Potassium carbonate

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Potassium carbonate
Potassium Carbonate 2D structure.png
Potassium-carbonate-xtal-3D-SF.png
Potassium carbonate.jpg
Identifiers
CAS number584-08-7 YesY
PubChem11430
ChemSpider10949 YesY
UNIIBQN1B9B9HA YesY
RTECS numberTS7750000
Jmol-3D imagesImage 1
Properties
Molecular formulaK2CO3
Molar mass138.205 g/mol
Appearancewhite, hygroscopic solid
Density2.43 g/cm3
Melting point891 °C (1,636 °F; 1,164 K)
Boiling pointdecomposes
Solubility in water112 g/100 mL (20 °C)
156 g/100 mL (100 °C)
Solubilityinsoluble in alcohol, acetone
Hazards
MSDSICSC 1588
EU IndexNot listed
R-phrasesR22 R36 R37 R38
Main hazardsIrritant
NFPA 704
Flash pointNon-flammable
LD501870 mg/kg (oral, rat)[1]
Related compounds
Other anionsPotassium bicarbonate
Other cationsLithium carbonate
Sodium carbonate
Rubidium carbonate
Caesium carbonate
Related compoundsAmmonium carbonate
Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C (77 °F), 100 kPa)
 YesY (verify) (what is: YesY/N?)
Infobox references
 
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Potassium carbonate
Potassium Carbonate 2D structure.png
Potassium-carbonate-xtal-3D-SF.png
Potassium carbonate.jpg
Identifiers
CAS number584-08-7 YesY
PubChem11430
ChemSpider10949 YesY
UNIIBQN1B9B9HA YesY
RTECS numberTS7750000
Jmol-3D imagesImage 1
Properties
Molecular formulaK2CO3
Molar mass138.205 g/mol
Appearancewhite, hygroscopic solid
Density2.43 g/cm3
Melting point891 °C (1,636 °F; 1,164 K)
Boiling pointdecomposes
Solubility in water112 g/100 mL (20 °C)
156 g/100 mL (100 °C)
Solubilityinsoluble in alcohol, acetone
Hazards
MSDSICSC 1588
EU IndexNot listed
R-phrasesR22 R36 R37 R38
Main hazardsIrritant
NFPA 704
Flash pointNon-flammable
LD501870 mg/kg (oral, rat)[1]
Related compounds
Other anionsPotassium bicarbonate
Other cationsLithium carbonate
Sodium carbonate
Rubidium carbonate
Caesium carbonate
Related compoundsAmmonium carbonate
Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C (77 °F), 100 kPa)
 YesY (verify) (what is: YesY/N?)
Infobox references

Potassium carbonate (K2CO3) is a white salt, soluble in water (insoluble in ethanol[2]), which forms a strongly alkaline solution. It can be made as the product of potassium hydroxide's absorbent reaction with carbon dioxide. It is deliquescent, often appearing a damp or wet solid. Potassium carbonate is used in the production of soap and glass.

History[edit]

Potassium carbonate was first identified in 1742 by Antonio Campanella and is the primary component of potash and the more refined pearl ash or salts of tartar. Historically, pearl ash was created by baking potash in a kiln to remove impurities. The fine, white powder remaining was the pearl ash. The first patent issued by the US Patent Office was awarded to Samuel Hopkins in 1790 for an improved method of making potash and pearl ash.

In late 18th century North America, before the development of baking powder, pearl ash was used as a leavening agent in quick breads.[3]

Other terms for potassium carbonate:

Production[edit]

Today, potassium carbonate is prepared commercially by the electrolysis of potassium chloride. The resulting potassium hydroxide is then carbonated using carbon dioxide to form potassium carbonate, which is often used to produce other potassium compounds.

2KOH + CO2 → K2CO3 + H2O

Applications[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ http://chem.sis.nlm.nih.gov/chemidplus/rn/584-08-7
  2. ^ http://www.researchgate.net/publication/231535294_Solubility_of_Potassium_Carbonate_and_Potassium_Hydrocarbonate_in_Methanol
  3. ^ See references to "pearl ash" in "American Cookery" by Amelia Simmons, printed by Hudson & Goodwin, Hartford, 1796.
  4. ^ Leonard, J.; Lygo, B.; Procter, G. "Advanced Practical Organic Chemistry" 1998, Stanley Thomas Publishers Ltd
  5. ^ Child, Lydia M. "The American Frugal Housewife" 1832

Bibliography[edit]

A Dictionary of Science, Oxford University Press, New York, 2003

External links[edit]