President of Haiti

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President of the
Republic of Haiti
Coat of arms of Haiti.svg
Coat of Arms of Haiti
Michel Martelly on April 20, 2011.jpg
Incumbent
Michel Martelly

since May 14, 2011
ResidenceNational Palace
Inaugural holderAlexandre Pétion
FormationOctober 17, 1806 (1806-10-17)
 
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President of the
Republic of Haiti
Coat of arms of Haiti.svg
Coat of Arms of Haiti
Michel Martelly on April 20, 2011.jpg
Incumbent
Michel Martelly

since May 14, 2011
ResidenceNational Palace
Inaugural holderAlexandre Pétion
FormationOctober 17, 1806 (1806-10-17)
Coat of arms of Haiti.svg
This article is part of a series on the
politics and government of
Haiti
Constitution
Political parties

The President of the Republic of Haiti is the head of state of Haiti. Executive power in Haiti is divided between the president and the government headed by the Prime Minister of Haiti.[A133] The current President is Michel Martelly, who took office on May 14, 2011.[1]

Term and election[edit]

The qualifications for the presidency are specified by Chapter III Section A (Articles 134 and 135) of the 1987 Constitution of Haiti.

The President is elected to a five-year term by popular vote. The President is not to be elected twice in a row: he may serve a second term only after an interval of five years, and must not run for a third term.[A134]

To be elected President, a candidate must:[A135]

  1. be a native-born Haitian and never renounced that nationality;
  2. have reached the age of 35 by election day;
  3. enjoy civil and political rights and not have been sentenced to death, personal restraint, or penal servitude or the loss of civil rights for a crime of ordinary law;[unreliable source?]
  4. be the owner of a real property and have one's habitual residence in the country;
  5. reside in the country at least 5 years before election day;
  6. have been discharged of responsibilities if previously handling public funds.

Elections are held on the last Sunday in November in the fifth year of the current president's term. If no candidate receives a majority then a runoff election is held between those two candidates, who have not withdrawn before the runoff, who have the highest number of votes.[A134]

Each presidential term in office begins and ends on the first February 7 after presidential elections are held.[A134]

Duties and powers[edit]

The qualifications for the presidency are specified by Articles 136 to 147, part of Chapter III Section B of the 1987 Constitution of Haiti. The President has no powers except those accorded to him in the Constitution.[A150]

The Constitution mandates that the President see to: the respect for and enforcement of the Constitution and the stability of the institutions; regular operations of the public authorities; the continuity of the State;[A136] and the nation's independence and the integrity of its territory.[A138]

When there is a majority in Parliament, the President must choose a Prime Minister from the majority party; otherwise, he chooses one after consultation with the two houses of Parliament. In either case, the choice must then be ratified by Parliament. The President terminates the duties of the Prime Minister when the Government resigns.[A137]

The President declares war and negotiates and signs peace treaties with the approval of the National Assembly,[A140] and signs all international treaties, conventions and agreements, submitting them to the National Assembly for ratification.[A139] The President accredits ambassadors and special envoys to foreign powers; receives letters of accreditation from ambassadors of foreign powers; and issue exequaturs to recognize consuls.[A139-1]

Residence[edit]

The National Palace in the capital Port-au-Prince serves as the official residence of the President of Haiti.[A153] It was severely damaged in the 2010 Haiti earthquake.

List of presidents[edit]

Latest election[edit]

e • d Summary of the 28 November 2010 and 20 March 2011 Haitian presidential election results
CandidatesNominating partiesFirst roundSecond round
Votes%Votes%
Michel MartellyFarmers' Response234,61721.84716,98667.57
Mirlande ManigatRally of Progressive National Democrats336,87831.37336,74731.74
Jude CélestinUnity241,46222.48 
Jean-Henry CéantRenmen Ayiti87,8348.18
Jacques-Édouard AlexisMobilization for the Progress of Haiti32,9323.07
Charles Henri BakerRespect25,5122.38
Jean Chavannes JeuneChristian Citizens' Alliance for the Reconstruction of Haiti19,3481.80
Yves CristalinLavni Organization17,1331.60
Leslie VoltaireAnsanm Nou Fò16,1991.51
Anne Marie Josette Bijouindependent10,7821.00
Génard JosephSolidarity9,1640.85
Wilson JeudyForce 20106,0760.57
Yvon NeptuneAyisyen Pou Ayiti4,2170.39
Jean Hector AnacacisDemocratic Movement of the Haitian Youth4,1650.39
Léon JeuneRally for Economic Liberation3,7380.35
Axan Delson AbellardNational Rally for the Development of Haiti3,1100.29
Garaudy LaguerreWozo Movement2,8020.26
Gérard Marie Necker BlotPlatfom 16 Desanm2,6210.24
Eric Smarki CharlesParty for Haitian National Evolution2,5970.24
no candidate12,8691.207,3560.69
Total votes (turnout: 22.79%/22.52%)1,074,056100.001,061,089100.00
Registered voters4,712,693 
Source: Adam Carr's Election Archive, Provisional Electoral Council, Provisional Electoral Council

See also[edit]

References[edit]

^ [A___] citations are Article numbers of the 1987 Constitution of the Republic of Haiti. A government-issued but unofficial (and error-prone) English translation is available at http://www.unhcr.org/refworld/docid/3ae6b542c.html and http://pdba.georgetown.edu/Constitutions/Haiti/haiti1987.html and the French original is available at http://pdba.georgetown.edu/Constitutions/Haiti/haiti1987fr.html

  1. ^ "Singer "Sweet Micky" takes oath as Haiti's president". Reuters. May 14, 2011. Retrieved May 14, 2011.