Pramiracetam

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Pramiracetam
Pramiracetam.svg
Pramiracetam3d.png
Systematic (IUPAC) name
N-[2-(diisopropylamino)ethyl]-2-(2-oxopyrrolidin-1-yl)acetamide
Clinical data
Trade namesNeupramir, Pramistar, Remen
AHFS/Drugs.comInternational Drug Names
Legal status
  • Unscheduled (US)
RoutesOral
Pharmacokinetic data
Half-life4.5-6.5 hours
Identifiers
CAS number68497-62-1 N
ATC codeN06BX16
PubChemCID 51712
ChemSpider46801 YesY
UNII4449F8I3LE YesY
ChEMBLCHEMBL159776 YesY
Chemical data
FormulaC14H27N3O2 
Mol. mass269.383 g/mol
 N (what is this?)  (verify)
 
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Pramiracetam
Pramiracetam.svg
Pramiracetam3d.png
Systematic (IUPAC) name
N-[2-(diisopropylamino)ethyl]-2-(2-oxopyrrolidin-1-yl)acetamide
Clinical data
Trade namesNeupramir, Pramistar, Remen
AHFS/Drugs.comInternational Drug Names
Legal status
  • Unscheduled (US)
RoutesOral
Pharmacokinetic data
Half-life4.5-6.5 hours
Identifiers
CAS number68497-62-1 N
ATC codeN06BX16
PubChemCID 51712
ChemSpider46801 YesY
UNII4449F8I3LE YesY
ChEMBLCHEMBL159776 YesY
Chemical data
FormulaC14H27N3O2 
Mol. mass269.383 g/mol
 N (what is this?)  (verify)

Pramiracetam is a nootropic drug derived from piracetam, and is more potent (i.e. lower dosage is used)[citation needed]. It belongs to the racetam family of nootropics and goes by the trade name Remen (Parke-Davis), Neupramir (Lusofarmaco), or Pramistar (Firma).[1] Pramiracetam is used off-label for a wide range of applications.

Pramiracetam is a lipid-soluble moleculte and a exhibits a high-affinity choline uptake (HAUC)--thus, supplementation with choline or cholinergic substances (e.g. alpha GPC) is recommended.[medical citation needed] Pramiracetam has a similar chemical structure to aniracetam but is believe to be 15-30 times stronger than aniracetam.[medical citation needed] Pramiracetam is thought to increase the long term memory of users and is used in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease.[2][3][4] Although the mechanism underlying this response has not been fully elucidated, an increase in neuronal membrane fluidity has been posited as a potential mode of action.[5][unreliable medical source?]

Pramiracetam is thought to influence the glutamate (cholinergic) and specifically, the ACh (acetylcholine) receptor sites, by improving reuptake and the efficiency of their channels.[citation needed] Pramiracetam should be taken in conjunction with a source of choline,[medical citation needed] as acetylcholine is depleted while using pramiracetam. Pramiracetam is a cyclic derivative of GABA.

History[edit]

Pramiracetam was developed by Parke-Davis in the late 1970s. The first patents for this drug appeared in 1978 (Belgium) and 1979 (US), concurrent with its first reporting of nootropic characteristics.

Dosing[edit]

Staying hydrated while using pramiracetam is imperative[medical citation needed] because the drug causes the neurological metabolism of the brain to speed up. Without enough water intake, users potentially suffer from headaches, phyrosis (heartburn) and lethargy. Pramiracetam should not be used by pregnant women or people with lowered renal clearance capacities.

Further, it has been noted by researchers that drugs like pramiracetam may only work well if administered in the presence of a good supply of other hormones like estrogen or testosterone, so seniors should be cautious and seek medical advice before starting a pramiracetam regiment.

Side effects[edit]

Pramiracetam, like other members of the racetam family, is generally well tolerated by humans[citation needed]. In a study where a small sample of human subjects with varying degrees of Alzheimer's disease were treated for 5–8 weeks, symptoms were few and mild. At relatively low dosages, a few participants reported headaches. One participant at the highest end of the dosage spectrum experienced sleepiness, decreased appetite, and dizziness[citation needed]. In another study where a small sample of healthy, male human subjects were treated for 10 days, no adverse events were reported.[citation needed]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Axel Kleemann, Jürgen Engel, Bernd Kutscher und Dietmar Reichert: Pharmaceutical Substances, 4. Edition (2000), ISBN 978-1-58890-031-9
  2. ^ Vreese, De (1996). "Memory training and drug therapy act differently on memory and metamemory functioning: evidence from a pilot study.". Gerontol Geriatr. 22: 9–22. "Results showed that objective memory gains of the two groups receiving pramiracetam were significantly larger than that of the MT and CTR groups." 
  3. ^ McLean, A (1991). "http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1786500". Brain Injury 5 (4): 375–380. Retrieved 2 October 2014. "The results of the study indicate that subject performance in measures of memory, especially delayed recall, evidenced clinically significant improvements after the administration of pramiracetam sulphate as compared to placebo" 
  4. ^ Claus, JJ (April 1991). "Nootropic drugs in Alzheimer's disease: symptomatic treatment with pramiracetam.". Neurology 41 (4): 570–574. Retrieved 2 October 2014. "Eight patients evidenced a best dose in the dose-finding phase, but in the subsequent replication phase only two again improved to a similar degree." 
  5. ^ http://www.drugs-forum.com/forum/showwiki.php?title=Pramiracetam

External links[edit]