President of Chile

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President of
the Republic of Chile
Flag of the President of Chile.svg
Michelle Bachelet foto campaña (Recortada).jpg
Incumbent
Michelle Bachelet

since 11 March 2014
StyleHer Excellency
ResidenceLa Moneda Palace
Term lengthFour years, not eligible for re-election immediately
Inaugural holderManuel Blanco Encalada
Formation9 July 1826
WebsiteGovernment of Chile
 
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President of
the Republic of Chile
Flag of the President of Chile.svg
Michelle Bachelet foto campaña (Recortada).jpg
Incumbent
Michelle Bachelet

since 11 March 2014
StyleHer Excellency
ResidenceLa Moneda Palace
Term lengthFour years, not eligible for re-election immediately
Inaugural holderManuel Blanco Encalada
Formation9 July 1826
WebsiteGovernment of Chile

The President of the Republic of Chile (Spanish: Presidente de la República de Chile) is the head of state and the head of government of the Republic of Chile. The President is responsible for both government and state administration.[1] Although its role and significance has changed over the history of Chile, as well as its position and relations with other actors in the national political organization, it is one of the most prominent political figures. It is also considered as one of the institutions that make up the "Historic Constitution of Chile", and is essential to the country's political stability.[2]

Under the current Constitution (adopted in the 1980), the President is elected to serve for a period of four years, with immediate re-election being prohibited. The shorter period (previously the term was six years) allows for parliamentary and presidential elections to be synchronized. The official seat of the President of Chile is the La Moneda Palace in the capital Santiago.

List of heads of state of Chile (1810–present)[edit]

Presidents of National Junta of Government (1810-1814)[edit]

PortraitName
(Birth–Death)
Term of officeNotesRefs
Flag of Chile (1812-1814).svgOld Fatherland (1810–1814) • Coat of arms of Chile (1812-1814).svg
Mateo de Toro y Zambrano.jpgMateo de Toro Zambrano
(1727–1811)
18 September 1810 – 26 February 1811
First President of First Government Junta. Died in office.
Juan Martínez de Rozas.JPGJuan Martínez de Rozas
(1759–1813)
26 February 1811 – 2 April 1811
Acting president. Supporter of the patriotism.
Fernando Marquez de la Plata.jpgFernando Márquez de la Plata
(1740–1818)
2 April 1811 – 4 July 1811
Appointed successor of Rozas. Supporter of the royalism.
JuanAOvalleSilva.JPGJuan Antonio Ovalle
(178?–183?)
4 July 1811 – 20 July 1811
President of First National Congress.
MartinCalvoEncalada.jpgMartín Calvo Encalada
(1756–1828)
20 July 1811 – 4 September 1811
President of Second Government Junta.
Juan Enrique Rosales.jpgJuan Enrique Rosales
(177?–183?)
4 September 1811 – 16 November 1811
Deposed by Carrera's coup d'état.
Pintura José Miguel Carrera.jpgJosé Miguel Carrera
(1785–1821)
16 November 1811 – 23 August 1813
Strong patriot, Carrera was one of better Independence's supporters. Carrera was de jure president until 23 August 1813, but de facto he continued to served in office until the 2 October 1814.
JMinfante.jpgJosé Miguel Infante
(1778–1844)
23 August 1813 – 11 January 1814
Infante served as President as patriot. However, he was the mind behind the Federalists.
AgustinEyzaguirre.jpgAgustín Eyzaguirre
(1768–1837)
11 January 1814 – 7 March 1814
Last President of National Government Junta.

Supreme Directors of Chile (1814-1826)[edit]

PortraitName
(Birth–Death)
Term of officeNotesRefs
Flag of Chile (1812-1814).svgOld Fatherland (1810–1814) • Coat of arms of Chile (1812-1814).svg
Antonio de Irisarri.jpgAntonio José de Irisarri
(1786–1868)
7 March 1814 – 14 March 1814
Interim
Fco. de la Lastra.JPGFrancisco de la Lastra
(1777–1852)
14 March 1814 – 23 July 1814
During his briefly government, la Lastra signed the Treaty of Lircay with the Spain.
Pintura José Miguel Carrera.jpgJosé Miguel Carrera
(1785–1821)
23 July 1814 – 2 October 1814
Carrera return to be President for some month, befor the Spanish Reconquest.
Flag of Spain (1785-1873 and 1875-1931).svgSpanish Reconquest (1814–1817) • Spanish empire coat of arms.PNG
MarianoOsorio.JPGMariano Osorio
(1777–1819)
2 October 1814 – 26 December 1815
First Governor during the Spanish Reconquest.
CasimiroMarcoDelPont.JPGFrancisco Marcó del Pont
(1770–1819)
26 December 1815 – 12 February 1817
Last Governor of Spanish Chile. During his office, the Spaniards had won the Second Battle of Cancha Rayada, but had lost the battles of Chacabuco and Maipú.
Flag of Chile (1817-1818).svgNew Fatherland (1817-1823) • Coat of arms of Chile (1818).svg
FRuizTagle.jpgFrancisco Ruiz-Tagle
(1790–1860)
12 February 1817 – 16 February 1817
Interim
Ohiggins.jpgBernardo O'Higgins
(1778–1842)
16 February 1817 – 28 January 1823
During his government, O'Higgins was responsible of the ultimate Spaniards retire from the Chile. O'Higgins' proposed radical and liberal reforms, such as the establishment of democracy and abolition of titles of nobility, were resisted by the powerful large landowners.
Flag of Chile.svgRepublic of Chile (1823–present) • Coat of arms of Chile.svg
AgustinEyzaguirre.jpgAgustín Eyzaguirre
(1768–1837)
28 January 1823 – 4 April 1823
Eyzaguirre was the last President of the Government Junta. During his government, the Chile took over the Chiloé Archipelago from Spain.
Ramón Freire.jpegRamón Freire
(1787–1851)
4 April 1823 – 9 July 1826
Last Supreme Director of Chile. Freire introduct a Federal system in Chile.

Presidents of Chile (1826-present)[edit]

#PortraitName
(Birth–Death)
Term of office

Notes
Political Party
Coalition
1Manuel Blanco Encalada (Nataniel Hughes, 1853).jpgManuel Blanco Encalada
(1790–1876)
9 July 18269 September 1826Independent
First President of Chile.
(2)AgustinEyzaguirre.jpgAgustín Eyzaguirre
(1768–1837)
9 September 182625 January 1827Independent
During his government, Eyzaguirre affronted the financial difficulties, army unpayment, the Chillán's incidents, the ribellion of Chiloé and to resume the payment of the foreign debt, when it was already bankrupt itself. When General Campino failed his coup, Eyzaguirre presented his dimission to the Congress.
(-)Ramón Freire.jpegRamón Freire
(1787–1851)
25 January 18278 May 1827Pipiolos
Interim
3FranciscoAntonioPinto.jpgFrancisco Antonio Pinto
(1785–1858)
8 May 182716 July 1829Pipiolos
Vice Presiden of Freire, Pinto began "Accidental president" as successor of Freire. He resigned the dimission with the civil war's start.
(-)Fcoramonvicuna.jpgFrancisco Ramón Vicuña
(1775–1849)
16 July 182919 October 1829Pipiolos
Interim
(3)FranciscoAntonioPinto.jpgFrancisco Antonio Pinto
(1785–1858)
19 October 18292 November 1829Pipiolos
Interim
(-)Fcoramonvicuna.jpgFrancisco Ramón Vicuña
(1775–1849)
2 November 18297 November 1829Pipiolos
Interim
(-)Ramón Freire.jpegRamón Freire
(1787–1851)
7 November 18298 November 1829Pipiolos
Interim
(-)Fcoramonvicuna.jpgFrancisco Ramón Vicuña
(1775–1849)
8 November 18297 December 1829Pipiolos
Interim
(-)JTOvalle.jpgJosé Tomás Ovalle
(1787–1831)
24 December 182918 February 1830Pelucones
Interim
(-)FRuizTagle.jpgFrancisco Ruiz-Tagle
(1790–1860)
18 February 18301 April 1830Pelucones
Interim
(-)JTOvalle.jpgJosé Tomás Ovalle
(1787–1831)
1 April 183021 March 1831Pelucones
Interim. Died in office.
(-)FernandoErrazurizAldunate.pngFernando Errázuriz
(1777–1841)
21 March 183118 September 1831Pelucones
Interim
4JJPrieto.JPGJosé Joaquín Prieto
(1786–1854)
18 September 183118 September 1841Pelucones
First President of the "Conservative Republic". During his mandate, Prieto has intensified law and order policies after a decade of anarchy, struggled the outlaws, introduced the Constitution and won the battle of Yungay against the Peru-Bolivian Confederation.
5ManuelBulnes.JPGManuel Bulnes
(1799–1866)
18 September 184118 September 1851Conservative Party
During his government, Bulnes promoted a cultural expansion, with a lot of intellectuals posted to Chile. He's founded the National Institute, the University of Chile and many more junior schools. The Bulnes government issued also an amnesty.
6Manuel Montt presidente-2.jpgManuel Montt
(1809–1890)
18 September 185118 September 1861National Party
After his election, Montt was quickly subdued the liberal revolution. During his authoritarian regime, Montt supported the conservative élite but also the poor strate, and work for commercial relations with the near country, as Argentina. Montt also support the Catholic Church State's rights in Chile and the German immigration in Southern Chile.
7JJPEREZ.pngJosé Joaquín Pérez
(1801–1889)
18 September 186118 September 1871National PartyFusion
(PC-PL-PN)
When Pérez was elected, the Church of the Company Fire kill around 3,000 people in 1963. He was the founder of firefighters of Santiago. His mandate was characterized by various conflict and incidents, as Chincha Islands War against the Spanish Empire and the occupation of Araucanía.
8Federico Errázuriz Zañartu.jpgFederico Errázuriz Zañartu
(1825–1877)
18 September 187118 September 1876Liberal PartyFusion
(PC-PL-PN)
Zañartu government, despite its predecessor, has promoted the school secularization and the freedom of worship, abolished ecclesiastical privileges, and built several railways in all country. Zañartu financied the Blanco Encalada and improved the military's conditions.
9Anibal Pinto 3.jpgAníbal Pinto
(1825–1884)
18 September 187618 September 1881Liberal PartyLiberal Alliance
(PL-PR)
Pinto government affronted many difficulties, as 1877 eartquake, floods and financial crisis. Pinto firmed the 1881 Boundary Treaty with Argentina and kept the Chile neutral during the War of the Pacific.
10Domingo Santa María.jpegDomingo Santa María
(1825–1889)
18 September 188118 September 1886Liberal PartyLiberal Alliance
(PL-PR)
The María government began a participation in the War of the Pacific, and took over Lima in 1883, forced Peru to capitulated. María also fight against the Catholic Curch, with issues a civic marriages, public cemeteries. María broke up the occupation of Araucanía, interrupt the diplomatic rapports with Rome, centralized the railways, inaugurated the first telephonic line between Santiago and Concepcion, and introduced the first public electric lighting.
11JoseManuelBalmaceda.JPGJosé Manuel Balmaceda
(1840–1891)
18 September 188618 September 1891Liberal PartyLiberal Alliance
(PL-PR)
Balmacede, during his mandate, fight against the Congress, caused the 1891 Civil War.
(-)General Baquedano.jpgManuel Baquedano
(1823–1897)
18 September 189131 August 1891Military
Baquedano government broke up the 1891 Civil War.
12Jorge Montt Alvarez(3).jpgJorge Montt
(1845–1922)
31 August 189118 September 1896MilitaryCoalición
(PC-PL-PLD)
Montt has introtuced very important laws, as more federal devolution to municipalities and free market policies. He has reformed and improved the armed forces and introduced the gold standard and legal tender in Chile.
13Federico Errázuriz Echaurren.jpgFederico Errázuriz Echaurren
(1850–1901)
18 September 189612 July 1901Liberal PartyCoalición
(PC-PL-PLD)
Errázuriz government was characterized by a marked advancement in public education. Errázuriz Echaurren contracted the new sewerage system for Santiago, and the water reservoir of Peñuelas, which still provides the water for Valparaíso. He's affronted a possible war against Argentina, warded off with a pacification in Punta Arenas in 1899. Died in office.
(-)Anibal Zanartu.jpgAníbal Zañartu
(1847–1902)
12 July 190118 September 1901Liberal PartyCoalición
(PC-PL-PLD)
Interim
14German Riesco.jpgGermán Riesco
(1854–1916)
18 September 190118 September 1906Liberal PartyLiberal Alliance
(PL-PR-PN-PLD-PLI)
Riesco government affronted some political problems with the rival Coalición, but also introduced various reforms. Riesco main reforms included a new Code of Civil Procedure in 1902 which is still in force today. He firmed the Pacts of May between Chile and Argentina, the peace treaty with Bolivia and the current border of Chile, with Andes Boundary Case of 1902.
15Retrato de Pedro Montt.JPGPedro Montt
(1849–1910)
18 September 190616 August 1910National PartyLiberal Alliance
(PL-PR-PN-PLD-PLI)
Montt government's first action was to call out the army to suppress large-scale strikes in 1907, which resulted in the Santa María School massacre. His administration supported the construction of a railway that ran the length of the country and stimulated the production of nitrates and copper. It did little, however, to improve the living conditions of the people. In 1909, Montt he authorized a ten year grant from the Chilean government for Claudio Arrau to study in Europe. Died in office.
(-)Elías Fernandez Albano cropped.jpgElías Fernández
(1845–1910)
16 August 19106 September 1910National PartyLiberal Alliance
(PL-PR-PN-PLD-PLI)
Interim. Died in office.
(-)Pdte.Emiliano Figueroa.JPGEmiliano Figueroa Larraín
(1866–1925)
6 September 191023 December 1910Liberal Democratic PartyLiberal Alliance
(PL-PR-PN-PLD-PLI)
Interim.
16Barros Luco2.jpgRamón Barros Luco
(1835–1919)
23 December 191023 December 1915Liberal PartyLiberal Alliance
(PL-PR-PN-PLD-PLI)
Barros Luco's government applied this maxim to his administration, which would be consumed by the machinations of the parliament at large, the propensity of which was to delay or hinder the government under any pretense, including the most trivial claim of a minor deputy. Meanwhile, the corruption amongst the political parties had reached alarming levels, in answer to which laws against fraud were approved in 1914 and 1915, in addition to a reform of the municipal system, which managed to eliminate the falsification of results, allowing for greater transparency. During his term of office he initiated the construction of the port of San Antonio, in addition to the construction of roads, bridges, drinking water and sewers.
17Jlsanfuentes.PNGJuan Luis Sanfuentes
(1858–1930)
23 December 191523 December 1920Liberal Democratic PartyCoalición
(PC-PLD)
Elected after almost 15 years of liberal presidents, Sanfuentes government remained neutral during the First World War. While the conflict lasted, domestic industry had one of its biggest booms, with the national industry growing 53% in those four years. But the end of the war led to a crisis of the nitrate industry, which resulted in a wave of social unrest. Sanfuentes' hard line against striking coal miners and trade unionists in the final year of his presidency was a key factor in the rise of his liberal reformer successor.
18Arturo Alessandri Palma.jpgArturo Alessandri Palma
(1868-1950)
23 December 192011 September 1924Liberal PartyLiberal Alliance
(PL-PR-PN-PLD-PLI)
Alessandri government affronted the Saber noise and the Congress's interferences with failure. He was deposed by a military coup in 1924.
(-)Luis Altamirano.jpgLuis Altamirano
(1867–1938)
11 September 192423 January 1925Military
Interim
(-)Pedro Pablo Dartnell 2.jpgPedro Pablo Dartnell
(1870–1944)
23 January 192527 January 1925Military
Interim
(-)Emilio Bello.jpgEmilio Bello
(1868–1941)
27 January 192512 March 1925Independent
Interim
(-)Arturo Alessandri Palma.jpgArturo Alessandri Palma
(1868–1950)
12 March 19251 October 1925Liberal Party
Interim
(-)Luis Barros Borgoño Vicepresidente.jpgLuis Barros Borgoño
(1858-1943)
1 October 192523 December 1925Liberal Party
Interim
19Pdte.Emiliano Figueroa.JPGEmiliano Figueroa Larraín
(1866–1931)
23 December 192510 May 1927Liberal Democratic Party
Figueroa Larraín government was a short-lived government, deposed by a coup led by Carlos Ibáñez del Campo.
20Carlos Ibanez.jpgCarlos Ibáñez del Campo
(1877–1960)
10 May 192726 July 1931Military
Took over the President position, Ibáñez del Campo used the rule by decree for establish a dictatorship. His popularity, however, was helped by massive loans by American banks, which helped to promote a high rate of growth in the country. He sigled the Treaty of Lima in 1929 and unified the various police forces under the Carabiniers of Chile. He's popularity is falled after the 1929 Wall Street Crash. His rivals, as Alessandri Palma, removed him from the office and exiled Ibáñez del Campo out of Chile for some years.
(-)Pedro Opazo.jpgPedro Opazo Letelier
(1876–1957)
26 July 193127 July 1931Independent
Interim
(-)JEMontero.jpgJuan Esteban Montero
(1879-1948)
27 July 19313 September 1931Radical Party
Interim
(-)Manuel Trucco.jpgManuel Trucco Franzani
(1875–1954)
3 September 193115 November 1931Radical Party
Interim
21JEMontero.jpgJuan Esteban Montero
(1879-1948)
15 November 19314 June 1932Radical Party
Montero government called for the implementation of an austerity program that involved the reduction of public expenditures and public salaries, a downsizing of the public administration and an increase of the foreign debt. Notwithstanding these harsh measures, the depreciation of the currency continued, and inflation soared while the Central Bank reserves were at an all time low. Montero was deposed by a coup orchestrated by Marmaduke Grove.
(-)Arturo Puga.jpgArturo Puga Osorio
(1879-1970)
4 June 193216 June 1932Military
Interim
(-)CDavila.jpgCarlos Dávila
(1887-1955)
16 June 193213 September 1932Military
Interim
(-)Bartolomé Blanche.jpegBartolomé Blanche
(1879-1970)
13 September 19322 October 1932Military
Interim
(-)Coat of arms of Chile.svgAbraham Oyanedel Urrutia
(1974-1954)
2 October 193224 December 1932Military
Interim
22Alessandri Ulk (1932).jpgArturo Alessandri Palma
(1868-1950)
24 December 193224 December 1938Liberal Party
The Second Alessandri government had a new constitution drafted. Furthermore, Alessandri created a Central Bank, initiating the first rupture with classical liberalism's laissez faire policies. He balanced the fiscal deficit with new taxes and resumed payment of the external debt, with losses for holders of Chilean bonds. When they reached a surplus, they focused on public works. The construction of the National Stadium in Santiago, inaugurated in December 1938, stands out. His role in the 1938 Seguro Obrero massacre has always been subject of controversy.
23Pedro Aguirre Cerda.jpgPedro Aguirre Cerda
(1879-1941)
24 December 193825 November 1941Radical PartyPopular Front
(PR-PS-PCCh-PD)
During his mandate, Cerda has created the CORFO, to encourage with subsidies and direct investments an ambitious program of import substitution industrialization. During his first year he had to face the military opposition to his plans, that boiled over with the so-called Ariostazo. He also promoted and campaigned for a Nobel prize for Gabriela Mistral, which only came to fruition under his successor, Juan Antonio Ríos. Died in office.
(-)Jerónimo Méndez Arancibia.jpgJerónimo Méndez Arancibia
(1887-1959)
25 November 19412 April 1942Radical PartyPopular Front
(PR-PS-PCCh-PD)
Interim
24Retrato del Presidente Juan Antonio Ríos.jpgJuan Antonio Ríos
(1888-1946)
2 April 194227 June 1946Radical PartyDemocratic Alliance
(PR-PS-PCCh-PD-PST)
Ríos' administration, continuing the Aguirre Cerda policies, focused on the development of the steel, power and oil industries. To that effect, funds were channeled via the CORFO, created under the previous administration. Ríos has created the Endesa (National Power Company), ENAP (National Oil Company) and the Cap (Pacific Steel Company). Up to 1942, Chile and Argentina had declined to sever relations with the Axis powers and Francoist Spain, and the Chilean election was viewed by many as critical during Second World War. However, he made Chile eligible for the Lend-Lease program, and obtained the necessary loans to help along the economic recovery. Died in office.
(-)Alfredo Duhalde Vásquez.jpgAlfredo Duhalde Vásquez
(1898-1985)
27 June 19463August 1946Radical PartyDemocratic Alliance
(PR-PS-PCCh-PD-PST)
Interim
(-)Coat of arms of Chile.svgVicente Merino Bielich
(1889-1977)
3 August 194613 August 1946IndependentDemocratic Alliance
(PR-PS-PCCh-PD-PST)
Interim
25Gabriel Gonzalez Videla.jpgGabriel González Videla
(1898-1980)
3 November 19463 November 1952Radical PartyDemocratic Alliance
(PR-PS-PCCh-PD-PST)
Videla's administration launched the Plan Serena, a urbanistic projet in La Serena. The Videla cabinet, between 1946 and 1948, included Communist ministers; but the international Cold War and Chile’s internal troubles soon pushed González Videla toward the right-wing, and in 1948 he has banned the Communist Party with the Law of Permanent Defense of Democracy and was aligned with the AFL–CIO having grown closer to United States labor interests during World War II. The presidency of González Videla saw the strong political recovery of the right. Between 1940 and 1952 Chile's population rose from 5,000,000 to 6,350,000, with the strongest increase in urban areas, which accounted for 52 percent of the total population in 1940 and 60 percent in 1952. Production rose during this period by a rate very close to the rise in population. Economic links with the United States, which had grown after the economic crisis of the 1930s, were strengthened after World War II; US investments in Chile increased from $414,000,000 in 1945 to $540,000,000 in 1950, largely in copper production. By 1952 the United States had loaned $342,000,000 to the Chilean government.
26Carlos Ibanez.jpgCarlos Ibáñez del Campo
(1877-1960)
3 November 19523 November 1958IndependentFENAFUI
(PAL-PSP-PNC-MNI-ARC-PF)
As President, Ibáñez promised to "sweep" out political corruption and bad government with his "broom" and was nicknamed the "General of Hope". By that time he was already old and ailing, and he left government mostly to his cabinet. He had no plan to control inflation - one of the most pressing economic problems at the time in Chile - and as a result it skyrocketed to 71% in 1954 and 83% in 1955. Helped by the Klein-Sacks mission, Ibáñez managed to reduce it to 33% when he left the presidency. During his term, public transport costs rose by 50% and economic growth fell to 2.5%. He has also abolished the Law of Permanent Defense of Democracy, that banned the Communist Party.
27Retrato de Jorge Alessandri con banda presidencial.JPGJorge Alessandri Rodríguez
(1896-1986)
3 November 19583 November 1964IndependentDemocratic Front of Chile
(PCU-PL-PR)
Alessandri initially focused, unsurprisingly, on economic issues, particularly on controlling inflation and balancing the state budget, and he liberalised Chile's tariff régime. However, he once again froze public sector pay, unleashing widespread industrial unrest. Alessandri government affronted the 1960 earthquake, causing more than USD 400 million in damage. Reconstruction and relief soon drowned out other issues. Alessandri sticked also to the Alliance for Progress. Together, these unleashed a wave of progressive tax and agricultural reforms.
28Fotografia Eduardo Frei Montalva.jpgEduardo Frei Montalva
(1911-1982)
3 November 19643 November 1970Christian Democratic Party
Frei's administration began many reforms in Chilean society. Social Promotion, Agrarian and Education reforms, Neighborhood Associationswere and copper nationalization, some of his main projects. He also took measures to rationalize drug supply. Frei's administration also introduced a wealth tax and carried out a property tax reassessment in order to make the taxation system more progressive. In 1965, he started a presidential tour through France, the United Kingdom, Federal Republic of Germany, Italy and the Vatican City. During this time, he also visited countries in Latin America and afterly Frei government has built a lot of houses, hospitals and schools.
29Salvador Allende Gossens-.jpgSalvador Allende Gossens
(1908-1973)
3 November 197011 September 1973Socialist PartyUnidad Popular
(PS-PCCh-PR-MAPU)
Allende government launched a campaign against illiteracy, while adult education programs expanded, together with educational opportunities for workers. Price controls were also set up, while the Allende Government introduced a system of distribution networks through various agencies (including local committees on supply and prices) to ensure that the new rules were adhered to by shopkeepers. To improve social and economic conditions for women, the Women’s Secretariat was established in 1971, which took on issues such as public laundry facilities, public food programs, day-care centers, and women’s health care (especially prenatal care). In October 1972, the first of what were to be a wave of strikes was led first by truckers, and later by small businessmen, some (mostly professional) unions and some student groups. He was unpopular between the Christian Democratic Party and National Party. Allende was deposed by Augusto Pinochet's coaup d'état in 1973. Died in office.
Flag of Chile.svgMilitary Junta (1973–1990) • Coat of arms of Chile.svg
30Augusto Pinochet - 1995.jpgAugusto Pinochet Ugarte
(1915-2006)
11 September 197311 March 1990Military
Pinochet ruled the Chile with the iron fist. He repressed the freedom of expression, banned the leftist political parties and has introduced a new Constitution in 1980 with a referendum. He cooperated with various Latin America's dictatorships in the Operation Condor. Under his government around 30,000 people was desaparecido (missing in English). However, during his government, the Chile began a economic power in the Americas region. To formulate the economic rescue, the government relied on the so-called Chicago Boys and a text called El ladrillo. Large foreign banks reinstated the credit cycle, as the Junta saw that the basic state obligations, such as resuming payment of principal and interest installments, were honored. International lending organizations such as the World Bank, the International Monetary Fund, and the Inter-American Development Bank lent vast sums anew. Many foreign multinational corporations such as ITT, Dow Chemical, and Firestone, all expropriated by Allende, returned to Chile. He started a transition to democracy in 1987 after Pope John Paul II's visit. Pinochet announced free elections for 1990.
Flag of Chile.svgDemocratic restoration (1990–present) • Coat of arms of Chile.svg
31Aylwin Banda.jpgPatricio Aylwin Azócar
(born in 1918)
11 March 199011 March 1994Christian Democratic PartyConcertación
(PDC-PS-PPD-PRSD)
Although Chile had officially become a democracy, the Chilean military remained highly powerful during the presidency of Aylwin, and the Constitution ensured the continued influence of Pinochet and his commanders. This prevented his government from achieving many of the goals it had set out to achieve, such as the restructuring of the Constitutional Court and the reduction of Pinochet's political power. Aylwin's administration did initiate direct municipal elections, the first of which were held in June 1992. The Aylwin Government did much to reduce poverty and inequality during its time in office. A tax reform was introduced in 1990 and expanded public health programs, vocational and training programs for young Chileans, and a major public housing initiative.
32Eduardo Frei 1998 (recorte).jpgEduardo Frei Ruiz-Tagle
(born in 1942)
11 March 199411 March 2000Christian Democratic PartyConcertación
(PDC-PS-PPD-PRSD)
Frei government was notable in making improvements in health and education, together with reducing poverty. Frei has modernized the economy, fought the inflation and made various liberalization, for a "international integration" of Chile.
33Ricardo Lagos despedida (cropped).jpgRicardo Lagos Escobar
(born in 1938)
11 March 200011 March 2006Party for DemocracyConcertación
(PDC-PS-PPD-PRSD)
Frei government was involved in the additional payments to public administrator's regular remuneration: the so-called "extra payments" were de facto an illegal payment. During 2004, Lagos faced a series of tensions in his relation with other South American countries, caused by recurring Bolivian aspirations for access to the sea. This situation was linked with the power crisis taking place in Argentina, an important supplier of natural gas to Chile. Frei has also worked for population: extreme poverty was significantly reduced; the legal workweek was reduced from 48 to 45 hours and improvements were made in infrastructure and transport.
34Michelle Bachelet with sash.jpgMichelle Bachelet Jeria
(born in 1951)
11 March 200611 March 2010Socialist PartyConcertación
(PDC-PS-PPD-PRSD)
Bachelet's administration created an advisory committee to reform the pension system, which was headed by former budget director Mario Marcel. In 2006 Bachelet enacted legislation to protect subcontracted employees, and in 2009 she introduced pay equality legislation, guaranteeing equal pay for equal work in the private sector, regardless of gender. During her presidency Bachelet opened 18 new subway stations in Santiago, nine in 2006, one in 2009 and eight in 2010. In 2007 Santiago's transport system was radically altered with the introduction of Transantiago, designed under the previous administration. Instead in 2007 she created the Economic and Social Stabilization Fund, a sovereign wealth fund which accumulates fiscal surpluses which are above 1% of GDP. In 2009 Bachelet opened the Museum of Memory in Santiago, documenting the horrors of Pinochet's 16-and-a-half year dictatorship. She has made economic partnership with Singapore, Australia, New Zealand, Brunei and Vietnam.
35Fotografía oficial del Presidente Sebastián Piñera - 2.jpgSebastián Piñera Echenique
(born in 1949)
11 March 201011 March 2014National RenewalCoalition for Change
(UDI-RN-CP)
Piñera government affronted various difficulties, as an eartquake and a possible tsunami. IN 2010, Piñera rallied his countrymen in the rescue of 33 trapped miners, all of whom were rescued after 70 days following a mining accident. In 2011 he faced the protests in Magallanes Region in response to a proposed increase in the price of natural gas in that region. During his presidency, Chile was strong aligned with Spain. In 2011, Piñera has defended for-profit activity in education and proposed to legalize it, rejecting the students demands for the public ownership of educational establishments. As president Piñera has expressed support for the Argentine claim on the Falkland Islands.
36Michelle Bachelet with sash.jpgMichelle Bachelet Jeria
(born in 1951)
11 March 2014IncumbentSocialist PartyNew Majority
(PDC-PS-PPD-PRSD-PCCh-MAS-IC)
Bachelet was elected president for a second time. Isabel Allende was elected President of the Senate, as first woman that is involved in his role.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ See Sentencia Rol 78-1989 of the Constitutional Court of Chile, relapsed on the Central Bank of Chile's Constitutional Act project (declarations Nº 7 to 13).
  2. ^ Bravo Lira, Bernardino (1996). "Introducción. Raíz y razón del Estado de derecho en Chile". El Estado de Derecho en la Historia de Chile. Santiago, Chile: Ediciones Universidad Católica de Chile. 

External links[edit]