Porterville, California

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia - View original article

Porterville, California
City of Porterville
City
Sierra View District Hospital(top left), Murray Park(top right), Lake Success(middle left), the Historical First Congregational Church(middle right), Statue of the Farmer(bottom left), South County Justice Center(bottom right).
Sierra View District Hospital(top left), Murray Park(top right), Lake Success(middle left), the Historical First Congregational Church(middle right), Statue of the Farmer(bottom left), South County Justice Center(bottom right).
Flag of Porterville, California
Flag
Official seal of Porterville, California
Seal
Nickname(s): P-town, P'ville, BandTown USA, Gateway to the Sequoia National Monument
Motto: "In God We Trust"[citation needed]
Location of Porterville, California
Location of Porterville, California
Porterville, California is located in USA
Porterville, California
Porterville, California
Location in the United States
Coordinates: 36°4′7″N 119°1′39″W / 36.06861°N 119.02750°W / 36.06861; -119.02750Coordinates: 36°4′7″N 119°1′39″W / 36.06861°N 119.02750°W / 36.06861; -119.02750
CountryUnited States
StateCalifornia
CountyTulare
IncorporatedMay 7, 1902[1]
Government
 • TypeCouncil-Manager
 • City ManagerJohn D. Lollis[2]
 • MayorMilt Stowe[3]
 • Vice MayorCameron J. Hamilton[3]
 • Chief of PoliceChuck McMillan
Area[4]
 • City17.679 sq mi (45.790 km2)
 • Land17.607 sq mi (45.603 km2)
 • Water0.072 sq mi (0.188 km2)  0.41%
Elevation[5]459 ft (140 m)
Population (2013)
 • City55,697
 • Density3,076.33/sq mi (1,187.75/km2)
 • Metro459,446
DemonymPorterviller
Time zonePacific (PST) (UTC-8)
 • Summer (DST)PDT (UTC-7)
ZIP codes93257-93258, 93267, 93270, 93207, 93265, 93218, 93260
Area code(s)559 661 760
FIPS code06-58240
GNIS feature IDs1652779, 2411470
Websitewww.ci.porterville.ca.us
 
Jump to: navigation, search
Porterville, California
City of Porterville
City
Sierra View District Hospital(top left), Murray Park(top right), Lake Success(middle left), the Historical First Congregational Church(middle right), Statue of the Farmer(bottom left), South County Justice Center(bottom right).
Sierra View District Hospital(top left), Murray Park(top right), Lake Success(middle left), the Historical First Congregational Church(middle right), Statue of the Farmer(bottom left), South County Justice Center(bottom right).
Flag of Porterville, California
Flag
Official seal of Porterville, California
Seal
Nickname(s): P-town, P'ville, BandTown USA, Gateway to the Sequoia National Monument
Motto: "In God We Trust"[citation needed]
Location of Porterville, California
Location of Porterville, California
Porterville, California is located in USA
Porterville, California
Porterville, California
Location in the United States
Coordinates: 36°4′7″N 119°1′39″W / 36.06861°N 119.02750°W / 36.06861; -119.02750Coordinates: 36°4′7″N 119°1′39″W / 36.06861°N 119.02750°W / 36.06861; -119.02750
CountryUnited States
StateCalifornia
CountyTulare
IncorporatedMay 7, 1902[1]
Government
 • TypeCouncil-Manager
 • City ManagerJohn D. Lollis[2]
 • MayorMilt Stowe[3]
 • Vice MayorCameron J. Hamilton[3]
 • Chief of PoliceChuck McMillan
Area[4]
 • City17.679 sq mi (45.790 km2)
 • Land17.607 sq mi (45.603 km2)
 • Water0.072 sq mi (0.188 km2)  0.41%
Elevation[5]459 ft (140 m)
Population (2013)
 • City55,697
 • Density3,076.33/sq mi (1,187.75/km2)
 • Metro459,446
DemonymPorterviller
Time zonePacific (PST) (UTC-8)
 • Summer (DST)PDT (UTC-7)
ZIP codes93257-93258, 93267, 93270, 93207, 93265, 93218, 93260
Area code(s)559 661 760
FIPS code06-58240
GNIS feature IDs1652779, 2411470
Websitewww.ci.porterville.ca.us

Porterville is a city in the San Joaquin Valley, in Tulare County, California, United States. Porterville's population was 55,697 at the 2013 census. The city's population grew dramatically as the city annexed many properties and unincorporated areas in and around Porterville. Not included in the city's population is East Porterville. The Census found another 7,331 more residents living in East Porterville, giving the Porterville Urban Area a total of 63,028 residents. Porterville is considered part of the Census Bureau's designation of the Visalia-Porterville metropolitan statistical area. Porterville serves as a gateway to a vast mountain wonderland and recreational area of the Sequoia and Kings Canyon National Parks.

History[edit]

During California's Spanish period, the San Joaquin Valley was considered a remote region of little value. Emigrants skirted the eastern foothills in the vicinity of Porterville as early as 1826. Swamps stretched out into the Valley floor lush with tall rushes or "tulares" as the Indians called them.

Gold discovered in 1848 brought a tremendous migration to California, and prairie schooners rolled through Porterville between 1849 and 1852. Starting in 1854, Peter Goodhue operated a stopping place on the Stockton - Los Angeles Road on the bank of the Tule River. Wagon trains of gold seekers passed through the village, but other travelers found the land rich and remained to establish farms. A store was set up in 1856 to sell goods to miners and the Indians, who lived in tribal lands along the rivers. From 1858 to 1861 it was the location of the Tule River Station of the Butterfield Overland Mail.

Royal Porter Putnam came to the village in 1860 to raise cattle, horses and hogs. Putnam bought out Goodhue in 1860, turning the station into a popular stopping place and hotel called Porter Station. He bought 40 acres of land and built a two-story store and a hotel on the highest point of the swampy property, which is now the corner of Oak and Main. The town of Porterville was founded there in 1864.[6] The town took its name from the founder's given name because another Putnam family lived south of town.

In 1862, 20.8 inches of rain fell in the area causing the change of course of the Tule River. Putnam's acres drained, and he had his property surveyed, staking out lot lines and establishing streets. Settlers were offered a free lot for every one purchased. Needs of a burgeoning California population for food gave the impetus which led to permanent development of the east side southern San Joaquin Valley. The long, dry, hot summer prompted irrigation of the lands.

In 1888, the Southern Pacific Railway brought in the branch line from Fresno. The Pioneer Hotel and Bank were built by businessmen from San Francisco. The town incorporated in 1902, as miners moved into the area to extract magnetite ore, and the Chamber of Commerce was formed in 1907. A City Manager-Council form of government was adopted in 1926, and a Charter was adopted. The City has grown from a community of 5,000 people in 1920. Agriculture supplemented by the Central Valley Water Project has been the major source of economic growth in the area. The City is the center of a large farming area noted especially for citrus and livestock.

Industry has become a significant factor in the development of the community. The Wal-Mart Distribution Center, National Vitamin, Beckman Instruments, Standard Register, Sierra Pacific Apparel, Royalty Carpeting, and other small companies have facilities in Porterville. Several large public facilities are also located here. These include the Porterville Developmental Center, Sequoia National Forest Headquarters, the Army Corps of Engineers Lake Success Facility, and the Porterville College campus of the Kern Community College District.

The Tule River Indian War of 1856[edit]

Main article: Tule River War

The Native Americans living in the foothills of the Sierra Nevada mountains were relatively undisturbed by early Spanish colonization. During the late 1840s and into the 1850s, once gold was discovered in California, miners began encroaching on traditional lands. Although a treaty was signed with the local tribes in 1851, defining a proposed reservation and two hundred head of cattle per year, the US Senate failed to ratify the treaty, with every member either abstaining or voting no.[7][8]

In the spring of 1856, a rumor that 500 cattle had been stolen by Native Americans began to circulate. Upon further investigation, a single yearling calf had been taken as a bridal gift.[9] Mobs of armed settlers were organized to counter the perceived menace despite the peaceful intentions of the Native Americans. These mobs began raiding Native camps and killing their inhabitants.

One mob, under the leadership of Captain Foster DeMasters, failed to dislodge a numerically-superior Native encampment while wearing ineffective makeshift body armor consisting of cotton-padded jackets.[9][10] Reinforcements were obtained from Keyesville and the resulting force, now under the leadership of Sheriff W.G. Poindexter, were similarly repulsed. After falling back, the mob then proceeded to wage a scorched-earth campaign by destroying Native American supply caches.[9]

News of these engagements spread throughout California, exaggerating the degree of menace and misrepresenting its causes.[10] Finally, in May 1856, army soldiers under the command of LaRhett Livingston assaulted the encampment and succeeded in driving off its defenders. The war's duration was approximately six weeks.

In retrospect, George Stewart wrote "Thus ended the Tule river war of 1856; a war that might have been prevented had there been an honest desire on the part of the white settlers to do so, and one that brought little glory to those who participated therein. The responsibility cannot now be fixed where it properly belongs. Possibly the Indians were to blame. Certainly the whites were not blameless, and it is too seldom, indeed, that they have been in the many struggles with the aboriginal inhabitants of this continent."[9]

Historian Annie Mitchell later wrote in the Tulare County Historical Society bulletin (Los Tulares No. 68, March 1966): "Over the years it has been assumed that the Tule River War was a spontaneous, comic opera affair. It was not and if the Indians had been armed with guns instead of bows and a few pistols they would have run the white men out of the valley."[11]

Geography[edit]

Porterville is located at 36°4′7″N 119°1′39″W / 36.06861°N 119.02750°W / 36.06861; -119.02750 (36.068550, -119.027536).[12]

According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 17.7 square miles (46 km2), of which, 17.6 square miles (46 km2) of it is land and 0.1 square miles (0.26 km2) of it (0.41%) is water.

Porterville is located on the Tule River at the base of the western foothills of the Sierra Nevada and eastern most section of California's Central Valley. In the foothills above Porterville is the man-made Lake Success.

Porterville, lying along the foothills of the Sierras at an elevation of 455 feet, is located on State Highway 65, 165 miles north of Los Angeles, 171 miles east of the Pacific Coast. The City has a strategic central location to major markets and a ready access to major transportation routes

Geology[edit]

Porterville is subject to earthquakes and aftershocks due to its proximity to the Pacific Ring of Fire. The geologic instability produces numerous fault lines both above and below ground, which altogether cause approximately 10,000 earthquakes every year. One of the major fault lines is the San Andreas Fault. A few major earthquakes have hit the Porterville area like the Kern County Earthquake of 1952 and the Bakersfield Earthquake of 1952 causing serious aftershocks and earthquakes in the area. All but a few quakes are of low intensity and are not felt.[21] Most of the city are also vulnerable to floods. The San Joaquin Valley and metropolitan areas are also at risk from blind thrust earthquakes.

Climate[edit]

Porterville, CA, gets almost 13 inches of rain per year. The US average is 37. Snowfall is 0.01 inches. The average US city gets 25 inches of snow per year. The number of days with any measurable precipitation is 46.

On average, there are 271 sunny days per year in Porterville, CA. The July high is around 100.5 degrees. The January low is 35.6. Our comfort index, which is based on humidity during the hot months, is a 54 out of 100, where higher is more comfortable. The US average on the comfort index is 44.

Climate data for Porterville, California
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
Average high °F (°C)57.9
(14.4)
63.7
(17.6)
69.6
(20.9)
76.7
(24.8)
84.0
(28.9)
92.4
(33.6)
100.5
(38.1)
98.3
(36.8)
92.9
(33.8)
81.4
(27.4)
69.6
(20.9)
58.8
(14.9)
78.82
(26.01)
Average low °F (°C)35.6
(2)
39.1
(3.9)
42.1
(5.6)
46.3
(7.9)
51.8
(11)
57.6
(14.2)
63.7
(17.6)
61.8
(16.6)
56.2
(13.4)
49.5
(9.7)
40.7
(4.8)
36.8
(2.7)
48.43
(9.12)
Precipitation inches (mm)2.17
(55.1)
1.99
(50.5)
2.33
(59.2)
1.0
(25)
0.5
(13)
0.14
(3.6)
0.01
(0.3)
0.02
(0.5)
0.35
(8.9)
0.65
(16.5)
1.14
(29)
1.77
(45)
12.7
(323)
Avg. precipitation days (≥ 0.01 in)7.26.96.32.81.60.40.30.31.71.73.95.438.5
Source: NOAA [13]

Environmental issues[edit]

Owing to geography, heavy reliance on automobiles, and agriculture, Porterville suffers from air pollution in the form of smog. The Porterville area and the rest of the San Joaquin Valley are susceptible to atmospheric inversion, which holds in the exhausts from road vehicles, airplanes, locomotives, agriculture, manufacturing, and other sources. Unlike other cities that rely on rain to clear smog, Porterville gets only 13.00 inches (330.20 mm) of rain each year: pollution accumulates over many consecutive days. Issues of air quality in Porterville and other major cities led to the passage of early national environmental legislation, including the Clean Air Act. More recently, the state of California has led the nation in working to limit pollution by mandating low emission vehicles. Smog levels are only high during summers because it is dry and warm. In the winter, storms help to clear the smog and it is not as much of a problem. Smog should continue to drop in the coming years due to aggressive steps to reduce it, electric and hybrid cars, and other pollution-reducing measures taken.[14]

As a result, pollution levels have dropped in recent decades. The number of Stage 1 smog alerts has declined from over 100 per year in the 1970s to almost zero in the new millennium. Despite improvement, the 2006 annual report of the American Lung Association ranked the city as the 11th most polluted in the country with short-term particle pollution and year-round particle pollution.[15] In 2007 the annual report of the American Lung Association ranked the city as the 4th most polluted in the country with short-term particle pollution and year-round particle pollution.[16] In 2008, the city was ranked the third most polluted and again fourth for highest year-round particulate pollution.[17]

Demographics[edit]

The Porterville Historical Museum occupies the old Southern Pacific Railroad depot, constructed in 1913.
The Porterville Main post office is one of three Porterville structures on the National Register of Historic Places (NRHP).
The NRHP listed Zalud House is a former private home, now a museum.
The First Congregational Church is also listed on the NRHP.

2010[edit]

The 2010 United States Census[18] reported that Porterville had a population of 54,165. The population density was 3,076.3 people per square mile (1,187.77/km²). The racial makeup of Porterville was 31,847 (58.8%) White, 673 (1.2%) African American, 1,007 (1.9%) Native American, 2,521 (4.7%) Asian, 64 (0.1%) Pacific Is lander, 15,482 (28.6%) from other races, and 2,571 (4.7%) from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 33,549 persons (61.9%).

The Census reported that 53,018 people (97.9% of the population) lived in households, 207 (0.4%) lived in non-institutionalized group quarters, and 940 (1.7%) were institutionalized.

There were 15,644 households, out of which 8,177 (52.3%) had children under the age of 18 living in them, 8,032 (51.3%) were opposite-sex married couples living together, 2,962 (18.9%) had a female householder with no husband present, 1,315 (8.4%) had a male householder with no wife present. There were 1,424 (9.1%) unmarried opposite-sex partnerships, and 115 (0.7%) same-sex married couples or partnerships. 2,679 households (17.1%) were made up of individuals and 1,193 (7.6%) had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 3.39. There were 12,309 families (78.7% of all households); the average family size was 3.78.

The population was spread out with 18,154 people (33.5%) under the age of 18, 5,879 people (10.9%) aged 18 to 24, 14,266 people (26.3%) aged 25 to 44, 10,773 people (19.9%) aged 45 to 64, and 5,093 people (9.4%) who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 28.8 years. For every 100 females there were 97.9 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 95.2 males.

There were 16,734 housing units at an average density of 946.5 per square mile (365.4/km²), of which 8,966 (57.3%) were owner-occupied, and 6,678 (42.7%) were occupied by renters. The homeowner vacancy rate was 2.9%; the rental vacancy rate was 6.3%. 30,016 people (55.4% of the population) lived in owner-occupied housing units and 23,002 people (42.5%) lived in rental housing units.

2000[edit]

As of the census[19] of 2000, there were 39,615 people, 11,884 households, and 9,174 families residing in the city. The population density was 2,828.4 people per square mile (1,091.8/km²). There were 12,691 housing units at an average density of 906.1 per square mile (349.8/km²). The racial makeup of the city was 49.8% White, 1.3% African American, 1.7% Native American, 4.6% Asian, 0.2% Pacific Islander, 32.7% from other races, and 4.8% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 54.5% of the population.

There were 11,884 households out of which 47.5% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 53.1% were married couples living together, 17.7% had a female householder with no husband present, and 22.8% were non-families. 19.1% of all households were made up of individuals and 8.3% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 3.20 and the average family size was 3.62.

In the city the population was spread out with 34.3% under the age of 18, 10.8% from 18 to 24, 28.0% from 25 to 44, 17.5% from 45 to 64, and 9.4% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 29 years. For every 100 females there were 96.4 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 93.0 males.

The median income for a household in the city was $32,046, and the median income for a family was $35,136. Males had a median income of $31,171 versus $23,737 for females. The per capita income for the city was $12,745. About 20.3% of families and 25.7% of the population were below the poverty line, including 33.7% of those under age 18 and 6.4% of those age 65 or over.

Government[edit]

Local government[edit]

Under the California State Constitution, there is a difference in powers granted to cities. A "General Law City" is one, which operates exclusively under State law. The City Charter, in accordance with the State Constitution, provides the City with authority for "Home Rule" whereby the City is given the power to make and enforce within its own boundaries any law, which does not conflict with the State or Federal Government. The State Constitution gives this right of "Home Rule" to any city.

Porterville has operated as a Charter City since 1926, but the Charter has been changed by the voters several times since then.

County, state, and federal representation[edit]

In the state legislature Porterville is located in the 18th Senate District, represented by Republican Jean Fuller, and in the 34th Assembly District, represented by Republican Connie Conway.

In the United States House of Representatives, Porterville is in California's 23rd congressional district, represented by Republican Kevin McCarthy[20]

During the November 2008 Prop 8 election campaign, Porterville's City Council was the only City Council in all of California that passed a Resolution in favor of Prop 8.[21] The Resolution urged voters to act on behalf of the Council's personal, religious, and political interests.[22] Local gay rights activists, such as Porterville LGBTQ, protested at subsequent City Council meetings for months afterwards, getting the attention of local media.[23] Prop 8 amended California's constitution to remove existing marriage rights for same-sex couples. Porterville, Tulare County voters voted over 75% in favor of Prop 8, among the highest levels in the State of California, during the election.[24] On August 4, 2010, Prop 8 was ruled unconstitutional under the 14th Amendment of the US Constitution. In June 2013, the mayor declared that month to be LGBT pride month,[25] but that proclamation was subsequently rescinded by the city council.[26] The City Council subsequently removed the Mayor responsible for introducing the proclamation, Virginia Gurrola.[27] During a discussion on the establishment of anti-bullying youth safe zones, Gurrola's successor, Cam Hamilton, stated "I’m against bullying, but I’m getting damn tired of it being used as a mantra for everything when all most people have to do is grow a pair and stick up for them damn selves."[28][29]

The United States Postal Service operates the Main Post Office on 65 W Mill St, the Town & Country Post Office on 1316 W Olive Ave, the Doyle Colony Post Office on 1391 E Springville Ave, and the Poplar Post Office on 14653 Road 192. The Main Post Office is listed in the National Register of Historic Places.

Economy[edit]

Largest employers[edit]

According to the City's 2011 Comprehensive Annual Financial Report,[30] the top employers in the city are:

#Employer# of employees
1Porterville Developmental Center1,560
2Porterville Unified School District1,475
3Walmart1,359
4Sierra View District Hospital888
5Eagle Mountain Casino512
6City of Porterville504
7Foster Farms450
8Burton School District436
9United States Forest Service - Sequoia National Forest371
10Beckman Coulter212

Local trivia[edit]

The First Congregational Church, US Post Office- Porterville Main, The Zalud House Museum.

Notable people[edit]

Transportation[edit]

Highways and freeways[edit]

California State Route 65, known as The All American City Highway or Porterville Freeway, is a major north-south freeway that heads north to Lindsay and south to Bakersfield. California State Route 190, is a major east west freeway in Porterville that heads west to California State Route 99 and east bypassing East Porterville to Springville.

Major highways[edit]

County highways[edit]

Public transportation[edit]

Porterville Transit Logo

The Porterville Transit operates environmentally-friendly and convenient public transportation to Porterville and the surrounding communities. Porterville COLT Paratranit service designed for transit riders with disabilities that prevent them from using regular bus services. Porterville Transit and COLT services are provided within the city limits and to designated unincorporated urban areas of the county, including "county islands" within the city limits.

The Tulare County Area Transit (TCaT) provides the public transit services between Porterville and smaller communities throughout the greater Porterville Area. Service includes Fixed Route and Demand Responsive services that are offered Monday through Saturday

Air transportation[edit]

Porterville Airport.jpg

Porterville has one airport. The Porterville Municipal Airport.(IATA: PTVICAO: KPTVFAA LID: PTV) the nearby commercial airports include:

Media[edit]

Newspaper[edit]

The Porterville Recorder is the daily newspaper serving Greater Porterville.

Radio Station[edit]

Radio stations KIOO (99.7 FM), KQKL (105.7 FM), KMQA (100.5 FM) and KTIP (1450 AM).

Television[edit]

TV station KTFF-DT and KVVG-LP are all licensed to Porterville.

Attractions[edit]

Golf[edit]

Indian gaming[edit]

Museums[edit]

Motorsports[edit]

Performing arts[edit]

Shopping[edit]

Festivals and Events[edit]

Outdoor Recreation[edit]

Education[edit]

Most of Porterville is served by the Porterville Unified School District, while portions of the western section of the city are zoned to the Burton Unified School District

School Districts of the Greater Porterville area[edit]

Higher education[edit]

Courts[edit]

South County Justice Center[edit]

The new nine-courtroom, 96,000-square-foot courthouse will replace the current overcrowded Porterville Courthouse. Scheduled for completion in fall 2013, the $93 million courthouse — which is being built by Sundt Construction Inc. and designed by CO Architects — will provide the necessary space for expansion and enhanced security, enabling the court to greatly improve access and services.

The current facility was designed when just 20,000 people depended on it; the area’s population has since more than doubled. The current courthouse has no holding cells and in-custody defendants must be held in the adjacent Sheriff’s substation, and it lacks the ideal secure circulation for in-custody defendants, staff, and the public, explained officials from Sundt and the AOC. The new courthouse will enhanced security, separate hallways for the public, staff, and in-custody defendants, expanded space for clerk service counters including exterior service windows that will enable court users to pay fees and fines without having to pass through security, adequate space for jury assembly, self-help and other services, and staff functions, and adequate parking, the current courthouse has only 20 spaces.

The facility will feature chambers, courtroom holdings, jury deliberations rooms, support services, clerks offices and work areas, public walk-up windows and queuing, holding and below-grade sally port. The approximately eight-acre site includes parking and circulation and a featured courtyard scheme.

The courthouse is designed to achieve a LEED Silver certification by the U.S. Green Building Council. The building includes high-performance glass, window-shading devices to prevent direct sunlight, and better insulated walls and roof, and a rain screen system.

It will have more energy-efficient mechanical units, which incorporate the partial use of chilled beam passive cooling and radiant heat. The lighting will be high-efficient fluorescent and LED fixtures.

Other sustainable features include: low-use water fixtures and landscape, green roofs, recycling construction materials, the use of regional material and renewable materials as well as certified wood and natural light.

The center was funded under the Trial Court Facilities Act of 2002, made the state of California responsible for court facilities and court construction statewide, and designated a portion of court-user fees and penalties collected to fund the project.

Shopping centers[edit]

Churches[edit]

Parks[edit]

Sister cities[edit]

Porterville has two sister cities,

References[edit]

  1. ^ "California Cities by Incorporation Date" (Word). California Association of Local Agency Formation Commissions. Retrieved August 25, 2014. 
  2. ^ "City Manager". City of Porterville. Retrieved October 22, 2014. 
  3. ^ a b "City Council". City of Porterville. Retrieved October 8, 2014. 
  4. ^ "2010 Census Gazetteer File - Places - California". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved September 19, 2014. 
  5. ^ "Porterville". Geographic Names Information System, U.S. Geological Survey. Retrieved October 21, 2014. 
  6. ^ Mildred Brooke Hoover, Douglas E. Kyle, Historic spots in California, Stanford University Press, 2002, p.543
  7. ^ Frank, Gelya. "The Un-ratified treaties of 1851". Tule River Tribe. Retrieved October 7, 2014. 
  8. ^ "ON ADOPTION OF THE RESOLUTION TO ADVISE AND CONSENT TO THE RATIFICATION OF EACH OF THE 18 TREATIES WITH THE INDIAN TRIBES OF CALIFORNIA. (P409 417)". govtrack.us. Retrieved October 7, 2014. 
  9. ^ a b c d Menefee, Eugene L; Dodge, Fred A (1913). History of Tulare and Kings Counties California. Retrieved October 7, 2014. 
  10. ^ a b Gorenfeld, William (June 1999). "The Tule River War". Wild West. Retrieved October 7, 2014. 
  11. ^ Frank, Gelya. "The Tule River Indian War of 1856". Tule River Tribe. Retrieved October 7, 2014. 
  12. ^ "US Gazetteer files: 2010, 2000, and 1990". United States Census Bureau. 2011-02-12. Retrieved 2011-04-23. 
  13. ^ "NowData - NOAA Online Weather Data". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved 2012-02-15. 
  14. ^ Driveclean from the California Government web site[dead link]
  15. ^ People at Risk In 25 U.S. Cities Most Polluted by Short-Term Particle Pollution. American Lung Association. Retrieved on January 5, 2007.
  16. ^ People at Risk In 25 U.S. Cities Most Polluted by Year-Round Particle Pollution. American Lung Association. Retrieved on January 5, 2007.
  17. ^ "Pittsburgh and Los Angeles the most polluted US cities". 
  18. ^ "2010 Census Interactive Population Search: CA - Porterville city". U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved July 12, 2014. 
  19. ^ "American FactFinder". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2008-01-31. 
  20. ^ "California's 23rd Congressional District - Representatives & District Map". Civic Impulse, LLC. Retrieved October 5, 2014. 
  21. ^ Avila, Esther (October 7, 2008). "Porterville City Council hears earful on its Prop. 8 decision". Porterville Recorder. Retrieved October 6, 2014. 
  22. ^ Faison, Glen (October 4, 2008). "Porterville council puts weight behind Prop. 8". Porterville Recorder. Retrieved October 6, 2014. 
  23. ^ Chandler, Jenna (August 5, 2010). "Overturning of Prop. 8 spurs celebration". Porterville Recorder. Retrieved October 6, 2014. 
  24. ^ Stackhouse-Hite, Anita (November 9, 2008). "The battle for or against Proposition 8 continues". Porterville Recorder. Retrieved October 6, 2014. 
  25. ^ Ballard, Kelli (June 4, 2013). "Council proclamation to note Gay Pride Month". Porterville Recorder. Retrieved October 6, 2014. 
  26. ^ Ballard, Kelli (July 18, 2013). "LGBT Pride month proclamation rescinded". Porterville Recorder. Retrieved October 6, 2014. 
  27. ^ Ballard, Kelli (September 19, 2013). "Another Changing of the Guards". Porterville Recorder. Retrieved October 6, 2014. 
  28. ^ Ballard, Kelli (May 8, 2014). "'Safe Zone' idea stirs controversy". Porterville Recorder. Retrieved October 6, 2014. 
  29. ^ "Porterville back in the spotlight". Porterville Recorder. May 21, 2014. Retrieved October 6, 2014. 
  30. ^ "City of Porterville CAFR". Retrieved 2012-12-24. 
  31. ^ All-America City: Past Winners

External links[edit]