House of Representatives.[4]

Following the death of Daniel Inouye on December 17, 2012, Patrick Leahy, a Democrat and senior senator from Vermont, was elected to the position by unanimous consent.[5]

Power and responsibilities[edit]

The office of president pro tempore is created by Article I, Section 3 of the Constitution:[6]

The Senate shall choose their other Officers, and also a President pro tempore, in the absence of the Vice President, or when he shall exercise the Office of President of the United States.

Although the position is in some ways equivalent to the Speaker of the House of Representatives, the powers of the president pro tempore are far more limited. In the Senate, most power rests with party leaders and individual senators, but as the chamber's presiding officer, the president pro tempore is authorized to perform certain duties in the absence of the Vice President, including ruling on points of order.[7] Additionally, under the 25th Amendment to the Constitution, the president pro tempore and the speaker are the two authorities to whom declarations must be transmitted that the president is unable to perform the duties of the office, or is able to resume doing so. The president pro tempore is third in the line of presidential succession, following the vice president and the speaker.[4][7] Additional duties include appointment of various congressional officers, certain commissions, advisory boards, and committees and joint supervision of the congressional page school.[7] The president pro tempore is the designated legal recipient of various reports to the Senate, including War Powers Act reports under which he or she, jointly with the speaker, may have the president call Congress back into session. The officeholder is an ex officio member of various boards and commissions. With the secretary and sergeant at arms, the president pro tempore maintains order in Senate portions of the Capitol and Senate buildings.[7][8]

History[edit]

Benjamin Wade came within one vote of being the first president pro tempore to succeed to the presidency after the impeachment trial of Andrew Johnson in 1868.

The office of president pro tempore was established by the Constitution of the United States in 1789. The first president pro tempore, John Langdon, was elected on April 6 the same year.[7] Originally, the president pro tempore was appointed on an intermittent basis when the vice president was not present to preside over the Senate. Until the 1960s, it was common practice for the vice president to preside over daily Senate sessions, so the president pro tempore rarely presided unless the vice presidency became vacant.[9]

Until 1891, the president pro tempore only served until the return of the vice president to the chair or the adjournment of a session of Congress. Between 1792 and 1886, the president pro tempore was second in the line of presidential succession following the vice president and preceding the speaker.[9]

When President Andrew Johnson, who had no vice president, was impeached and tried in 1868, Senate President pro tempore Benjamin Franklin Wade was next in line to the presidency. Wade's radicalism is thought by many historians to be a major reason why the Senate, which did not want to see Wade in the White House, acquitted Johnson.[10] The president pro tempore and the speaker were removed from the line of succession in 1886, but were restored in 1947. This time however the president pro tempore followed the speaker.[7]

Following the resignation (for health reasons) of President pro tempore William P. Frye, a Senate divided among progressive Republicans, conservative Republicans, and Democrats reached a compromise by which each of their candidates would rotate holding the office from 1911 to 1913 (see below, #1911 – present).[7]

Only three former presidents pro tempore ever became vice president: John Tyler, William R. King and Charles Curtis. Tyler is also the only one to have become president, when he succeeded William Henry Harrison in 1841.

Related officials[edit]

Acting president pro tempore[edit]

While the president pro tempore does have other official duties, the holders of the office have, like the vice president, over time ceased presiding over the Senate on a daily basis, owing to the mundane and ceremonial nature of the position.[9] Furthermore, as the president pro tempore is now usually the most senior senator of the majority party, he or she most likely also chairs a major Senate committee and has other significant demands on his or her time. Therefore, the president pro tempore has less time now than in the past to preside daily over the Senate. Instead, junior senators from the majority party are designated acting president pro tempore to preside over the Senate.[11] This allows junior senators to learn proper parliamentary procedure.[3]

Permanent Acting President pro tempore[edit]

In June 1963, because of the illness of president pro tempore Carl Hayden, Senator Lee Metcalf was designated permanent acting president pro tempore. No term was imposed on this designation, so Metcalf retained it until he died in office in 1978.[8]

Deputy President pro tempore[edit]

Hubert Humphrey (D-Minnesota) was the first Deputy President pro tempore in 1977–1978

The ceremonial post of Deputy President pro tempore was created for Hubert Humphrey, a former vice president, in 1977 following his losing bid to become the Senate majority leader.[12] The Senate resolution creating the position stated that any former president or former vice president serving in the Senate would be entitled to this position, though none has served since Humphrey's death in 1978,[8] and former vice president Walter Mondale, who sought his former senate seat in Minnesota in 2002, is the only one to have tried. Andrew Johnson is the only former president to have subsequently served in the Senate.

George J. Mitchell was elected deputy president pro tempore in 1987, because of the illness of president pro tempore John C. Stennis, similar to Metcalf's earlier designation as Permanent Acting President pro tempore. The office has remained vacant since 1988, and no senator other than Humphrey and Mitchell has held it since its creation.[8]

The post is largely honorary and ceremonial, but comes with a salary increase. By statute, the compensation granted to the position holder equals the rate of annual compensation paid to the president pro tempore, majority leader, and minority leader. (See 2 U.S.C. § 32a.)[8]

President pro tempore emeritus[edit]

Ted Stevens (R-Alaska), former president pro tempore, and most recent president pro tempore emeritus.

Since 2001, the honorary title of president pro tempore emeritus has been given to a Senator of the minority party who has previously served as president pro tempore. The position has been held by Strom Thurmond (R-South Carolina) (2001-2003), Robert Byrd (D-West Virginia) (2003-2007), and Ted Stevens (R-Alaska) (2007-2009). The position was created for Thurmond when the Democratic Party regained a majority in the Senate in June 2001.[13] With the change in party control, Democrat Robert Byrd of West Virginia replaced Thurmond as president pro tempore, reclaiming a position he had previously held from 1989 to 1995 and briefly in January 2001. Thurmond's retirement from the Senate on January 3, 2003, coincided with a change from Democratic to Republican control, making Stevens president pro tempore and Byrd the second president pro tempore emeritus. Byrd returned as president pro tempore, and Stevens became the third president pro tempore emeritus, when the Democrats gained control of the Senate in 2007.[8] While a president pro tempore emeritus has no official duties, he is entitled to an increase in staff[14] and advises party leaders on the functions of the Senate.

Salary[edit]

The salary of the president pro tempore for 2012 was $193,400, equal to that of the majority leaders and minority leaders of both houses of Congress. If there is a vacancy in the office of vice president, then the salary would be the same as that of the vice president, $221,000.[8]

List of Presidents pro tempore of the United States Senate[edit]

1789 – 1890[edit]

Before 1890, the Senate elected a president pro tempore only for the period when the vice president would be absent.[8]

CongressPresident pro temporePartyStateYears
1st Congress
1789 – 1791
John LangdonPro-AdministrationNew HampshireApril 6, 1789 –
April 21, 1789
August 7, 1789 –
August 9, 1789
2nd Congress
1791 – 1793
Richard Henry LeeAnti-
Administration
VirginiaApril 18, 1792 –
October 8, 1792
John LangdonPro-
Administration
New HampshireNovember 5, 1792 –
December 4, 1792
3rd Congress
1793 – 1795
March 4, 1793 –
December 2, 1793
Ralph IzardPro-
Administration
South CarolinaMay 31, 1794 –
November 9, 1794
Henry TazewellAnti-
Administration
VirginiaFebruary 20, 1795 –
March 3, 1795
4th Congress
1795 – 1797
Democratic-
Republican
March 4, 1795 –
June 7, 1795
Samuel LivermoreFederalistNew HampshireMay 6, 1796 –
December 4, 1796
William BinghamFederalistPennsylvaniaFebruary 16, 1797 –
March 3, 1797
5th Congress
1797 – 1799
William BradfordFederalistRhode IslandJuly 6, 1797 –
October 1797
Jacob ReadFederalistSouth CarolinaNovember 22, 1797 –
December 12, 1797
Theodore SedgwickFederalistMassachusettsJune 27, 1798 –
December 5, 1798
John LauranceFederalistNew YorkDecember 6, 1798 –
December 27, 1798
James RossFederalistPennsylvaniaMarch 1, 1799 –
December 1, 1799
6th Congress
1799 – 1801
Samuel LivermoreFederalistNew HampshireDecember 2, 1799 –
December 29, 1799
Uriah TracyFederalistConnecticutMay 14, 1800 –
November 16, 1800
John E. HowardFederalistMarylandNovember 21, 1800 –
November 27, 1800
James HillhouseFederalistConnecticutFebruary 28, 1801 –
March 3, 1801
7th Congress
1801 – 1803
Abraham BaldwinDemocratic-
Republican
GeorgiaDecember 7, 1801 –
January 14, 1802
April 17, 1802 –
December 13, 1802
Stephen R. BradleyDemocratic-
Republican
VermontDecember 14, 1802 –
January 18, 1803
February 25, 1803
March 2, 1803 –
October 16, 1803
8th Congress
1803 – 1805
John BrownDemocratic-
Republican
KentuckyOctober 17, 1803 –
December 6, 1803
January 23, 1804 –
February 26, 1804
Jesse FranklinDemocratic-
Republican
North CarolinaMarch 10, 1804 –
November 4, 1804
Joseph AndersonDemocratic-
Republican
TennesseeJanuary 15, 1805 –
February 3, 1805
February 28, 1805
March 2, 1805 –
March 4, 1805
9thCongress
1805 – 1807
Samuel SmithDemocratic-
Republican
MarylandDecember 2, 1805 –
December 15, 1805
March 18, 1806 –
November 30, 1806
March 2, 1807 –
October 25, 1807
10th Congress
1807 – 1809
April 16, 1808 –
November 6, 1808
Stephen R. BradleyDemocratic-
Republican
VermontDecember 28, 1808 –
January 8, 1809
John MilledgeDemocratic-
Republican
GeorgiaJanuary 30, 1809 –
March 3, 1809
11th Congress
1809 – 1811
March 4, 1809 –
May 21, 1809
Andrew GreggDemocratic-
Republican
PennsylvaniaJune 26, 1809 –
December 18, 1809
John GaillardDemocratic-
Republican
South CarolinaFebruary 28, 1810 –
March 2, 1810
April 17, 1810 –
December 11, 1810
John PopeDemocratic-
Republican
KentuckyFebruary 23, 1811 –
November 3, 1811
12th Congress
1811 – 1813
William H. CrawfordDemocratic-
Republican
GeorgiaMarch 24, 1812 –
March 3, 1813
13th Congress
1813 – 1815
March 4, 1813 –
March 23, 1813
Joseph B. VarnumDemocratic-
Republican
MassachusettsDecember 6, 1813 –
February 3, 1814
John GaillardDemocratic-
Republican
South CarolinaNovember 25, 1814 –
December 3, 1815
14th Congress
1815 – 1817
December 4, 1815 –
March 3, 1817
15th Congress
1817 – 1819
March 4, 1817
March 6, 1817 –
February 18, 1818
March 31, 1818 –
January 5, 1819
James BarbourDemocratic-
Republican
VirginiaFebruary 15, 1819 –
December 5, 1819
16th Congress
1819 – 1821
December 6, 1819 –
December 26, 1819
John GaillardDemocratic-
Republican
South CarolinaJanuary 25, 1820 –
December 2, 1821
17th Congress
1821 – 1823
December 3, 1821 –
December 27, 1821
February 1, 1822 –
December 2, 1822
February 19, 1823 –
November 30, 1823
18th Congress
1823 – 1825
December 1, 1823 –
January 20, 1824
May 21, 1824 –
March 3, 1825
19th Congress
1825 – 1827
March 9, 1825 –
December 4, 1825
Nathaniel MaconDemocratic-
Republican
North CarolinaMay 20, 1826 –
December 3, 1826
January 2, 1827 –
February 13, 1827
March 2, 1827 –
December 2, 1827
20th Congress
1827 – 1829
Samuel SmithJacksonianMarylandMay 15, 1828 –
December 18, 1828
21st Congress
1829 – 1831
DemocraticMarylandMarch 13, 1829 –
December 10, 1829
May 20, 1830 –
December 31, 1830
March 1, 1831 –
December 4, 1831
22nd Congress
1831 – 1833
December 5, 1831 –
December 11, 1831
Littleton TazewellDemocraticVirginiaJuly 9, 1832 –
July 16, 1832
Hugh Lawson WhiteDemocraticTennesseeDecember 3, 1832 –
December 1, 1833
23rd Congress
1833 – 1835
December 2, 1833 –
December 15, 1833
George PoindexterWhigMississippiJune 28, 1834 –
November 30, 1834
John TylerWhigVirginiaMarch 3, 1835 –
December 6, 1835
24th Congress
1835 – 1837
William R. KingDemocraticAlabamaJuly 1, 1836 –
December 4, 1836
January 28, 1837 –
March 3, 1837
25th Congress
1837 – 1839
March 7, 1837 –
September 3, 1837
October 13, 1837 –
December 3, 1837
July 2, 1838 –
December 18, 1838
February 25, 1839 –
December 1, 1839
26th Congress
1839 – 1841
December 2, 1839 –
December 26, 1839
July 3, 1840 –
December 15, 1840
March 3, 1841
27th Congress
1841 – 1843
March 4, 1841
Samuel SouthardWhigNew JerseyMarch 11, 1841 –
May 31, 1842
Willie P. MangumWhigNorth CarolinaMay 31, 1842 –
December 3, 1843
28th Congress
1843 – 1845
December 4, 1843 –
March 3, 1845
29th Congress
1845 – 1847
March 4, 1845
Ambrose H. SevierDemocraticArkansasDecember 27, 1845
David R. AtchisonDemocraticMissouriAugust 8, 1846 –
December 6, 1846
January 11, 1847 –
January 13, 1847
March 3, 1847 –
December 5, 1847
30th Congress
1847 – 1849
February 2, 1848 –
February 8, 1848
June 1, 1848 –
June 14, 1848
June 26, 1848 –
June 29, 1848
July 29, 1848 –
December 4, 1848
December 26, 1848 –
January 1, 1849
March 2, 1849 –
March 4, 1849
31st Congress
1849 – 1851
March 5, 1849
March 16, 1849 –
December 2, 1849
William R. KingDemocraticAlabamaMay 6, 1850 –
May 19, 1850
July 11, 1850 –
March 3, 1851
32nd Congress
1851 – 1853
March 4, 1851 –
December 20, 1852
David R. AtchisonDemocraticMissouriDecember 20, 1852 –
March 3, 1853
33rd Congress
1853 – 1855
March 4, 1853 –
December 4, 1854
Lewis CassDemocraticMichiganDecember 4, 1854
Jesse D. BrightDemocraticIndianaDecember 5, 1854 –
June 9, 1856
34th Congress
1855 – 1857
Charles E. StuartDemocraticMichiganJune 9, 1856 –
June 10, 1856
Jesse D. BrightDemocraticIndianaJune 11, 1856 –
January 6, 1857
James M. MasonDemocraticVirginiaJanuary 6, 1857 –
March 3, 1857
35th Congress
1857 – 1859
March 4, 1857
Thomas J. RuskDemocraticTexasMarch 14, 1857 –
July 29, 1857
Benjamin FitzpatrickDemocraticAlabamaDecember 7, 1857 –
December 20, 1857
March 29, 1858 –
May 2, 1858
June 14, 1858 –
December 5, 1858
January 19, 1859
January 25, 1859 –
February 9, 1859
36th Congress
1859 – 1861
March 9, 1859 –
December 4, 1859
December 19, 1859 –
January 15, 1860
February 20, 1860 –
February 26, 1860
Jesse D. BrightDemocraticIndianaJune 12, 1860 –
June 13, 1860
Benjamin FitzpatrickDemocraticAlabamaJune 26, 1860 –
December 2, 1860
Solomon FootRepublicanVermontFebruary 16, 1861 –
February 17, 1861
37th Congress
1861 – 1863
March 23, 1861 –
July 3, 1861
July 18, 1861 –
December 1, 1861
January 15, 1862
March 31, 1862 –
May 21, 1862
June 19, 1862 –
December 12, 1862
February 18, 1863 –
March 3, 1863
38th Congress
1863 – 1865
March 4, 1863 –
December 6, 1863
December 18, 1863 –
December 20, 1863
February 23, 1864
March 11, 1864 –
March 13, 1864
April 11, 1864 –
April 13, 1864
Daniel ClarkRepublicanNew HampshireApril 26, 1864 –
January 4, 1865
February 9, 1865 –
February 19, 1865
39th Congress
1865 – 1867
Lafayette S. FosterRepublicanConnecticutMarch 7, 1865 –
March 2, 1867
Benjamin F. WadeRepublicanOhioMarch 2, 1867 –
March 3, 1867
40th Congress
1867 – 1869
March 4, 1867 –
March 3, 1869
41st Congress
1869 – 1871
Henry B. AnthonyRepublicanRhode IslandMarch 23, 1869 –
March 28, 1869
April 9, 1869 –
December 5, 1869
May 28, 1870 –
June 2, 1870
July 1, 1870 –
July 5, 1870
July 14, 1870 –
December 4, 1870
42nd Congress
1871 – 1873
March 10, 1871 –
March 12, 1871
April 17, 1871 –
May 9, 1871
May 23, 1871 –
December 3, 1871
December 21, 1871 –
January 7, 1872
February 23, 1872 –
February 25, 1872
June 8, 1872 –
December 1, 1872
December 4, 1872 –
December 8, 1872
December 13, 1872 –
December 15, 1872
December 20, 1872 –
January 5, 1873
January 24, 1873
43rd Congress
1873 – 1875
Matthew H. CarpenterRepublicanWisconsinMarch 12, 1873 –
March 13, 1873
March 26, 1873 –
November 30, 1873
December 11, 1873 –
December 6, 1874
December 23, 1874 –
January 4, 1875
Henry B. AnthonyRepublicanRhode IslandJanuary 25, 1875 –
January 31, 1875
February 15, 1875 –
February 17, 1875
44th Congress
1875 – 1877
Thomas W. FerryRepublicanMichiganMarch 9, 1875 –
March 10, 1875
March 19, 1875 –
March 4, 1877
45th Congress
1877 – 1879
March 5, 1877
February 26, 1878 –
March 3, 1878
April 17, 1878 –
December 1, 1878
March 3, 1879 –
March 17, 1879
46th Congress
1879 – 1881
Allen G. ThurmanDemocraticOhioApril 15, 1879 –
November 30, 1879
April 7, 1880 –
April 14, 1880
May 6, 1880 –
December 5, 1880
47th Congress
1881 – 1883
Thomas F. Bayard, Sr.DemocraticDelawareOctober 10, 1881 –
October 13, 1881
David DavisIndependentIllinoisOctober 13, 1881 –
March 3, 1883
George F. EdmundsRepublicanVermontMarch 3, 1883 –
December 2, 1883
48th Congress
1883 – 1885
December 3, 1883 –
March 3, 1885
49th Congress
1885 – 1887
John ShermanRepublicanOhioDecember 7, 1885 –
February 26, 1887
John James IngallsRepublicanKansasFebruary 26, 1887 –
December 4, 1887
50th Congress
1887 – 1889
December 5, 1887 –
March 3, 1889
51st Congress
1889 – 1891
March 17, 1889
April 2, 1889 –
December 1, 1889
December 5, 1889 –
December 10, 1889
February 28, 1890 –
March 18, 1890

1890 – 1911[edit]

Since 1890, the president pro tempore has held office continuously until the election of another president pro tempore.[8]

1911 – present[edit]

From August 14, 1911 to March 3, 1913, the office of President pro tempore of the United States Senate for the 62nd Congress rotated among five individuals. The sitting Senate President pro tempore William P. Frye resigned due to ill health on April 27, 1911. The Senate at that time was split between progressive Republicans, conservative Republicans, and Democrats. Each put forth a candidate, and the ballots were deadlocked until August when a compromise was reached. Democratic candidate Augustus Bacon served as pro tempore for one day on August 14, 1911, and thereafter he and four Republicans rotated holding the seat for the remainder of the 62nd Congress.

Since the 63rd Congress, presidents pro tempore have been chosen as they had been from 1890–1911:[8]

CongressPresident pro temporePartyStateYears
62ndWilliam P. FryeRepublicanMaineFebruary 7, 1896 –
April 27, 1911
Augustus O. BaconDemocraticGeorgiaAugust 14, 1911
Charles CurtisRepublicanKansasDecember 4, 1911 –
December 12, 1911
Augustus O. BaconDemocraticGeorgiaJanuary 15, 1912 –
17, 1912
Jacob H. GallingerRepublicanNew HampshireFebruary 12, 1912 –
February 14, 1912
Augustus O. BaconDemocraticGeorgiaMarch 11, 1912 –
March 12, 1912
Frank B. BrandegeeRepublicanConnecticutMarch 25, 1912 –
March 26, 1912
Augustus O. BaconDemocraticGeorgiaApril 8, 1912, and
April 26, 1912 –
April 27, 1912, and
May 7, 1912, and
May 10, 1912
Henry Cabot LodgeRepublicanMassachusettsMay 25, 1912
Augustus O. BaconDemocraticGeorgiaMay 30, 1912 –
June 3, 1912, and
June 13, 1912 –
July 5, 1912
Jacob H. GallingerRepublicanNew HampshireJuly 6, 1912 –
July 31, 1912
Augustus O. BaconDemocraticGeorgiaAugust 1, 1912 –
August 10, 1912
Jacob H. GallingerRepublicanNew HampshireAugust 12, 1912 –
August 26, 1912
Augustus O. BaconDemocraticGeorgiaAugust 27, 1912 –
December 15, 1912
Jacob H. GallingerRepublicanNew HampshireDecember 16, 1912, and
January 4, 1913
Augustus O. BaconDemocraticGeorgiaJanuary 5, 1913 –
January 18, 1913
Jacob H. GallingerRepublicanNew HampshireJanuary 19, 1913 –
February 1, 1913
Augustus O. BaconDemocraticGeorgiaFebruary 2, 1913 –
February 15, 1913
Jacob H. GallingerRepublicanNew HampshireFebruary 16, 1913 –
March 3, 1913
63rd
64th
James Paul ClarkeDemocraticArkansasMarch 13, 1913 –
October 1, 1916
64th
65th
Willard Saulsbury, Jr.DemocraticDelawareDecember 14, 1916 –
March 3, 1919
66th
67th
68th
Albert B. CumminsRepublicanIowaMay 19, 1919 –
March 6, 1925
69th
70th
71st
72nd
George H. MosesRepublicanNew HampshireMarch 6, 1925 –
March 3, 1933
73rd
74th
75th
76th
Key PittmanDemocraticNevadaMarch 9, 1933 –
November 10, 1940
76thWilliam H. KingDemocraticUtahNovember 19, 1940 –
January 3, 1941
77thPat HarrisonDemocraticMississippiJanuary 6 –
June 22, 1941
77th
78th
Carter GlassDemocraticVirginiaJuly 10, 1941 –
January 6, 1945
79thKenneth McKellarDemocraticTennesseeJanuary 6, 1945 –
January 4, 1947
80thArthur H. VandenbergRepublicanMichiganJanuary 4, 1947 –
January 3, 1949
81st
82nd
Kenneth McKellarDemocraticTennesseeJanuary 3, 1949 –
January 3, 1953
83rdStyles BridgesRepublicanNew HampshireJanuary 3, 1953 –
January 5, 1955
84thWalter F. GeorgeDemocraticGeorgiaJanuary 5, 1955 –
January 3, 1957
85th
86th
87th
88th
89th
90th
Carl HaydenDemocraticArizonaJanuary 3, 1957 –
January 3, 1969
91stRichard Russell, Jr.DemocraticGeorgiaJanuary 3, 1969 –
January 21, 1971
92ndAllen J. EllenderDemocraticLouisianaJanuary 22, 1971 –
July 27, 1972
92nd
93rd
94th
95th
James EastlandDemocraticMississippiJuly 28, 1972 –
December 27, 1978
96thWarren MagnusonDemocraticWashingtonJanuary 15, 1979 –
December 3, 1980
Milton YoungRepublicanNorth DakotaDecember 5, 1980
Warren MagnusonDemocraticWashingtonDecember 5, 1980 –
January 3, 1981
97th
98th
99th
Strom ThurmondRepublicanSouth CarolinaJanuary 5, 1981 –
January 6, 1987
100thJohn C. StennisDemocraticMississippiJanuary 6, 1987 –
January 3, 1989
101st
102nd
103rd
Robert ByrdDemocraticWest VirginiaJanuary 3, 1989 –
January 4, 1995
104th
105th
106th
Strom ThurmondRepublicanSouth CarolinaJanuary 4, 1995 –
January 3, 2001
107thRobert ByrdDemocraticWest VirginiaJanuary 3, 2001 –
January 20, 2001
Strom ThurmondRepublicanSouth CarolinaJanuary 20, 2001 –
June 6, 2001
Robert ByrdDemocraticWest VirginiaJune 6, 2001 –
January 3, 2003
108th
109th
Ted StevensRepublicanAlaskaJanuary 3, 2003 –
January 4, 2007
110th
111th
Robert ByrdDemocraticWest VirginiaJanuary 4, 2007 –
June 28, 2010
111th
112th
Daniel InouyeDemocraticHawaiiJune 28, 2010 –
December 17, 2012
112th
113th
Patrick LeahyDemocraticVermontDecember 17, 2012 –
Present

Presidents pro tempore per state[edit]

No President pro tempore has come from the states of California, Colorado, Florida, Idaho, Minnesota, Montana, New Mexico, Oklahoma, Oregon, South Dakota, or Wyoming.

NumberStatePresidents pro tem
7VirginiaRichard Henry Lee
Henry Tazewell
James Barbour
Littleton Tazewell
John Tyler
James M. Mason
Carter Glass
6GeorgiaAbraham Baldwin
John Milledge
William H. Crawford
Augustus O. Bacon
Walter F. George
Richard Russell, Jr.
New HampshireJohn Langdon
Samuel Livermore
Daniel Clark
Jacob H. Gallinger
George H. Moses
Styles Bridges
4ConnecticutUriah Tracy
James Hillhouse
Lafayette S. Foster
Frank B. Brandegee
MichiganLewis Cass
Charles E. Stuart
Thomas W. Ferry
Arthur H. Vandenberg
MississippiGeorge Poindexter
Pat Harrison
James Eastland
John C. Stennis
North CarolinaJesse Franklin
Nathaniel Macon
Willie Person Mangum
Matt Whitaker Ransom
South CarolinaRalph Izard
Jacob Read
John Gaillard
Strom Thurmond
TennesseeJoseph Anderson
Hugh Lawson White
Isham G. Harris
Kenneth McKellar
VermontStephen R. Bradley
George F. Edmunds
Solomon Foot
Patrick Leahy
3MassachusettsTheodore Sedgwick
Joseph B. Varnum
Henry Cabot Lodge
OhioBenjamin Wade
Allen G. Thurman
John Sherman
PennsylvaniaWilliam Bingham
James Ross
Andrew Gregg
2AlabamaWilliam R. King
Benjamin Fitzpatrick
ArkansasAmbrose H. Sevier
James Paul Clarke
DelawareThomas F. Bayard
Willard Saulsbury, Jr.
KansasJohn James Ingalls
Charles Curtis
KentuckyJohn Brown
John Pope
MarylandJohn E. Howard
Samuel Smith
Rhode IslandWilliam Bradford
Henry B. Anthony
1AlaskaTed Stevens
ArizonaCarl Hayden
HawaiiDaniel Inouye
IllinoisDavid Davis
IndianaJesse D. Bright
IowaAlbert B. Cummins
LouisianaAllen J. Ellender
MaineWilliam P. Frye
MissouriDavid Rice Atchison
NebraskaCharles F. Manderson
NevadaKey Pittman
New JerseySamuel Southard
New YorkJohn Laurance
North DakotaMilton Young
TexasThomas Jefferson Rusk
UtahWilliam H. King
WashingtonWarren Magnuson
West VirginiaRobert Byrd
WisconsinMatthew H. Carpenter

Presidents pro tempore emeritus[edit]

CongressPresident pro tempore emeritusPartyStateYears
107thJ. Strom ThurmondRepublicanSouth CarolinaJune 6, 2001 – January 3, 2003
108th
109th
Robert C. ByrdDemocraticWest VirginiaJanuary 4, 2003 – January 3, 2007
110thTheodore F. StevensRepublicanAlaskaJanuary 4, 2007 – January 3, 2009

Note[edit]

Carter Glass (1941–1945) was the last president pro tempore not to be the senior member of the majority party, aside from the single day accorded Milton Young (1980), who was the retiring senior member of the party who had been elected to a majority in the incoming congress.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Pro tempore Legal Definition". Lawyers.com. 
  2. ^ http://www.senate.gov/CRSReports/crs-publish.cfm?pid=%270E%2C%2APL%3F%3D%22P%20%20%0A
  3. ^ a b "Hillary takes Senate gavel–for an hour". CNN. January 24, 2001. 
  4. ^ a b Mount, Steve. "Constitutional Topic: Presidential Line of Succession". USConstitution.net. Steve Mount. Retrieved October 19, 2009. 
  5. ^ http://www.kansascity.com/2012/12/17/3970665/vermonts-leahy-now-3rd-in-presidential.html
  6. ^ Kathy Gill. "US Senate Organization". About.com. The New York Times Company. Retrieved October 19, 2009. 
  7. ^ a b c d e f g "Senate President Pro Tempore". congresslink.org. Dirksen Congressional Center. Retrieved October 30, 2009. 
  8. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Sachs, Richard C. (January 22, 2003). The President Pro Tempore of the Senate: History and Authority of the Office (PDF). Congressional Research Service. Retrieved December 9, 2008. 
  9. ^ a b c Richard E. Berg-Andersson (June 7, 2001). "A Brief History of Congressional Leadership". The Green Papers. Retrieved November 17, 2009. 
  10. ^ Smith, Gene (1977). High Crimes and Misdemeanors: The Impeachment and Trial of Andrew Johnson. William Morrow & Company. ISBN 0-688-03072-6. 
  11. ^ Gold, Martin B.; Gupta, Dimple. "The Constitutional Option to Change Senate Rules and Procedures: A Majoritarian Means to Over Come the Filibuster*". Harvard Journal of Law & Public Policy 28 (1): 211. 
  12. ^ "Hubert H. Humphrey". virtualology.com. Evisum Inc. 2000. Retrieved December 24, 2009. 
  13. ^ S.Res. 103, adopted, June 6, 2001. “Thanking and Electing Strom Thurmond President pro tempore emeritus.”
  14. ^ 2 U.S.C. § 32b

External links[edit]

United States presidential line of succession
Preceded by
Speaker of the House of Representatives
John Boehner
3rd in lineSucceeded by
Secretary of State
John Kerry