Pozzuoli

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Pozzuoli
Comune
Comune di Pozzuoli
Panorama of Pozzuoli

Coat of arms
Pozzuoli is located in Italy
Pozzuoli
Location of Pozzuoli in Italy
Coordinates: 40°49′N 14°07′E / 40.817°N 14.117°E / 40.817; 14.117Coordinates: 40°49′N 14°07′E / 40.817°N 14.117°E / 40.817; 14.117
CountryItaly
RegionCampania
ProvinceNaples (NA)
FrazioniArco Felice, Campana Annunziata, Cuma, Licola Centro, Licola Lido, Lucrino, Montenuovo, Monterusciello, Pisciarelli, Toiano
Government
 • MayorVincenzo Figliolia (PD)
Area
 • Total43 km2 (17 sq mi)
Elevation28 m (92 ft)
Population (30 April 2009)
 • Total83,398
 • Density1,900/km2 (5,000/sq mi)
DemonymPuteolani
Time zoneCET (UTC+1)
 • Summer (DST)CEST (UTC+2)
Postal code80078, 80014, 80125
Dialing code081
Patron saintSt. Proculus
Saint dayNovember 16
WebsiteOfficial website
 
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Pozzuoli
Comune
Comune di Pozzuoli
Panorama of Pozzuoli

Coat of arms
Pozzuoli is located in Italy
Pozzuoli
Location of Pozzuoli in Italy
Coordinates: 40°49′N 14°07′E / 40.817°N 14.117°E / 40.817; 14.117Coordinates: 40°49′N 14°07′E / 40.817°N 14.117°E / 40.817; 14.117
CountryItaly
RegionCampania
ProvinceNaples (NA)
FrazioniArco Felice, Campana Annunziata, Cuma, Licola Centro, Licola Lido, Lucrino, Montenuovo, Monterusciello, Pisciarelli, Toiano
Government
 • MayorVincenzo Figliolia (PD)
Area
 • Total43 km2 (17 sq mi)
Elevation28 m (92 ft)
Population (30 April 2009)
 • Total83,398
 • Density1,900/km2 (5,000/sq mi)
DemonymPuteolani
Time zoneCET (UTC+1)
 • Summer (DST)CEST (UTC+2)
Postal code80078, 80014, 80125
Dialing code081
Patron saintSt. Proculus
Saint dayNovember 16
WebsiteOfficial website

Pozzuoli is a city and comune of the province of Naples, in the Italian region of Campania. It is the main city of the Phlegrean Peninsula.

History[edit]

Pozzuoli began as the Greek colony of Dicaearchia (Greek: Δικαιαρχία). The Roman colony was established in 194 BC, and took the name Puteoli from the Latin putere (to stink), referring to the sulfuric smell in the area, most notably from Solfatara.[1] This is because Pozzuoli lies in the center of the Campi Flegrei, a caldera.

Puteoli was the great emporium for the Alexandrian grain ships, and other ships from all over the Roman world. It also was the main hub for goods exported from Campania, including blown glass, mosaics, wrought iron, and marble. The Roman naval base at nearby Misenum housed the largest naval fleet in the ancient world. It was also the site of the Roman Dictator Sulla's country villa and the place where he died in 78 BC.

The local volcanic sand, pozzolana (Latin: pulvis puteolanus, "dust of Puteoli") formed the basis for the first effective concrete, as it reacted chemically with water. Instead of just evaporating slowly off, the water would turn this sand/lime mix into a mortar strong enough to bind lumps of aggregate into a load-bearing unit. This made possible the cupola of the Pantheon, which is still the world's largest unreinforced concrete dome .

The ancient Macellum of Pozzuoli was a market building, erroneously identified as a Serapeum when a statue of Serapis was discovered.

The apostle Paul landed here on his way to Rome, from which it was 170 miles (274 kilometres) distant. Here he stayed for seven days (Acts 28:13, 14) and then began with his companions his journey by the Appian Way to Rome.

In 37 AD Puteoli was the location for a political stunt by Emperor Gaius Caligula, who on becoming Emperor ordered a temporary floating bridge to be built using trading vessels, stretching for over two miles (3.2 km) from the town to the famous neighboring resort of Baiae, across which he proceeded to ride his horse, in defiance of an astrologer's prediction that he had "no more chance of becoming Emperor than of riding a horse across the Gulf of Baiae".[2]

Saint Proculus (San Procolo) was martyred here with his companions in the fourth century, and is the city's patron saint. The seven eagle heads on the coat-of-arms for the town of Pozzuoli are said to represent seven of these martyrs. November 16 was the official feast day for Saint Proculus. St. Proculus was affectionately nicknamed 'u pisciasotto ("the pants-pisser") because November 16 was often a day of rain. The townspeople also celebrated his feast day on the second Sunday in May.[1]

Charles Lyell visited Pozzuoli in 1828 and studied the Macellum columns.

Since 1946 the town has been the home of the Accademia Aeronautica, the Italian Air Force Academy, which was first situated on the island of Nisida, then from 1962 on a purpose-built hilltop campus overlooking the bay.

From August 1982 to December 1984 the city experienced hundreds of tremors and bradyseismic activity which reached a peak on October 4, 1983, damaging 8,000 buildings in the city center and dislocating 36,000 people, many permanently. The events raised the sea bottom by almost 2 m, and rendered the Bay of Pozzuoli too shallow for large craft.

Main sights[edit]

The town's attractions include:

Anarchist monument.

A unique anarchist momument is present in the small garden close to the roman Macellum. It's made of a marble block and has the following text written on it:

(Italian)
« Ciò che più importa è che il popolo, gli uomini tutti, perdano gli istinti e le abitudini pecorili che la millenaria schiavitù ha loro ispirato ed apprendano a pensare ed agire liberamente. Gli anarchici. »
(EN)
« What matters most is that people, all men, loose their sheepish instincts and habits that the millennial slavery inspired them, and they learn to think and act freely. The anarchists. »



Flavian Amphitheater (Amphitheatrum Flavium), from below
Fumarole in the Solfatara

Transportation[edit]

It is easily reached by train from Rome on Naples Metro line 2, and by the trains of "Cumana" lines leaving from the station of Montesanto, in the city center.

Twinnings[edit]

Neighboring communes[edit]

Notable people[edit]

Footnotes[edit]

  1. ^ John Everett-Heath, ed. (2010). "Pozzuoli". Concise Dictionary of World Place-Names. Oxford University Press (Oxford Reference Online Premium Database). 
  2. ^ C. Suetonius Tranquillius. "Caius Caesar Caligula." The Lives of the Twelve Caesars.
  3. ^ Legler, Rolf (1990). Der Golf von Neapel (in German). Cologne: DuMont Buchverlag. ISBN 3-7701-2254-2. 

Bibliography[edit]

External links[edit]

Media related to Pozzuoli at Wikimedia Commons