Prairie View A&M University

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Prairie View A&M University
MottoPrairie View Produces Productive People
TypePublic, HBCU
Endowment$34 million
PresidentDr. George C. Wright
Academic staff422
LocationPrairie View, Texas,
United States
Former namesPrairie View University
ColorsPurple and Gold
AthleticsNCAA Division I-AA
cross country
track and field
AffiliationsSouthwestern Athletic Conference – West Division
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Prairie View A&M University
MottoPrairie View Produces Productive People
TypePublic, HBCU
Endowment$34 million
PresidentDr. George C. Wright
Academic staff422
LocationPrairie View, Texas,
United States
Former namesPrairie View University
ColorsPurple and Gold
AthleticsNCAA Division I-AA
cross country
track and field
AffiliationsSouthwestern Athletic Conference – West Division

Prairie View A&M University is a historically black university located in Prairie View, Texas, United States (northwest of Houston) and is a member of the Texas A&M University System. PVAMU offers baccalaureate degrees in 50 academic majors, 37 master’s degrees and four doctoral degree programs through nine colleges and schools. PVAMU is one of Texas' land grant universities. The University is a member-school of Thurgood Marshall College Fund.



Founded in 1876, Prairie View A&M University is the second oldest state-sponsored institution of higher education in Texas.

In 1876, the Fifteenth Texas Legislature, consistent with terms of the federal Morrill Land-Grant Colleges Act, which provided public lands for the establishment of colleges, authorized an "Agricultural and Mechanical College for the Benefit of Colored Youth" as part of the Agricultural and Mechanical College of Texas (now Texas A&M University).[1] Governor Richard Hubbard appointed a three-man commission, including Ashbel Smith, a long-time supporter of public education. The Commissioners bought Alta Vista Plantation, near Hempstead in Waller County, Texas for $15,000, and turned the school over to the A&M board. Texas A&M President Thomas S. Gathright selected L. W. Minor of Mississippi as the first principal, and on March 11, 1878, eight young African-American men enrolled in the short-lived Alta Vista Agricultural College. They were charged tuition of $130 which included nine months of instruction, board, and one uniform.[1] In 1879, as the institution was struggling to find resources to continue, Governor Oran Roberts suggested closing the college. But Barnas Sears, an agent for the Peabody Fund, persuaded the Sixteenth Texas Legislature to issue charters two normal schools for the training of teachers, one of which would be called Prairie View Normal Institute. The Texas A&M College board met at Hempstead in August 1879, and established thirteen elementary and secondary subjects, and founded the coeducational institution. Women were housed in the plantation house called Kirby Hall (no longer exists), and boys were housed in a combination chapel-dormitory called Pickett Hall. Among the first faculty appointed to the new normal school was E. H. Anderson. In 1882, a strong storm damaged Pickett Hall. This came at the same time as state funds ran out. State Comptroller William M. Brown refused to continue paying the school's debts from the state's university fund, so Governor Roberts had to solicit money from merchants. E. H. Anderson died in 1885, and his brother L. C. Anderson became the principal of Prairie View. A longstanding dispute as to the mission of the school was resolved in 1887 when the legislature added an agricultural and mechanical department, thus returning the college to its original mission.[1] Historian Dr. George Wolfok wrote, Prairie View, A Study In Public Conscience 1962) “Prairie View is an institution—a public institution. But an institution is an empty thing without the beating hearts and yearning souls of mortal men. And down the seventy-five years of Prairie View’s existence, men have lived and dreamed here until every blade of grass and every rock, in that wise primordial way in which the primitive earth knows and cares, has joined the choir invisible to bless their memory. For every man whose foot has touched this hallowed soil, has found a spirit, and has broadened and deepened it until what started out as an ambitionless meandering stream has become a purposeful river upon whose tide, now turbulent, now tranquil, floats the destiny of countless human hopes and dreams.”

In 1945, the name of the institution was changed from Prairie View Normal and Industrial College to Prairie View University, and the school was authorized to offer, "as need arises," all courses offered at the University of Texas. In 1947, the Texas Legislature changed the name to Prairie View A&M College of Texas and provided that "courses be offered in agriculture, the mechanics arts, engineering, and the natural sciences connected therewith, together with any other courses authorized at Prairie View at the time of passage of this act, all of which shall be equivalent to those offered at the Agricultural and Mechanical College of Texas at Bryan." On August 27, 1973, the name of the institution was changed to Prairie View A&M University, and its status as an independent unit of the Texas A&M University System was confirmed.

In 1981, the Texas Legislature acknowledged the University's rich tradition of service and identified various statewide needs which the University should address including the assistance of students of diverse ethnic and socioeconomic backgrounds to realize their full potential, and assistance of small and medium-sized communities and businesses in their growth and development.

In 1983, the Texas Legislature proposed a constitutional amendment to restructure the Permanent University Fund to include Prairie View A&M University as a beneficiary of its proceeds. The Permanent University Fund is a perpetual endowment fund originally established in the Constitution of 1876 for the sole benefit of Texas A&M University and the University of Texas. The 1983 amendment also dedicated the University to enhancement as an "institution of the first class" under the governing board of the Texas A&M University System. The constitutional amendment was approved by the voters on November 6, 1984.

In January 1985, the Board of Regents of the Texas A&M University System responded to the 1984 Constitutional Amendment by stating its intention that Prairie View A&M University become "an institution nationally recognized in its areas of education and research." The Board also resolved that the University receive its share of the Available University Fund, as previously agreed to by Texas A&M University and the University of Texas.

In October 2000, the Governor of Texas signed the Priority Plan, an agreement with the U.S. Department of Education Office of Civil Rights to make Prairie View A&M University an educational asset accessible by all Texans. The Priority Plan mandates creation of many new educational programs, including graduate degrees in engineering and education, and facilities like the state-of-the-art Don Clark Juvenile Justice and Psychology building. It also requires removing language from the Institutional Mission Statement which might give the impression of excluding any Texan from attending Prairie View A&M University.

Around 2004, Oliver Kitzman, the district attorney of Waller County, attempted to challenge the voting rights of PVAMU students. As a result, the United States Department of Justice opened a civil rights investigation about Kitzman. Geoffrey Connor, the Texas Secretary of State, said that PVAMU students, like other university students, have the right to vote for officials in the university's voting districts as long as they are registered to vote there.[2]


The university offers academic programs through the following administrative units:


The university enrolls 6,324 undergraduate students and 1,758 graduate students who come from all 50 U.S. states and several countries throughout the world.[citation needed] Currently 56% of the students are female, and 44% are male.


The university sits on a 1,440-acre (5.8 km2) campus in Prairie View, Texas and is 47.4 miles (76.3 km) from the city hall of Houston, Texas.

Student housing

Both student residence housing properties at PVAMU are owned and operated by American Campus Communities.[3][4] Freshmen students on campus may reside in the University College community. Upperclassmen may live in apartment style living in University Village.[5] University Village has phases I, II, and III. Phase III has an academic standard (3.0 GPA). The first of these apartment buildings was built in 1995.[citation needed]

In 1998 ACC was awarded the contract to develop, build, and manage a student housing property at PVAMU.[6] University College opened in 2000. As of the northern hemisphere fall of 2001, 40% of on-campus students lived at University College and the remaining 60% lived at University Village.[7]

Previous buildings that formerly housed students include Alexander Hall, Banks Hall, Buchanan Hall, Collins Hall, Drew Hall, L. O. Evans Hall, Fuller Hall, Holley Hall, and Suarez Hall. Suarez Hall was already closed in 1996. In 1997 Alexander Hall, Buchanan Hall, and Collins Hall had closed. In 1998 Holley Hall had closed. In 2000 Drew Hall, Evans Hall, and Fuller Hall had closed. During the same year, Alexander, Buchanan, and Holley had been demolished. In 2001 Banks Hall had closed.[7]


Prairie View A&M's traditions are deeply rooted in its heritage as Texas's oldest historically black University. One of the premier traditions is marked by student gatherings at the Abner Davis Memorial and fountain. Abner Davis, a member of the varsity football team, met with an accident in a game with Texas College in Tyler on November 4, 1927. Davis sustained a broken neck in tackling a Texas College player. He tackled low, and the player’s knee struck his head at the base of the neck. Abner was paralyzed from his neck and shoulders down and died after an illness of seven or eight days. Abner’s classmates and the supervisor of the class erected a monument and plaque in his memory in the middle of the campus. Today, students and faculty still gather at the memorial to commemorate important activities on campus.

Honor’s Week is designated for students who have achieved outstanding accomplishments during the school year. Recognition for scholarship, student leadership, citizenship and athletic prowess are among the achievements recognized. The week culminates in a special convocation. Founder’s Day is celebrated annually by the Prairie View A&M University community on March 11. Although the 15th Legislature passed an act to establish the University on Aug. 14, 1876, the University did not open its doors until March 11, 1878. In 2006, PVAMU celebrated its 130-year anniversary. Homecoming . . . a time for welcome and celebration . . . a time to reflect on the traditions and heritage of a great University. . . a time for the return of “Loyal Panthers” to their alma mater to embrace the current University administration, faculty, staff, students, families and friends. The focal points of this week are the football game, homecoming University family. Springfest is held each year during the spring semester after the mid-semester examination period. A variety of cultural and social events are held throughout the week for students, staff and faculty. Highlights of the week’s activities are the Greek step show and “after party.”

Student activities


Athletics logo

Prairie View A&M University offers a wide variety of varsity and intramural sports programs. Prairie View A&M University has an outstanding tradition of athletics.

Men's and women's athletics teams are nicknamed the Panthers, and the team colors are purple and gold. Prairie View A&M is a charter member of the Southwestern Athletic Conference (SWAC), and is a member of the West Division of the SWAC in sports where the conference is divided. Prairie View competes in NCAA Division I in all varsity sports; in football, the Panthers play in the Division I FCS.

Men's varsity sports include baseball, basketball, cross country, football, golf, tennis, and track and field. Women's varsity sports include basketball, bowling, cross country, golf, soccer, softball, tennis, track and field, and volleyball.


The first football coach at Prairie View was H.B. Hucles, who began in 1924. Before Hucles's arrival at Prairie View, the school played two games without a coach on record: a 1907 7–0 win against a team from Wylie, Texas[8] and a 1920 7–6 loss to Tuskegee University.[9]

Prairie View's most recognized and celebrated coach was William "Billy" Nicks. Nicks was head coach in 1945–47, assistant coach in 1948–51, and head coach again in 1952–65. His record for 17 years was 127-39-8. He led the Panthers to 8 Southwestern Athletic Conference championships and 5 black college national championships. Nicks was inducted into the College Football Hall of Fame in 1999. Coach Nicks was named the American Football Coaches Association’s recipient of the Trailblazer Award. The award was presented posthumously at the AFCA Kickoff Luncheon on Monday, January 7 at the 2008 AFCA Convention in Anaheim, California.

Prairie View is recognized as the first historically Black university to create and play in a post-season bowl game. The Prairie View Bowl was played in Texas between 1928 and 1962.

The Prairie View A & M Football team won Black college national championship titles in 1953, 1954, 1958, 1963, and 1964 and Southwestern Athletic Conference Championships SWAC in 1933, 1951, 1952, 1953, 1954, 1958, 1960, 1963, 1964. and recently in 2009. Notable football players that have achieved success in the National Football League (NFL) are National Football Hall of Fame Inductee Kenny Houston and Otis Taylor, who won a World Championship with the Kansas City Chiefs in 1969. On a small note of significance, Charlie "Choo Choo" Brackins, who played from 1952–1955, was the first HBCU alumnus to play quarterback in the NFL Reginald Gillard who played receiver for the New England Patriots.

The team lost 80 consecutive games in 1989–98, almost doubling Columbia University's 44 straight losses between 1983–1988.[10]

On November 10, 2007, it clinched its first winning season since 1976 with a 30–27 victory over traditional power Jackson State University under coach Henry Frazier, III.

In 1999 the SWAC moved to a new Divisional format with Western Division and Eastern Division Champions to play for the SWAC Championship. On November 14, 2009, it clinched its first SWAC Western Division Championship by defeating Alcorn State. The next weekend would see the Panthers go undefeated in the SWAC by defeating Arkansas Pine Bluff and securing a 8–1 record, their only loss during the season to New Mexico State. They finished the season by winning the SWAC Championship on December 12, defeating Eastern Division Champion Alabama A&M 30-24 in the SWAC Championship Game. They exit the 2009 SWAC football campaign with an unblemished 9-0 SWAC conference record. They were led by their quarterback 6'4' 225 pound, swift footed KJ Black who led all quarterbacks in the SWAC with an outstanding passer effiency rating of 168.1 their SWAC 2nd leading rusher in Donald Babers that averages 5.2 yards per carry.


Prairie View A&M University is notorious for its cheerleading program. To date, two cheerlearders have been paralyzed on school property during practice sessions. The first incident occurred in 2004 and resulted in a death. The second incident occurred in 2008. Another cheerleader sustained a spinal cord injury, but was not paralyzed. Prairie View A&M University attempted to cover up the second incident and a representative from the school had the audacity to call the second paralyzed student in the hospital to inform him that he could not sue anyone. The president of the university Dr. George C. Wright admits to never contacting the NCAA or its insurer and he currently teaches a 300 student history course on the campus of Prairie View A&M University. A federal lawsuit has been filed.

Women's basketball

Toyelle Wilson at 2012 NCAA Tournament first round

The women's basketball team received national attention in 2005 with the naming of Cynthia Cooper as the head basketball coach. Cooper, a two-time WNBA MVP, led the Lady Panthers to the school's first ever SWAC title and NCAA Tournament berth in her second season as coach. She was replaced by Toyelle Wilson, who had served as an assistant under Cooper-Dyke for four years.

Women's outdoor track & field

The Lady Panther's Track and Field teams accumulated an unprecedented string of championships both indoor and outdoor. From 1965 to 1991 the Lady Panther's claimed 8 National Association of Intercollegiate Athletics (NAIA) outdoor titles and 2 indoor titles; won national titles in the Association of Intercollegiate Athletics for Women and the U.S. Track and Field Federation; won 8 Southwestern Athletic Conference (SWAC) cross country titles, nine indoor titles and five outdoor SWAC titles in track and field. In total the Lady Panther's won 23 SWAC championships

Coach Barbara Jacket was named SWAC Coach of the Year on 23 occasions and NAIA Coach of the Year five times and Jacket tutored 57 All-Americans. As coach of the 1992 U.S. Women's Olympic Track Team during the Olympics which ran from July 25 – August 9 in Barcelona, Spain, Ms. Jacket had the enviable task of coaching such greats as long jumper Jackie Joyner-Kersee and sprinters Gwen Torrance, Gail Devers, and Evelyn Ashford. The Women's team won overall 4 Gold Medals, 3 Silver Medals, and 3 Bronze Medals more than any team since 1956. She was the second Black female to coach an Olympic team


The Prairie View A&M Panther baseball team captured its first Southwestern Athletic Conference championship in the school's history and won back-to-back SWAC titles in 2006 and 2007. During the last five years, Prairie View A&M has made four consecutive appearances in the SWAC’s title game, finishing as the conference’s runner-up in 2005 and 2008

Marching band

Marching Storm leadership
Prof. George W. Edwards (1948–2009)Director
Dr. Marget SherrodMajorette Director
Dr. William McQueenAssistant Band Director
Prof. Larry JonesAssistant Band Director
Mr. Mark GordonAssistant Band Director

The university's official marching band is referred to as the Marching Storm and supports the Delta Psi chapter of Kappa Kappa Psi honorary band fraternity along with the Epsilon Psi chapter of Tau Beta Sigma honorary band sorority. Past performances include President George W. Bush’s 2001 Presidential Inaugural Parade in Washington, D.C., the 2004 Dallas Cowboys' Thanksgiving Day game, the Honda Battle of the Bands Invitational Showcase in Atlanta, Georgia and during the 2011 Super Bowl XLV halftime show with The Black eyed Pea's.

The marching band traveled to the 2009 Tournament of Roses Parade in Pasadena, California and performed in the opening act in front of the grandstands for the world-wide television audience.[11] In Summer 2009, the Marching Storm mourned the death of their leader, Professor George Edwards. Students affectionately referred to him as "Prof" and will forever be remembered in their hearts.

Black Foxxes

The Marching Storm is joined by the Black Foxxes, the university majorette line.

The McFunk B.O.X.

The McFunk B.O.X. is the nickname for the drumline. "The B.O.X.", as they are affectionately called, was the first black collegiate showstyle drumline to debut a feature in the middle of a halftime show, beginning in the fall season of 1989.

Fraternities and Sororities

All nine members of the National Pan-Hellenic Council are represented at PVAMU. Though not a member of the National Pan-Hellenic Council, Kappa Kappa Psi a national Honorary Band Fraternity, was the first Greek organization to have a chapter on campus.

Student organizations There are more than 150 organizations registered at the university representing various interests to include academic, honor societies, volunteer causes, political, special interests, etc. These organizations make up the social, political and economical structure of the university. If an organization does not exist to match the student's interest, students are encouraged to form the organization.


Since 1976, Prairie View A&M University has enjoyed the presence of students participating in free enterprise activities, namely through the Free Enterprise Institute in Washington, D.C.

In 1985 the first Team of SIFE was introduced to Prairie View A&M University and formally recognized in1986 at the Regional Expo in Dallas. From 1985–1996, the SIFE Team provided distinguished leadership and outstanding services to the campus and the community and represented the university at the regional expos.

The Team went inactive from 1997 to 2002, and was reactivated in Fall 2002 and formally recognized by the University in March 2003. Since its reactivation, the SIFE Team is actively engaged in several programs to inform and educate the community on the importance and benefits of the free enterprise system. Some of its programs include the University Flag Project with the Shell Store, creating the P-4 Investment Club and sponsoring the Personal Finance and Fiscal Fitness, Business Ethics, Student Entrepreneur and Business Expo, Entertainment Business Career Fair, Music Business Seminars, and the Changing the World Talent Showcase.

The team has partnered with several organizations to sponsor programs including Junior Achievement, Special Programs Student Affairs and the Douglas Leadership. The SIFE Team is co-sponsored by the Career Services and Outreach Department and the College of Business at Prairie View A&M University. The Team is the only student group with membership in the Prairie View Chamber of Commerce. The team is currently developing strategic plans to encourage the university to offer a degree in Entertainment and Music Business, and Entrepreneurship.

The Collegiate 100

The Collegiate 100 is an auxiliary organization existing on college campuses nationwide directly related to, and in turn shares the ideas and views of, the 100 Black Men of America. The goal of this organization is to assist 100 Black Men with its education, empowerment, and enrichment mission.

The Collegiate 100 was created at Prairie View A&M University in Texas in 1993 by Frederick V. Roberts, then director of Student Activities. The original group included male and female students who provided leadership and mentoring for the students at the university. Roberts, being a charter member of the newly recognized Metropolitan Houston Chapter, Inc. (June 1994) of the 100 Black Men of America, Inc. presented the idea to seek affiliation with the national organization. The chapter, led by Attorney Benjamin Pigott, accepted the proposal and presented the request to the Board of Directors of the 100 at its December 1994 Leadership Board Meeting. The proposal was unanimously adopted as part of the organization's Program Success and thus began the national launch of the Collegiate 100.

Some of the first members of the Collegiate 100 at PVAMU were Robert Brown, Horace Bussey, Kevin Bussey, Lelar Corbett, Loretta Davis, Jason Jefferson, Christina Johnson, Marcus Lane, Derrick Ross, Devyon Smith, Michael Smith and Donna Tomlinson.

The Collegiate 100 was reactivated at Prairie View A&M University on March 10, 2011 with the following members Travis C. Reed, President, Dymonique J. Burton, Vice President, Ross Hampton, Vice President for Programs, Christopher J. Shelton, Secretary, Patrick Gray, Treasurer, David Brown, Communications Director, Frederick C. Fox, Marketing Director, Kelvin Washington, Membership Director, Vincent I. Ellis, Chaplain, Terrance N. Caldwell, Sergeant-at-Arms, Timothy Anderson, Jerry Battle, Jerald Hubbard, Donlamasstino Hune, Justin Linton, Michael Love, Dominique Rand-Washington and Justin Whitaker.

100 Collegiate Women of America, Inc. 100 Collegiate Women of America, Inc.

The 100 Collegiate Women of America is a charitable organization of women committed to educate, engage, empower and inspire others to greater heights. The organization promotes volunteerism and assist in developing the potential of women to improve their communities through the effective action, education and leadership of trained volunteers. The organization was created in August 2011 and formally chartered at Prairie View A&M University on November 8, 2011.

Mission Statement: The mission of the 100 Collegiate Women of America™ is to improve the quality of life of women and the communities, to enhance educational and economic opportunities to influence developments at all levels of society.

Value Statement: The 100 Collegiate Women of America is committed to the personal and professional development of women and the economic empowerment of the community based on the following precepts: respect for family, spirituality, justice and integrity.

Vision Statement: The 100 Collegiate Women of America strives to serve as the ultimate source and beacon of leadership by utilizing our diverse talents to educate, engage, empower and inspire others to become self-sufficient members of the communities in which we serve.

Motto: “Educate, Engage, Empower and Inspire others to greatness.”

Notable alumni

NameClass yearNotabilityReferences
Hise Austinformer NFL wide receiver
Kirko BangzRapper
Sebastian Barrieformer NFL defensive lineman
Zelmo BeatyFormer professional basketball player with the St. Louis and later Atlanta Hawks (1962–1969; NBA), the Utah Stars (1969–1974; ABA), and the Los Angeles Lakers (1974–1975; NBA).
Julius Wesley Becton, Jr.1960Lieutenant General US Army, Federal Emergency Management Agency Director, educator, and past president of PVAMU
J. Don Boney1948First President of the University of Houston–Downtown
Charlie 'Choo Choo' Brackins1955Former NFL quarterback, he was one of the first African-American quarterbacks, and was the first HBCU alumnus to play that position in the NFL
David L. Brewer IIIretired Vice Admiral of the United States Navy and former superintendent of the Los Angeles Unified School District
Charles BrownLegendary Blues Recording Artist and member of Rock & Roll Hall of Fame
Emanuel Cleaver IIU.S. House of Representatives, 5th District of Missouri
Cecil Cooper5-time MLB All-Star, 17-year career with Boston Red Sox and Milwaukee Brewers, former Houston Astros manager
DJ Premiermember of Gang Starr
Wendel EckfordRalph Bunche Distinguished Professor of History, Los Angeles City College, First African American to earn Ph.D. in history at the Claremont Graduate University, CA.
Terry Ellisvocalist and member of female R&B group En Vogue
Clement E. Glenn2010 Democratic candidate for Texas Governor
Ken HoustonMember Pro Football Hall of Fame, 13 year career as strong safety with Houston Oilers and Washington Redskins
Louise Daniel HutchinsonHistorian[12]
Jim KearneyFormer NFL defensive back
Jermaine McGhee2007former NFL defensive lineman
Sidney A. McPheePresident of Middle Tennessee State University
OG Ron C1997DJ/Record Exec,Co-Founder of Swishahouse Records creator of the F-Action Series
Frederick D. Pattersonfounder of United Negro College Fund
Inez Beverly Prosserthe first African-American woman to receive a doctoral degree in psychology
Elmer Redd1950Head Coach, Lufkin Dunbar High, PVIL Division 3A State Football Championships 1964, 66, 67; Offensive Backfield Coach, Univeristy of Houston
Dewey Redmanjazz saxophonist
Mr. Tactor (did not graduate)
Otis Taylormember of 1969 World Champion Kansas City Chiefs Hall of Fame
Calvin Waller1959US Army General
Craig Washingtonformer member, U.S. House of Representatives, 1989–1994 18th District, Texas
Dave WebsterFormer American Football League All-Pro football player for the Dallas Texans/Kansas City Chiefs, Prairie View A&M University Hall of Fame inductee and one of the first blacks to play professional football in the American Football League.


  1. ^ a b c "Handbook of Texas Online". 
  2. ^ Kliewer, Terry. "Rights probe begins in student vote flap." Houston Chronicle. Friday January 23, 2004. Retrieved on October 5, 2011.
  3. ^ Home page. University College. Retrieved on October 5, 2011.
  4. ^ Home page. University Village. Retrieved on October 5, 2011.
  5. ^ "Department of Resident Life." Prairie View A&M University. Retrieved on October 5, 2011. "Incoming Freshman Housing" links to University College, "Returning Student Housing" links to University Village
  6. ^ "COMPANY NEWS." Austin American-Statesman. June 27, 1998. D6. Retrieved on October 5, 2011. "American Campus Communities has been awarded projects totaling $52.5 million to develop, build and manage three student housing projects at Prairie View A&M University, Texas A&M University and Iona College."
  7. ^ a b "PVAMU Fact Book 1996–2001." Prairie View A&M University. 77. Retrieved on October 5, 2011.
  8. ^ "Prairie View 1907 Football Results". 
  9. ^ "Prairie View 1920 Football Results". 
  10. ^ " – Photo Gallery – Memorable Losing Streaks". CNN. 
  11. ^ Rose Parade Participants
  12. ^ "Louise Daniel Hutchinson Interviews". Record Unit 9558. Smithsonian Institution Archives. Retrieved 20 April 2012. 

External links

Coordinates: 30°05′31″N 95°59′22″W / 30.09194°N 95.98944°W / 30.09194; -95.98944