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politics and government of
Politics of Turkey takes place in a framework of a strictly secular parliamentary representative democratic republic, whereby the Prime Minister of Turkey is the head of government, and of a multi-party system. The President of Turkey is the head of state who holds a largely ceremonial role but with substantial reserve powers.
Turkey's political system is based on a separation of powers. Executive power is exercised by the Council of Ministers. Legislative power is vested in the Grand National Assembly of Turkey. The judiciary is independent of the executive and the legislature.
The Turkish Constitution and most mainstream political parties are built on the following principles:
Other political ideas also influence Turkish politics. Of particular importance are:
These principles are the continuum around which various political parties and groups campaign.
Since 1950, parliamentary politics has been dominated by conservative parties. Even the ruling AK Party, although its core cadres come from the Islamist current, tends to identify itself with the "tradition" of the Democratic Party (DP). The leftist parties, the most notable of which is the Republican People's Party (CHP), with a stable electorate, draw much of their support from big cities, coastal regions, professional middle-class, and minority groups such as Alevis.
The AK Party lacks the two-thirds majority in parliament necessary to push through constitutional changes.