Post-nasal drip

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Post-nasal drip
Classification and external resources
ICD-10R09.8
ICD-9784.91
eMedicineent/338
 
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Post-nasal drip
Classification and external resources
ICD-10R09.8
ICD-9784.91
eMedicineent/338

Post-nasal drip (PND, also termed upper airway cough syndrome, UACS, or post nasal drip syndrome, PNDS) occurs when excessive mucus is produced by the nasal mucosa. The excess mucus accumulates in the throat or back of the nose. It is caused by rhinitis, sinusitis, gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), or by a disorder of swallowing (such as an esophageal motility disorder). It is frequently caused by an allergy, which may be seasonal or persistent throughout the year.[medical citation needed]

However, other researchers argue that mucus dripping down the back of the throat from the nasal cavity is a normal physiologic process that occurs in healthy individuals.[1] Post-nasal drip syndrome as a concept has been challenged due to a lack of an accepted definition, a lack of any pathologic tissue changes and no available biochemical tests. The phrase has been described as a "pseudo-syndrome" (i.e. not a real medical condition) which serves as a catch-all, waste-basket phrase that is unhelpful.[1]

Associated conditions[edit]

PND is suggested to be a cause of extra-oral halitosis, especially when a sinus infection is also present. Acid reflux or heartburn is believed to aggravate and in some cases cause post-nasal drip.[2]

Symptoms[edit]

Individuals may be diagnosed as suffering from post-nasal drip if they suffer from the following symptoms:

Treatment[edit]

First and foremost, as the causes are manifold, a removal of those causes should be targeted. Treatment may include antibiotics, decongestants, nasal irrigation, sinus massage, acid control medication, allergy medication, and minor surgery. Bulb syringes, squirt bottles, pulsatile nasal irrigators or neti pots are often used for nasal irrigation. Allergy medications include antihistamines, decongestants, nasal steroids alone or in combination. Allergy injections may be used for long-term relief when allergy is the cause. Oral steroids may be prescribed for short-term use in some situations.

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Morice, AH (2004). "Post-nasal drip syndrome--a symptom to be sniffed at?". Pulmonary pharmacology & therapeutics 17 (6): 343–5. PMID 15564073. 
  2. ^ Rosenberg, M (1996). "Clinical assessment of bad breath: current concepts". Journal of the American Dental Association 127 (4): 475–82. PMID 8655868. 

External links[edit]