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The Pool of Siloam (Hebrew: בריכת השילוח) (Breikhat Hashiloah) is a rock-cut pool on the southern slope of the City of David, the original site of Jerusalem, located outside the walls of the Old City to the southeast. The pool was fed by the waters of the Gihon Spring, carried there by two aqueducts.
For Christians, the Pool of Siloam has additional special significance: it is mentioned in the Gospel of John as the location to which Jesus sent "a man blind from birth" in order to complete the healing of the man.
A substantial remodeling of a nearby pool, thought to be the Pool of Siloam, was constructed in the 5th century under Byzantine direction and is said to have been built at the behest of Empress Aelia Eudocia. This pool, having been somewhat abandoned and left to ruin, partly survives to the present day, surrounded by a high wall of stones on all sides (except for an arched entrance to Hezekiah's tunnel, which was only rediscovered in the 19th century).
The Pool of Siloam from the Second Temple was destroyed and covered during the Great Revolt of Judea against the Romans in the year 70. The Indication for the dating was reveled by a number of coins discovered on the stones of the patio near the pool to the north, all dating to the days of the Great Revolt against the Romans. The oldest coin is dated with "4 years to the day of the Great Revolt against the Romans Meaning the year of 69. In the years following the destruction winter rains washed alluvial from the hills down to the valley and down the slopes of Mount Zion to the west of the pool, the pool was filled into the silt layers (up to 4 m in some places) until it was covered completely. During a sewer change excavation near the present-day pool by Ir David Foundation workers, In the autumn of 2004, Eli Shukron an Archaeologist (in the Israel Antiquities Authority) excavating near bay, asked to delay the works in order to document and photographs the sewer excavation by the "Israel Nature and Parks Authority" Ori Orbach. During the tractors work Shukron heard a familiar sound he know from year of work and asked the tractor to stop working, he approached the stones and uncovered the first steps, Ronny Reich a Colleague of Eli Shukron, was called to the scene. It became obvious to them that these steps were likely to have been part of the Second Temple period pool.
Ancient records report that during the Second Temple period, there was a lower pool. During a sewer excavating near the present-day pool by Ir David Foundation workers, in the autumn of 2004, Archaeologist Eli Shukron (working in the Israel Antiquities Authority) accompanied by the "Israel Nature and Parks Authority" Ori Orbach (how was asked to document in photographs the sewer excavation by Eli Shukron) uncovered stone steps, It became obvious to Eli Shukron and Ronny Reich (prominent archaeologists) that these steps were likely to have been part of the Second Temple period pool. Excavations commenced and confirmed the initial supposition; the find was formally announced on August 9, 2005, and received substantial international media attention. The pool is less than 70 yards from the edge of the Byzantine reconstruction of a pool previously thought to be the Pool of Siloam. This small pool collected some of the water as it emptied there at the southern end of Hezekiah's tunnel. The water continued on through a channel into the recently discovered Pool of Siloam. The source of the water is from the Gihon Spring, located at the northern end of Hezekiah's tunnel on the eastern side of the City of David. An ancient pool (Upper Pool) existed near the Gihon Spring but was no longer used after King Hezekiah redirected the waters to the western side of the city.
The lower pool is not perfectly rectangular, but a soft trapezoid. There are three sets of five steps, two leading to a platform, before the bottom is reached, and it has been suggested that the steps were designed to accommodate various water levels. The pool is stone-lined, but underneath, there is evidence of an earlier version that was merely plastered (to help it retain water). Coins found within this plaster date from the time of Alexander Jannaeus (104–76 BC), while a separate collection of coins, dating from the time of the First Jewish–Roman War (AD 66–70), were also found.
How much of the pool and its surrounding structures were a result of monumental construction by Herod the Great is not yet understood (as of September 2006); nor is the relationship of this pool to the earlier one (i.e., why it was built when the earlier pool already existed). A portion of this pool remains unexcavated, as the land above it is owned by a nearby Greek Orthodox church and is occupied by an orchard known as the King's Garden (compare Nehemiah 3:15).
As a freshwater reservoir, it would have been a major gathering place for ancient Jews making religious pilgrimages to the city. The Gospel of John suggests that it was probably used as a mikvah (ritual bath), although mikvahs are usually much smaller in size; if the pool were a mikvah, it would be the largest ever found by a substantial margin. Yoel Elitzur has proposed that the pool was used for swimming rather than ritual immersion. It is thought that the current structure was originally the Shrine of the Four Nymphs (Tetranymphon), a nymphaeum built by Hadrian during the construction of Aelia Capitolina in 135 and mentioned in Byzantine works such as the 7th-century Chronicon Paschale; other nymphaea built by Hadrian, such as that at Sagalassos, are very similar.