Population of Canada

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Historical population of Canada since confederation, 1867–2009

The historical growth of Canada's population is complex and has been influenced by several factors, such as indigenous populations, expansion of territory, and human migration. Being a new world country, Canada has been predisposed to be a very open society with regards to immigration, which has been the most important factor in its historical population growth.[1] Canadians make up about 0.5% of the world's total population.[2] Estimates have the population around 35 million as of December 2012.[3]

Despite the fact that Canada's population density is low, many regions in the south such as Southern Ontario, have population densities higher than several European countries. The large size of Canada's north which is not arable, and thus cannot support large human populations, significantly lowers the carrying capacity. Therefore the population density of the habitable land in Canada can be modest to high depending on the region.

Historical population overview[edit]

The Aboriginal population in what is now Canada, during the late 15th century is estimated to have been between 200,000[4] and two million,[5] with a figure of 500,000 currently accepted by Canada's Royal Commission on Aboriginal Health.[6] Repeated outbreaks of European infectious diseases such as influenza, measles and smallpox (to which they had no natural immunity), combined with other effects of European contact, resulted in a twenty-five percent to eighty percent Aboriginal population decrease post-contact.[4]

From 1605 to 1867 (prior to Canadian confederation) population counts reflected only the former colonies and settlements and not the country to be as a whole or Aboriginal nations.[7] The 1666 census of New France was the first census conducted in Canada (and indeed in North America).[8] It was organized by Jean Talon, the first Intendant of New France, between 1665 and 1666.[8] According to Talon's census there were 3,215 people in New France, comprising 538 separate families.[9] The census showed a great difference in the number of men at 2,034 versus 1,181 women.[9] The population grew slowly under French rule,[10] thus remained relatively low as growth was largely achieved through natural births, rather than by immigration.[11] By the early 1700s the New France settlers were well established in what is now Quebec, Eastern Ontario and Nova Scotia with a population around 16,000.[12]

Distribution of population in Canada for the years 1851, 1871, 1901, 1921 and 1941

The population has consistently risen every year since the establishment of the Dominion of Canada in 1867; however the population of Newfoundland and Labrador had not been included in post-confederation tallies prior to its entry into confederation as Canada's tenth province in 1949.[13][14] The first national census of the country was taken in 1871, with a population count around 3,689,000.[15] The year with the least population growth (in real terms) was 1882–1883, when only 30,000 new individuals were enumerated.[14] The 1911 census was a detailed enumeration of the population showing a count of 7,206,643 individuals.[16] This was an increase of 34% over the 1901 census of 5,371,315.[17] The year with the most population growth was during the peak of the Post-World War II baby boom in 1956–1957, when the population grew by over 529,000, in a single twelve-month period.[14] The Canadian baby boom defined from 1947 to 1966, saw more than 400,000 babies born.[18] The 1996 census attempted to count every person in the country, totaling a population count of 28,846,761.[19] This was a 5.7% increase over the 1991 census of 27,296,859.[19] The 2001 census had a total population count of 30,007,094.[20] In contrast, the official Statistics Canada population estimate for 2001 was 31,021,300.[21]

Canada's total population enumerated by the 2006 census was 31,612,897.[22] This count was lower than the official 1 July 2006 population estimate of 32,623,490 people.[22] Ninety-percent of the population growth between 2001 and 2006 was concentrated in the main metropolitan areas.[23] The 2011 census was the fifteenth decennial census with a total population count of 33,476,688 up 5.9% from 2006. On average, censuses have been taken every five years since 1905. Censuses are required to be taken at least every ten years as mandated in section 8 of the Constitution Act, 1867.[24]

Components of population growth[edit]

Canada's current annual population growth rate is 1.238%, or a daily increase of 1,137 individuals.[14] Between 1867 and 2009 Canada's population grew by 979%.[14] It will have taken 144 years to do so. Canada had the highest net migration rate (0.61%) of all G-8 member countries between 1994 and 2004.[14] Natural growth accounts for an annual increase of 137,626 persons, at a yearly rate of 0.413%.[14] Between 2001 and 2006, there were 1,446,080 immigrants and 237,418 emigrants, resulting in a net migration of just over 1.2 million persons.[14] Since 2001, immigration has ranged between 221,352 and 262,236 immigrants per annum.[25]

Population by years[edit]

Information obtained from Statistics Canada [Note 1]

Former colonies and territories 1605 — 1866[edit]

17th century
  • 1605 – Port Royal (founded) – 44 (surviving members of 79 from the St. Croix settlement).
  • 1608 – Quebec City (founded) – 28 (settlers from Port Royal)
  • 1610 – Cuper's Cove (founded) – 39
  • 1613 – Cuper's Cove – 62 (10,000 Aboriginals in surrounding area)
  • 1620 – Quebec city – 60
  • 1622 - Newfoundland - 32 (wintered)
  • 1628- New France - 76
  • 1629 – Quebec city – 117 (90 being English belonging to Kirke's Expedition).
  • 1641- New France - 240
  • 1653 - New France - 2,000
  • 1663- New France - 2,500
  • 1665/66 – New France – 3,215 (first census of North America)
  • 1667 - New France - 3,918
  • 1668- New France - 6,282
  • 1671 - Acadia - 441
  • 1673 - New France - 6,705
  • 1675 - New France - 7,832
  • 1676 - New France - 8,415
  • 1679 - New France - 9,400 (Acadia - 515)
  • 1680 -New France - 9,719 (960 Aboriginals in surrounding villages)
  • 1683 - New France - 10,251
  • 1685 - New France - 12,263 (1,538 Aboriginals in surrounding villages)
  • 1686 - Acadia - 885
  • 1687 – Newfoundland (French Population) – 663
  • 1691 - Newfoundland (French Population) - 155
  • 1693 – Acadia – 1,009
  • 1698 – New France, a portion of Acadia and English of Newfoundland – 17,832
18th century
  • 1705 – Newfoundland – 520
  • 1707 – New France and Acadia – 18,688
  • 1714 – New France and Acadia – 20,737
  • 1720 – New France and Isle St-Jean (PEI) – 24,534
  • 1735 – Isle St-Jean – 541
  • 1741 – English of Newfoundland – 6,000
  • 1749 – British of Nova Scotia and French of the Acadian Peninsula, Île Royale, Acadian Mainland and Isle St-Jean – 18,544
  • 1737 – New France and Acadia including Aboriginals – 126,943
  • 1752 – British and German of Nova Scotia and the French of the Acadian Peninsula, Ile Royale, Acadian Mainland and Isle St-Jean – 21,378
  • 1775 – Canada (New France) – 90,000
  • 1781 – Nova Scotia – 12,000
  • 1790 – Canada (New France) and Nova Scotia – 191,311
19th century

Since confederation 1867 — 2008[edit]

Historical population
YearPop.  ±%  
18673,463,000—    
18683,511,000+1.4%
18693,565,000+1.5%
18703,625,000+1.7%
18713,689,000+1.8%
18723,755,000+1.8%
18733,826,000+1.9%
18743,895,000+1.8%
18753,954,000+1.5%
18764,009,000+1.4%
18774,064,000+1.4%
18784,121,000+1.4%
18794,186,000+1.6%
18804,255,000+1.6%
18814,325,000+1.6%
18824,400,000+1.7%
18834,430,000+0.7%
18844,487,000+1.3%
18854,537,000+1.1%
18864,580,000+0.9%
18874,626,000+1.0%
18884,678,000+1.1%
18894,729,000+1.1%
18904,779,000+1.1%
18914,831,000+1.1%
18924,883,000+1.1%
18934,931,000+1.0%
18944,979,000+1.0%
18955,026,000+0.9%
18965,074,000+1.0%
18975,122,000+0.9%
18985,175,000+1.0%
18995,235,000+1.2%
19005,310,000+1.4%
19015,371,000+1.1%
19025,494,000+2.3%
19035,651,000+2.9%
19045,827,000+3.1%
19056,002,000+3.0%
19066,097,000+1.6%
19076,411,000+5.2%
19086,625,000+3.3%
19096,700,000+1.1%
19106,988,000+4.3%
19117,207,000+3.1%
19127,389,000+2.5%
19137,632,000+3.3%
19147,879,000+3.2%
19157,981,000+1.3%
19168,001,000+0.3%
Historical population
YearPop.  ±%  
19168,001,000—    
19178,060,000+0.7%
19188,148,000+1.1%
19198,311,000+2.0%
19208,435,000+1.5%
19218,788,000+4.2%
19228,919,000+1.5%
19239,010,000+1.0%
19249,143,000+1.5%
19259,294,000+1.7%
19269,451,000+1.7%
19279,637,000+2.0%
19289,835,000+2.1%
192910,029,000+2.0%
193010,208,000+1.8%
193110,377,000+1.7%
193210,510,000+1.3%
193310,633,000+1.2%
193410,741,000+1.0%
193510,845,000+1.0%
193610,950,000+1.0%
193711,045,000+0.9%
193811,152,000+1.0%
193911,267,000+1.0%
194011,382,000+1.0%
194111,507,000+1.1%
194211,654,000+1.3%
194311,795,000+1.2%
194411,946,000+1.3%
194512,072,000+1.1%
194612,292,000+1.8%
194712,551,000+2.1%
194812,823,000+2.2%
194913,447,000+4.9%
195013,712,000+2.0%
195114,009,000+2.2%
195214,459,000+3.2%
195314,845,000+2.7%
195415,287,000+3.0%
195515,698,000+2.7%
195616,081,000+2.4%
195716,610,000+3.3%
195817,080,000+2.8%
195917,483,000+2.4%
196017,870,000+2.2%
196118,239,000+2.1%
196218,583,000+1.9%
196318,931,000+1.9%
196419,291,000+1.9%
196519,644,000+1.8%
Historical population
YearPop.  ±%  
196519,644,000—    
196619,967,000+1.6%
196720,500,000+2.7%
196820,701,000+1.0%
196921,001,000+1.4%
197021,297,000+1.4%
197121,963,000+3.1%
197222,219,000+1.2%
197322,494,000+1.2%
197422,809,000+1.4%
197523,143,000+1.5%
197623,449,000+1.3%
197723,727,000+1.2%
197823,964,000+1.0%
197924,203,000+1.0%
198024,517,000+1.3%
198124,821,000+1.2%
198225,118,000+1.2%
198325,367,000+1.0%
198425,608,000+1.0%
198525,843,000+0.9%
198626,101,000+1.0%
198726,449,000+1.3%
198826,798,000+1.3%
198927,056,000+1.0%
199027,512,000+1.7%
199127,945,000+1.6%
199228,377,000+1.5%
199328,682,000+1.1%
199428,997,000+1.1%
199529,303,000+1.1%
199629,611,000+1.1%
199729,965,000+1.2%
199830,158,000+0.6%
199930,404,000+0.8%
200030,689,000+0.9%
200131,021,000+1.1%
200231,373,000+1.1%
200331,676,000+1.0%
200432,048,000+1.2%
200532,359,000+1.0%
200632,723,000+1.1%
2007 (Est.)33,115,000+1.2%
2008 (Est.)33,506,000+1.2%

Enumeration (Census) and projection data[edit]

Census data
YearPop.  ±%  
18713,689,257—    
18814,324,810+17.2%
18914,833,239+11.8%
19015,371,315+11.1%
19117,206,643+34.2%
19218,787,949+21.9%
193110,374,196+18.1%
194111,506,655+10.9%
195114,009,429+21.8%
196118,238,247+30.2%
197121,568,311+18.3%
197622,992,604+6.6%
198124,343,181+5.9%
198625,309,331+4.0%
199127,296,859+7.9%
199628,846,761+5.7%
200130,007,094+4.0%
200631,612,897+5.4%
201133,476,688+5.9%
[26][27][28][29][30][31][32][33]
Population projections
High-growth scenario
YearPop.  ±%  
201133,470,000—    
201636,540,000+9.2%
202139,110,000+7.0%
202641,750,000+6.8%
203144,430,000+6.4%
203647,130,000+6.1%
204149,900,000+5.9%
204652,910,000+6.0%
205156,070,000+6.0%
205659,400,000+5.9%
206163,000,000+6.1%
[34]

Population distribution[edit]

Canada's population from the 2011 census by province and territory

By province and territory[edit]

By cities and municipalities[edit]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Census information prior to 1867 are from documentation of the period and have been amalgamated by Statistics Canada for accuracy. Census information after 1871 counts the population at a time period prior to the end of the calendar year, numbers displayed reflect the end of the calendar year and have been adjusted by Statistics Canada to be accurate.
    Chart source 1: "Estimated population of Canada, 1605 to 2009". , Statistics Canada
    Chart source 2: Early French settlements (1605 to 1691), Statistics Canada
    2010 source: "Canada's population estimates". The Daily (Statistics Canada). 
    2011 source: "2011 Census Profile". Statistics Canada. Retrieved 2012-03-08. 
    Additional source: "Summaries of census information from 1605 to 1871" (PDF). 
    The population count appearing from 2007 to 2010 may differ from the official totals as data displayed is as a rough estimate - Detailed explanation - Statistics Canada

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Canadians in Context — Population Size and Growth". Human Resources and Skills Development Canada. 2010. Retrieved 17 December 2010. 
  2. ^ "Environment — Greenhouse Gases (Greenhouse Gas Emissions per Person)". Human Resources and Skills Development Canada. 2010. Retrieved 23 June 2010. 
  3. ^ Green, Jeff (December 6, 2012). "Canada’s population hits 35 million". The Toronto Star. Retrieved September 16, 2013. 
  4. ^ a b Herbert C. Northcott; Donna Marie Wilson (2008). Dying And Death In Canada. University of Toronto Press. pp. 25–27. ISBN 978-1-55111-873-4. 
  5. ^ Michael R. Haines; Richard H. Steckel (2000). A Population History of North America. Cambridge University Press. p. 13. ISBN 978-0-521-49666-7. 
  6. ^ Garrick Alan Bailey; William C ... Sturtevant; Smithsonian Institution (U S ) (2008). Handbook Of North American Indians: Indians in Contemporary Society. Government Printing Office. p. 285. ISBN 978-0-16-080388-8. 
  7. ^ "Summaries of census information from 1605 to 1871" (PDF). Statistics of Canada. 2008. Retrieved 20 July 2010. 
  8. ^ a b "North America's First Census". Statistics Canada. 2009. Retrieved 23 June 2010. 
  9. ^ a b "Ttables of census data collected in 1665 and 1666 by Jean Talon". Statistics Canada. 2009. Retrieved 23 June 2010. 
  10. ^ David L. Preston (2009). The Texture of Contact: European and Indian Settler Communities on the Frontiers of Iroquoia, 1667-1783. U of Nebraska Press. p. 43. ISBN 978-0-8032-2549-7. 
  11. ^ John Powell (2009). Encyclopedia of North American Immigration. Infobase Publishing. p. 203. ISBN 978-1-4381-1012-7. 
  12. ^ "Estimated population of Canada, 1605 to present". Statistics Canada. 2009. Retrieved 2010-08-26. 
  13. ^ "Estimated population of Canada, 1605 to present". Statistics Canada. 2009. Retrieved 16 April 2010. 
  14. ^ a b c d e f g h "Canadians in Context — Population Size and Growth". Human Resources and Skills Development Canada. 2010. Retrieved 23 June 2010. 
  15. ^ "History of the Census of Canada". Statistics Canada. 2006. Retrieved 22 June 2010. 
  16. ^ "OGSPI 1911 Census Menu". The Ontario Genealogical Society (OGS). 2005. Retrieved 23 June 2010. 
  17. ^ "Canadian Immigration – Early 1900s". British immigrants in Montreal. 2010. Retrieved 24 June 2010. 
  18. ^ "By definition: Boom, bust, X and why". Globe and Mail. 2006 -2009. Retrieved 23 June 2010. 
  19. ^ a b "Census of Canada, A population and dwelling counts" (PDF). Statistics Canada. 1997. Retrieved 22 June 2010. 
  20. ^ "2001 Census facts: did you know..." (PDF). Statistics Canada. 2006. Retrieved 24 June 2010. 
  21. ^ "Population estimates". Statistics Canada. 2006. Retrieved 24 June 2010. 
  22. ^ a b "Differences between Statistics Canada’s census counts and population estimates" (PDF). Statistics Canada. 2006. Retrieved 22 June 2010. 
  23. ^ "Population and dwelling counts A portrait of the Canadian population". Statistics Canada. 2007. Retrieved 22 June 2010. 
  24. ^ "The Constitution Act, 1867". The Solon Law Archive. 2001. Retrieved 23 June 2010. 
  25. ^ Annual Immigration by Category, Citizenship and Immigration Canada. Retrieved July 12, 2006.
  26. ^ 91.pdf, Canada Year Book 1932
  27. ^ 135.pdf, Canada Year Book 1955
  28. ^ 184.pdf, Canada Year Book 1967
  29. ^ Population and private dwellings occupied by usual residents and intercensal growth for Canada - 1971 to 2011
  30. ^ Manitoba (Canada): Province & Major Cities - Statistics & Maps on City Population
  31. ^ 1996 Census of Canada - Electronic Area Profiles
  32. ^ Population and dwelling counts, for Canada, provinces and territories - 2006 and 2001 censuses
  33. ^ Population and dwelling counts, for Canada, provinces and territories - 2011 and 2006 censuses
  34. ^ "Population Projections for Canada - Components of population growth, high-growth scenario - 2009/2010 to 2060/2061". Statistics Canada. Catalogue no. 91-520. 2006. Retrieved September 8, 2013. 

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]