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Post-nominal letters, also called post-nominal initials, post-nominal titles, or designatory letters, are letters placed after the name of a person to indicate that the individual holds a position, educational degree, accreditation, office, military decoration, or honour, or is a member of a religious institute. An individual may use several different sets of post-nominal letters, but in some regions it may be customary to limit the number of sets to one or just a few. The order in which these are listed after a name is based on the order of precedence and category of the order. Post-nominal letters are one of the main types of name suffix.
The order in which post-nominal letters are listed after a person's name is dictated by standard practice which may vary by region.
In the United States, standard protocol is:
In the United Kingdom, the Ministry of Justice recommends the following ordering:
According to both the University of Oxford and the Chicago Manual of Style,[page needed] university degrees should be listed in ascending order: bachelor's degrees first, followed by master's degrees, then professional doctorates and then research doctorates irrespective of the order in which one obtained them.
In the US, common practice is to name only the highest degree in a particular discipline (e.g., if one had earned one's BS, MS, and PhD in Biology – even from different schools – as well as an MBA in Management, then the preferred listing would be John Doe, MBA, PhD).
In the UK, it is customary to list all academic qualifications (excluding step qualifications) in order of academic status (which may not be the same as the order in which they were obtained). So, one might list a Certificate or Diploma of Higher Education first then Bachelors' degrees, then postgraduate certificates/diplomas, then Masters' degrees, then doctorates.
In the case of somebody who has a substantive doctorate, it is not customary to list one's degrees post-nominally if "Dr." is listed as a title: for example, one should only list oneself as either "Dr. Smith" or as "John Smith BSc, MSc, PhD" not "Dr. John Smith BSc, MSc, PhD".
Practice in the UK varies from that in the US partly because it is designed to draw attention to the fact that not everybody who possesses a higher ranking award possesses lower ones as well. For example, it is perfectly possible to obtain a PhD without getting a master's degree first. It is also possible for somebody who has never received a formal university education to be awarded an honorary degree. Therefore it is customary to list all higher educational awards post-nominally although one should not list step qualifications. In other words, lower awards that are wholly incorporated into higher-ranking awards should not be listed (for example, in the case of an MA from Oxford or Cambridge University, "John Smith, MA" rather than "John Smith, BA MA") - to do so would give the impression that one possesses two distinct academic qualifications.
Following the same principle, when the lower qualification is a passport to the higher qualification (e.g. where a bachelor's degree is a requirement for doing a master's degree) or the credit for a lower award (such as a Certificate of Higher Education or Diploma of Higher Education) is not wholly incorporated into a higher award, lower qualifications may be included. For example, credit for a Certificate of Higher Education can be used to exempt the holder from some of the requirements of a bachelor's degree and in such a case it would be wrong to list one's qualification as "Jane Smith, CertHE BSc". However, if one did not apply some of the credit for one's CertHE to obtaining one's bachelor's degree, it would be acceptable to list both qualifications.
Where two different qualifications with the same name have been obtained (for example an Oxford MA and a postgraduate MA from the University of London), this can be indicated by using the abbreviations of the awarding body, e.g. "Jane Smith MA (Oxf & Lond)".
In the UK and Commonwealth countries, if the individual belongs to more than one, these should be listed in the order of the establishment of the organisation.
Examples of post-nominal letters: