Political party strength in Michigan

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The tables below indicate the political party affiliation of elected officials in the U.S. State of Michigan from statehood through January 2011.[1]

Officials listed include: Governors, Lieutenant Governors, Secretaries of State, Attorneys General and State Treasurers.[2] The tables also indicate the historical party composition in the State Senate, State House of Representatives, the names and party affiliations of Michigan's U.S. Senators, and the party composition of Michigan's delegations to the U.S House of Representatives. For years in which a presidential election was held, the tables show which party's nominees received the State's electoral votes.

The parties are indicated as follows:       Democratic (D),       Republican (R), and       Whig (W), with purple       designating a tie between two parties.

19th century – from statehood in 1837 to 1899[edit]

YearExecutive officesState LegislatureUnited States CongressElectoral College votes
GovernorLieutenant GovernorSecretary of StateAttorney GeneralTreasurerState SenateState HouseU.S. Senator (Class I)U.S. Senator (Class II)U.S. Representatives
1837Stevens T. Mason (D)Edward Mundy (D)Kintzing Pritchette (D)[3]Peter Morey (D)[4]Appointed Office1650Lucius Lyon (D)John Norvell (D)1D
1838Randolph Manning (D)[5]
18391752Vacant1D
1840William Woodbridge (W)[6]James Wright Gordon (W)Thomas Rowland (W)[7]Augustus Porter (W)Harrison/Tyler (W)
1841James Wright Gordon (W)[8]Thomas J. Drake (W)Zephaniah Platt1752William Woodbridge (W)1W
1842John S. Barry (D)Origen D. Richardson (D)Robert P. Eldredge (D) [9]
1843Elon Farnsworth (D)18533D
1844Polk/Dallas (D)
1845Henry N. Walker (D)[10]1853Lewis Cass (D)3D
1846Alpheus Felch (D)[6]William L. Greenly (D)Gideon O. Whittemore
1847William L. Greenly (D)[8]Charles P. Bush (D)Edward Mundy (D)2266Alpheus Felch (D)3D
1848Epaphroditus Ransom (D)William M. Fenton (D)George Washington Peck (D)[11]George V. N. Lothrop (D)Thomas Fitzgerald (D)Cass/Butler (D)
18492266Lewis Cass (D)2D, 1W
1850John S. Barry (D)George R. Redfield (D)[12]Bernard C. Whittemore (D)[13][14][15]
1851Charles H. Taylor (D)[16]William Hale (D)22632W, 1D
1852Robert McClelland[17]Calvin Britain (D)Pierce/King (D)
1853Andrew Parsons (D)William Graves (D)[18]3271Charles E. Stuart (D)4D
Andrew Parsons (D)[8]George Griswold (D)
1854
1855Kinsley S. Bingham (R)George Coe (R)John McKinney (R)[19]Jacob M. Howard (R)Silas M. Holmes (R) [20]25R, 7D48R, 24D3R, 1D
1856Fremont/Dayton ( R)
185729R, 3D63R, 17DZachariah Chandler (R)4R
1858
1859Moses Wisner (R)Edmund B. Fairfield (R)Nelson G. Isbell (R)[21]John McKinney (R)24R, 8D56R, 25DKinsley S. Bingham (R)3R, 1D
1860
1861Austin Blair (R)James M. Birney (R)James B. Porter (R) [22]Charles Upson (R)John Owen (R)[23]30R, 2D72R, 11D4RLincoln/Hamlin (R)
Joseph R. Williams (R)
1862Henry T. Backus (R)Jacob M. Howard (R)
1863Charles S. May (R)Albert Williams (R)[24]18R, 14D60R, 39D5R, 1D
1864Lincoln/Johnson (R)
1865Henry H. Crapo (R)Ebenezer O. Grosvenor (R)21R, 11D73R, 27D6R
1866
1867Dwight May (R)Oliver L. Spaulding (R)[25]William L. Stoughton (R)Ebenezer O. Grosvenor (R)30R, 1D79R, 21D6R
1868Grant/Colfax (R)
1869Henry P. Baldwin (R)Morgan Bates (R)Dwight May (R)27R, 5D75R, 25D6R
1870
1871Daniel Striker (R)[26]Victory P. Collier (R)[27]27R, 5D71R, 29DThomas W. Ferry (R)5R, 1D
1872Grant/Wilson (R)
1873John J. Bagley (R)Henry H. Holt (R)Byron D. Ball (R)[28]31R, 1D95R, 5D9R
1874Isaac Marston (R)[29]
1875Ebenezer G. D. Holden (R)[30]Andrew J. Smith (R)[31]William B. McCreery (R)[32]17R, 15D54R, 46DIsaac P. Christiancy (R)6R, 3D
1876Hayes/Wheeler (R)
1877Charles Croswell (R)Alonzo Sessions (R)Otto Kirchner (R)23R, 9D75R, 25D8R, 1D
1878
1879William Jenney (R)[33]Benjamin D. Pritchard (R)[34]23R, 9D75R, 25DZachariah Chandler (R)9R
1880Henry P. Baldwin (R)
1881David Jerome (R)Moreau S. Crosby (R)Jacob J. Van Riper (R)[35]30R, 2D86R, 14DOmar D. Conger (R)9RGarfield/Arthur (R)
1882
1883Josiah Begole (D)Harry A. Conant (R)[36]Edward H. Butler (R)[37]19R, 13D62R, 38DThomas W. Palmer (R)5R, 6D
1884Blaine/Logan (R)
1885Russell Alger (R)Archibald Buttars (R)Moses Taggart (R) [38]18R, 14D52R, 48D4R, 7D
1886
1887Cyrus G. Luce (R)James H. MacDonald (R)Gilbert R. Osmun (R)[39]George L. Maltz (R)[40]22R, 10D63R, 37DFrancis B. Stockbridge (R)6R, 5D
1888Harrison/Morton (R)
1889William Ball (R)Stephen V. R. Trowbridge (R)[41]24R, 8D70R, 30DJames McMillan (D)9R, 2D
1890Benjamin W. Huston(R)[42]
1891Edwin B. Winans (D)John Strong (D)Daniel E. Soper (D)[43]Adolphus A. Ellis (D)[44]Frederick Braastad (D)[45]15R, 17D34R, 66D3R, 8D
1892Robert R. Blacker (D)[46]Harrison/Reid (R), 9 votes
Cleveland/Stevenson (D), 5 votes)
1893John T. Rich (R)J. Wight Giddings (R)John W. Jochim (R)[47][48]Joseph F. Hambitzer (R)[48][49]22R, 10D69R,31 D7R, 5D
1894Washington Gardner (R)[50]James M. Wilkinson (R) [48]John Patton, Jr. (R)
1895Alfred Milnes (R)Fred A. Maynard (R)[48][51]32R, 0D99R, 1DJulius C. Burrows (R)12R
1896Joseph R. McLaughlin (R)McKinley/Hobart (R)
1897Hazen S. Pingree (R)Thomas B. Dunstan (R)George A. Steel (R)[52]26R, 6D81R, 19D10R, 2D
1898
1899Orrin W. Robinson (R)Justus S. Stearns (R)[53]Horace M. Oren (R)[54]27R, 5D92R, 8 D12R
YearGovernorLieutenant GovernorSecretary of StateAttorney GeneralTreasurerState SenateState HouseU.S. Senator (Class I)U.S. Senator (Class II)U.S. RepresentativesElectoral College votes
Executive officesState LegislatureUnited States Congress

20th century – 1900 to 1964[edit]

YearExecutive officesState LegislatureUnited States CongressElectoral College votes
GovernorLieutenant GovernorSecretary of StateAttorney GeneralTreasurerAuditorHighway CommissionerState SenateState HouseU.S. Senator (Class I)U.S. Senator (Class II)U.S. Representatives
1900Hazen S. Pingree (R)Orrin W. Robinson (R)Justus S. Stearns (R)Horace M. Oren (R)George A. Steel[55]Roscoe D. Dix (R)No such office27R, 5D[56]92R, 8DJulius C. Burrows (R)James McMillan (R)12 RMcKinley/Roosevelt (R)
1901Aaron T. Bliss (R)Fred M. Warner (R)[57]Daniel M. McCoy (R)[48]Perry F. Powers (R)31R, 1D90R, 10D12 R
1902
1903Alexander Maitland (R)Charles A. Blair (R)[58]31R, 1D100RRussell A. Alger (R)11 R, 1 D
1904Roosevelt/Fairbanks (R)
1905Fred M. Warner (R)George A. Prescott (R)[59]John E. Bird (R)[60]Frank P. Glazier (R)James B. Bradley (R)Horatio Earle (R)32R95R, 5D12 R
1906
1907Patrick H. Kelley (R)32R95R, 5DWilliam A. Smith (R)12 R
1908John T. Rich (R)Taft/Sherman (R)
1909Frederick C. Martindale (R)[61]Albert Sleeper (R)Oramel B. Fuller (R)Townsend A. Ely (R)32R98R, 2D12 R
1910Franz C. Kuhn (R)[62]
1911Chase Osborn (R)John Q. Ross (R)28R, 4D88R, 12DCharles E. Townsend (R)10 R, 2 D
1912Roger I. Wykes (R)[63]Roosevelt/Johnson (P)
1913Woodbridge Nathan Ferris (D)Grant Fellows (R)[64]John W. Harrer (R)Frank F. Rogers (R)27R, 5D65R, 3510 R, 2 D, 2 P
1914
1915Luren Dickinson (R)Coleman C. Vaughan (R) [65]29R, 3D95R, 5D11 R, 2 D
1916Hughes/Fairbanks (R)
1917Albert Sleeper (R)Alex Groesbeck (R)Samuel Odell27R, 5D88R, 12F11 R, 2 D
1918
191932R98R, 2RTruman H. Newberry (R)12 R, 1 D
1920Frank E. Gorman (R)[66]Harding/Coolidge (R)
1921Alex Groesbeck (R)Thomas Read (R)Charles J. DeLand (R)[67]Merlin Wiley (R)[68]32R100R13 R
1922
1923Andrew B. Dougherty (R)[69]32R95R, 5DWoodbridge N. Ferris (D)James J. Couzens (R)12 R, 1 D
1924Coolidge/Dawes (R)
1925George W. Welsh (R)Frank D. McKay[70]32R100R13 R
1926Clare Retan (R)[71]
1927Fred Green (R)Luren Dickinson (R)John S. Haggerty (R)[72]William W. Potter32R98R, 2D13 R
1928Wilber Marion Brucker (R)Arthur H. Vandenberg (R)Hoover/Curtis (R)
1929Grover C. Dillard (R)32R98R, 2D13 R
1930
1931Wilber Marion Brucker (R)Frank Fitzgerald (R)[73]Paul W. Voorhies (R)[74]Howard C. Lawrence (R)32R, 1D98R, 2D13 R
1932Roosevelt/Garner (D)
1933William Comstock (D)Allen E. Stebbins (D)Patrick H. O’Brien (D)[75]Theodore I. Fry (D)John K. Stack Jr. (D)Murray Van Wagoner (D)15R 17D45R, 55D7 R, 10 D
1934Clarke W. Brown
1935Frank Fitzgerald (R)Thomas Read (R)Orville E. Atwood (R)[76]Harry S. Toy (R)[77]John J. O'Hara (R)11R, 21D51R, 49D11 R, 6 D
1936David H. Crowley (R)[78]Roosevelt/Garner (D)
1937Frank Murphy (D)Leo J. Nowicki (D)Leon D. Case (D)[79]Raymond Wesley Starr (D)[80]George T. Gundry (D)15R, 17D40R, 60DPrentiss M. Brown (D)11 R, 6 D
1938
1939Frank Fitzgerald (R)|[81]Luren Dickinson (R)Harry Kelly (R)[82]Thomas Read (R)Miller Dunckel (D)Vernon J. Brown (R)23R, 9D73R, 27D12 R, 5 D
Luren Dickinson (R)[8]Matilda Dodge Wilson (R)
1940Wilkie/McNary (R)
1941Murray Van Wagoner (D)Frank Murphy (D)Herbert J. Rushton (R)[83]Theodore I. Fry (D)G. Donald Kennedy (R)22R, 10D68R, 32D11 R, 6 D
1942
1943Harry Kelly (R)Eugene C. Keyes (R)Herman H. Dignan (R)[84]D. Hale Brake (R)Lloyd B. Reid (D)25R, 7D74R, 26DHomer S. Ferguson (R)12 R, 5 D
1944Charles M. Zeigler (R)Roosevelt/Truman (D)
1945Vernon J. Brown (R)John R. Dethmers (R)John D. Morrison (R)24R, 8D66R, 34D11 R, 6 D
1946Foss O. Eldred (R)[85]
1947Kim Sigler (R)Eugene C. Keyes (R)Fred M. Alger, Jr. (R)[86]Eugene F. Black (R)[87]Murl K. Aten (R)28R, 4D95R, 5D14 R, 3 D
1948Dewey/Warren (R)
1949G. Mennen Williams (D)John W. Connolly (D)Stephen John Roth (D)[88]23R, 9D61R, 39D13 R, 4 D
195012 R, 5 D
1951William C. Vandenberg (R)Frank G. Millard (R)[89]John B. Martin (R)25R, 7D61R, 39DBlair Moody (D)12 R, 5 D
1952Eisenhower/Nixon (R)
1953Clarence A. Reid (R)Owen Cleary (R)[90]24R, 8D66R, 34DCharles E. Potter (R)13 R, 5 D
1954
1955Philip A. Hart (D)James M. Hare (D)[91]Thomas M. Kavanagh (D)[92]Sanford A. Brown (D)Victor Targonski (D)23R, 11D59R, 51DPatrick V. McNamara (D)11 R, 7 D
1956Eisenhower/Nixon (R)
1957Frank S. Szymanski (D)John C. Mackie (D)23R, 11D61R, 49D12 R, 6 D
1958Paul L. Adams (D)
1959John Swainson (D)Otis M. Smith (D)12R, 22D55R, 55DPhil Hart (D)11 R, 7 D
1960Kennedy/Johnson (D)
1961John Swainson (D)T. John Lesinski (D)Billie S. Farnum (D)22R, 12D56R, 54D11 R, 7 D
1962Frank J. Kelley (D)
1963George W. Romney (R)[93]23R, 11D58R, 52D11 R, 8 D
1964Johnson/Humphrey (D)
GovernorLieutenant GovernorSecretary of StateAttorney GeneralTreasurerAuditorHighway CommissionerState SenateState HouseU.S. Senator (Class I)U.S. Senator (Class II)U.S. RepresentativesElectoral College votes
Executive officesState LegislatureUnited States Congress

In 1963, the Michigan Constitution was rewritten, modifying the statewide elected positions.

20th century – 1965 to 1999[edit]

YearExecutive officesState LegislatureUnited States CongressElectoral College votes
GovernorLieutenant GovernorSecretary of StateAttorney GeneralState SenateState HouseU.S. Senator (Class I)U.S. Senator (Class II)U.S. Representatives
1965George W. Romney (R)[94]William Milliken (R)James M. Hare (D)[95]Frank J. Kelley (D)15R, 23D37R, 73DPhil Hart (D)Patrick V. McNamara (D)7 R, 12 D
1966Robert P. Griffin (R)
196720R, 18D56R, 54D12 R, 7 D
1968Humphrey/Muskie (D)
1969William Milliken (R)[96]vacant20R, 18D53R, 57D12 R, 7 D
1970Thomas F. Schweigert (R)
1971James H. Brickley (R)Richard H. Austin (D)19R, 19D52R, 58D12 R, 7 D
1972Nixon/Agnew (R)
197319R, 19D50R, 60D12 R, 7 D
1974
1975James Damman (R)14R, 24D44R, 66D7 R, 12 D
1976Ford/Dole (R)
197714R, 24D42R, 68DDonald W. Riegle, Jr. (D)8 R, 11 D
1978
1979James H. Brickley (R)14R, 24D40R, 70DCarl Levin (D)6 R, 13 D
1980Reagan/Bush (R)
198114R, 24D46R, 64D7 R, 12 D
1982
1983James Blanchard (D)Martha Griffiths (D)18R, 20D47R, 63D6 R, 12 D
1984Reagan/Bush (R)
198520R, 18D53R, 57D7 R, 11 D
1986
198720R, 18D46R, 64D7 R, 11 D
1988Bush/Quayle (R)
198920R, 18D49R, 61D7 R, 11 D
1990
1991John Engler (R)Connie Binsfeld (R)20R, 18D49R, 61D7 R, 11 D
1992Clinton/Gore (D)
199322R, 16DR55, D556 R, 10 D
1994
1995Candice Miller (R)22R, 16D56R, 53DSpencer Abraham (R)7 R, 9 D
1996Clinton/Gore (D)
199722R, 16D52R, 58D6 R, 10 D
1998
1999Dick Posthumus (R)Jennifer Granholm (D)23R, 15D58R, 52D6 R, 10 D
YearGovernorLieutenant GovernorSecretary of StateAttorney GeneralState SenateState HouseU.S. Senator (Class I)U.S. Senator (Class II)U.S. RepresentativesElectoral College votes
Executive officesState LegislatureUnited States Congress

21st century[edit]

YearExecutive officesState LegislatureUnited States CongressElectoral College votes
GovernorLieutenant GovernorSecretary of StateAttorney GeneralState SenateState HouseU.S. Senator (Class I)U.S. Senator (Class II)U.S. Representatives
2000John Engler (R)Dick Posthumus (R)Candice Miller (R)Jennifer Granholm (D)23R, 15D58R, 52DSpencer Abraham (R)Carl Levin (D)10D, 6RGore/Lieberman (D)
200122R, 14D57R, 52DDebbie Stabenow (D)9D, 7R
2002
2003Jennifer Granholm (D)John D. Cherry (D)Terri Lynn Land (R)Mike Cox (R)22R, 16D62R, 48D9R, 6D
2004Kerry/Edwards (D)
200522R, 16D58R, 52D
2006
200721R, 17D58D, 52R
2008Obama/Biden (D)
200922R, 16D67D, 43R8D, 7R
2010
2011Rick Snyder (R)Brian Calley (R)Ruth Johnson (R)Bill Schuette (R)26R, 12D63R, 47D9R, 6D
2012Obama/Biden (D)
201359R, 51D9R, 5D
YearGovernorLieutenant GovernorSecretary of StateAttorney GeneralState SenateState HouseU.S. Senator (Class I)U.S. Senator (Class II)U.S. RepresentativesElectoral College votes
Executive officesState LegislatureUnited States Congress

See also[edit]

References[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Until 1851, elections were held in odd number years; since that time, they have been held in even number years, on the first Tuesday in November, coincident with other national and state elections. Winners are now sworn in on January 1. Governors were elected to two year terms from 1837 until 1966 when the term was set at four years. Effective with the 2003 retirement of John Engler, governors are subject to a lifetime term limit of two four year terms.
  2. ^ State Treasurers are listed for the time period when it was an elective office, (1850–1963).
  3. ^ Kintzing Prichette Find A Grave.
  4. ^ Richard I. Bonner, (1909), Memoirs of Lenawee County, Michigan, Vol. 1, Western Historical Association, p. 611.
  5. ^ A Democrat until 1854, Manning became a Republican because of the Republican Party's anti slavery position. Biographies: Randolph Manning, Michigan Supreme Court Historical Society.
  6. ^ a b Resigned to take an elected seat in the U.S. Senate.
  7. ^ Chapter 15: politics in mid-nineteenth-century Michigan., (1995) The Free Library, William B. Eerdmans Publishing.
  8. ^ a b c d As lieutenant governor, acted as governor for unexpired term.
  9. ^ "American biographical history of eminent and self-made men ... Michigan volume", page 8, Collection: Michigan County Histories and Atlases, University of Michigan Digital Library.
  10. ^ Stephen D. Bingham, Early history of Michigan, with biographies of state officers, members of Congress, judges and legislators, pages 665–666, University of Michigan Digital Library
  11. ^ Lawrence Kestenbaum. "Index to Politicians: Peck". The Political Graveyard. Retrieved 2011-01-04. 
  12. ^ Bingham, Stephen D. "Early history of Michigan, with biographies of state officers, members of Congress, judges and legislators. Pub. purusuant to act 59, 1887". p. 547. Retrieved February 26, 2011. 
  13. ^ First elected treasurer
  14. ^ "Former officials". 
  15. ^ "Michigan County Histories Early history of Michigan with biographies of state officers". p. 718. "Democrat" 
  16. ^ Bingham, Stephen D. "Early history of Michigan, with biographies of state officers, members of Congress, judges and legislators. Pub. purusuant to act 59, 1887". p. 629. 
  17. ^ After a new state constitution was drafted in 1850, McClelland was elected to a single one-year term in 1851. He was then re-elected to a full two-year term in 1852 but resigned to become United States Secretary of the Interior.
  18. ^ Bingham, Stephen D. "Early history of Michigan, with biographies of state officers, members of Congress, judges and legislators. Pub. purusuant to act 59, 1887". p. 304. 
  19. ^ Democrat, then Republican after 1854 Bingham, Stephen D. "Early history of Michigan, with biographies of state officers, members of Congress, judges and legislators. Pub. purusuant to act 59, 1887". p. 452. 
  20. ^ Ran on the first Republican state ticket in 1854 Bingham, Stephen D. "Early history of Michigan, with biographies of state officers, members of Congress, judges and legislators. Pub. purusuant to act 59, 1887". p. 349. 
  21. ^ Republican after 1854, Whig before that.Bingham, Stephen D. "Early history of Michigan, with biographies of state officers, members of Congress, judges and legislators. Pub. purusuant to act 59, 1887". p. 373. 
  22. ^ Bingham, Stephen D. "Early history of Michigan, with biographies of state officers, members of Congress, judges and legislators. Pub. purusuant to act 59, 1887". p. 530. 
  23. ^ "The Election To-Morrow.; Names Of The Candidates Before The People. New-York. Massachusetts. Illinois. Michigan. Iowa. New-Jersey. Minnesota. Wisconsin. Delaware". The New York Times. 1860-11-05. 
  24. ^ Report of the Attorney General By Michigan. Attorney General's Dept
  25. ^ Lawrence Kestenbaum. "Index to Politicians: Sparky to Spelts". The Political Graveyard. Retrieved 2011-01-04. 
  26. ^ Lawrence Kestenbaum. "Index to Politicians: Strickler to Strommen". The Political Graveyard. Retrieved 2011-01-04. 
  27. ^ Lawrence Kestenbaum. "Index to Politicians: Colemer to Collini". The Political Graveyard. Retrieved 2011-01-07. 
  28. ^ Appletons' annual cyclopaedia and register of important events
  29. ^ http://books.google.com/books?id=R5kUAAAAYAAJ&pg=PA10&lpg=PA10&dq=isaac+marston+michigan+politician&source=bl&ots=XEeT6TXIsh&sig=M19G40iwPej1vvAcIH5feAvBAgg&hl=en&ei=rMInTdmpNIXAngfxk9HdAQ&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=3&ved=0CCQQ6AEwAg#v=onepage&q=isaac%20marston%20michigan%20politician&f=false
  30. ^ Grand Rapids and Kent County, Michigan: historical account
  31. ^ POLITICAL CONVENTIONS.; MICHIGAN. THE REPUBLICAN STATE CONVENTION AT LANSING THE STATE TICKET AND PLATFORM , The New York Times, August 27, 1874
  32. ^ MICHIGAN FOR ALGER.; THE STATE'S DELEGATES TO THE CHICAGO CONVENTION , The New York Times, May 8, 1888
  33. ^ Lawrence Kestenbaum. "Index to Politicians: Jenkins-husband to Jenning". The Political Graveyard. Retrieved 2011-01-04. 
  34. ^ Lawrence Kestenbaum. "Index to Politicians: Princehouse to Procter". The Political Graveyard. Retrieved 2011-01-07. 
  35. ^ http://quod.lib.umich.edu/cgi/t/text/pageviewer-idx?c=micounty;cc=micounty;idno=bad6019.0002.001;size=l;frm=frameset;seq=095
  36. ^ http://quod.lib.umich.edu/cgi/t/text/pageviewer-idx?c=micounty;cc=micounty;idno=bad6021.0001.001;size=l;frm=frameset;seq=194
  37. ^ Livingstone's history of the Republican party: A history of the Republican p 369 534
  38. ^ Lawrence Kestenbaum. "Index to Politicians: Tagaloa to Talbird". The Political Graveyard. Retrieved 2011-01-07. 
  39. ^ Lawrence Kestenbaum. "Index to Politicians: Osbourn to Ostrowsky". The Political Graveyard. Retrieved 2011-01-04. 
  40. ^ Lawrence Kestenbaum. "Index to Politicians: Malony to Manly". The Political Graveyard. Retrieved 2011-01-07. 
  41. ^ Early history of Michigan, with biographies of state officers, members of Congress, judges and legislators. Pub. purusuant to act 59, 1887.Author: Bingham, S. D. (Stephen D.) – p 645 [1]
  42. ^ Lawrence Kestenbaum. "Index to Politicians: Hurliman to Hutchings". The Political Graveyard. Retrieved 2011-01-07. 
  43. ^ Cleveland, Giover (1890-12-07). "Delaware And Hudson Canal.; Close Of Navigation After A Most Prosperous Season". The New York Times. 
  44. ^ Lawrence Kestenbaum. "Index to Politicians: Ellis". The Political Graveyard. Retrieved 2011-01-07. 
  45. ^ "Cleveland's Name Cheered.; Enthusiastic Convention Of The Michigan Democrats". The New York Times. 1890-09-11. 
  46. ^ Lawrence Kestenbaum. "Index to Politicians: Blackburne to Blackton". The Political Graveyard. Retrieved 2011-01-04. 
  47. ^ Removed from office.Political Graveyard
  48. ^ a b c d e [2]
  49. ^ Removed from office Political Graveyard
  50. ^ Initially appointed to fill vacancy; later elected in his own right.
  51. ^ Indicted on 48 charges of embezzlement Political graveyard
  52. ^ Lawrence Kestenbaum. "Index to Politicians: Stebe to Steel". The Political Graveyard. Retrieved 2011-01-07. 
  53. ^ Lawrence Kestenbaum. "Index to Politicians: Stearns". The Political Graveyard. Retrieved 2011-01-04. 
  54. ^ [3]
  55. ^ http://www.legislature.mi.gov/(S(4arpx155oyrw0zygyp5ziw3e))/documents/publications/manual/2003-2004/2003-mm-0510-0519-Former.pdf
  56. ^ http://www.legislature.mi.gov/documents/publications/MichiganManual%5C2009-2010MichiganManual/09-10_MM_III_pp_191-195_FormerState.pdf
  57. ^ Lawrence Kestenbaum. "Index to Politicians: Warner to Warra". The Political Graveyard. Retrieved 2011-01-04. 
  58. ^ Lawrence Kestenbaum. "Index to Politicians: Blair". The Political Graveyard. Retrieved 2011-01-06. 
  59. ^ Lawrence Kestenbaum. "Index to Politicians: Prescott". The Political Graveyard. Retrieved 2011-01-04. 
  60. ^ Lawrence Kestenbaum. "Index to Politicians: Bird". The Political Graveyard. Retrieved 2011-01-06. 
  61. ^ Lawrence Kestenbaum. "Index to Politicians: Martin-trigona to Martinelli". The Political Graveyard. Retrieved 2011-01-06. 
  62. ^ Lawrence Kestenbaum. "Index to Politicians: Kuhn". The Political Graveyard. Retrieved 2011-01-06. 
  63. ^ Lawrence Kestenbaum. "Index to Politicians: Wyble to Wywiorski". The Political Graveyard. Retrieved 2011-01-06. 
  64. ^ Lawrence Kestenbaum. "Index to Politicians: Fellows". The Political Graveyard. Retrieved 2011-01-06. 
  65. ^ Lawrence Kestenbaum. "Index to Politicians: Vaughan". The Political Graveyard. Retrieved 2011-01-04. 
  66. ^ Johnson, Ray (1922-09-27). "Harmony Key As G.O.P.Meets". Detroit Free Press. 
  67. ^ Lawrence Kestenbaum. "Index to Politicians: Dehaan to Deland". The Political Graveyard. Retrieved 2011-01-04. 
  68. ^ Lawrence Kestenbaum. "Index to Politicians: Wiley to Wiley-segovia". The Political Graveyard. Retrieved 2011-01-06. 
  69. ^ Lawrence Kestenbaum. "Index to Politicians: Dougherty". The Political Graveyard. Retrieved 2011-01-06. 
  70. ^ Indicted for bribery in 1994 but the case ended when the star witness, Sen. Warren G. Hooper was murdered. Bio at Political Graveyard
  71. ^ Lawrence Kestenbaum. "Index to Politicians: Resa to Reynoldo". The Political Graveyard. Retrieved 2011-01-06. 
  72. ^ Lawrence Kestenbaum. "Index to Politicians: Haggerty". The Political Graveyard. Retrieved 2011-01-04. 
  73. ^ Lawrence Kestenbaum. "Index to Politicians: Fitzgerald". The Political Graveyard. Retrieved 2011-01-04. 
  74. ^ Lawrence Kestenbaum. "Index to Politicians: Voorheis to Vyzral". The Political Graveyard. Retrieved 2011-01-06. 
  75. ^ Lawrence Kestenbaum. "Index to Politicians: Obrien, O to R". The Political Graveyard. 
  76. ^ Lawrence Kestenbaum. "Index to Politicians: Atwood". The Political Graveyard. Retrieved 2011-01-04. 
  77. ^ Lawrence Kestenbaum. "Index to Politicians: Townshend to Trachtenberg". The Political Graveyard. Retrieved 2011-01-06. 
  78. ^ Lawrence Kestenbaum. "Index to Politicians: Crowl to Crowly". The Political Graveyard. Retrieved 2011-01-06. 
  79. ^ Lawrence Kestenbaum. "Index to Politicians: Case". The Political Graveyard. Retrieved 2011-01-05. 
  80. ^ Lawrence Kestenbaum. "Index to Politicians: Starr". The Political Graveyard. Retrieved 2011-01-06. 
  81. ^ Died in office.
  82. ^ Lawrence Kestenbaum. "Index to Politicians: Kelly, G to I". The Political Graveyard. Retrieved 2011-01-05. 
  83. ^ Lawrence Kestenbaum. "Index to Politicians: Rushe to Russel". The Political Graveyard. Retrieved 2011-01-06. 
  84. ^ Lawrence Kestenbaum. "Index to Politicians: Dickison to Dikis". The Political Graveyard. Retrieved 2011-01-05. 
  85. ^ Lawrence Kestenbaum. "Index to Politicians: Elderdice to Eldrich". The Political Graveyard. Retrieved 2011-01-06. 
  86. ^ Political Graveyard
  87. ^ "Michigan Supreme Court History Society ::". Micourthistory.org. Retrieved 2011-01-06. 
  88. ^ Lawrence Kestenbaum. "Lawyer Politicians in Michigan, Q-R". The Political Graveyard. Retrieved 2011-01-06. 
  89. ^ Lawrence Kestenbaum. "Index to Politicians: Miles-lagrange to Millentree". The Political Graveyard. Retrieved 2011-01-06. 
  90. ^ Lawrence Kestenbaum. "Index to Politicians: Cleage to Clementine". The Political Graveyard. Retrieved 2011-01-05. 
  91. ^ Lawrence Kestenbaum. "Index to Politicians: Hardy-wrigley to Harju". The Political Graveyard. Retrieved 2011-01-05. 
  92. ^ Lawrence Kestenbaum. "Index to Politicians: Kaufmann to Keastner". The Political Graveyard. Retrieved 2011-01-07. 
  93. ^ Resigned to become United States Secretary of Housing and Urban Development.
  94. ^ Resigned to become United States Secretary of Housing and Urban Development.
  95. ^ Lawrence Kestenbaum. "Index to Politicians: Hardy-wrigley to Harju". The Political Graveyard. Retrieved 2011-01-05. 
  96. ^ As lieutenant governor, acted as governor for unexpired term and was later elected in his own right.