Police officer

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Police officer
SA police force.jpg
Police officers in South Australia
Occupation
Activity sectors
Law enforcement
Description
CompetenciesPhysical fitness, sense of justice
Education required
Secondary or tertiary education
Related jobs
gendarmerie, military police, security guard, bodyguard
 
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Police officer
SA police force.jpg
Police officers in South Australia
Occupation
Activity sectors
Law enforcement
Description
CompetenciesPhysical fitness, sense of justice
Education required
Secondary or tertiary education
Related jobs
gendarmerie, military police, security guard, bodyguard
German state police officer in Hamburg
A Royal Canadian Mounted Police officer in the force's distinctive dress uniform.
Mounted Tourist-Police officers in Petra, Jordan.

A police officer (also known as a policeman/woman, police agent, patrolman and constable in some forces, particularly in the United Kingdom[1][2] and other Commonwealth nations) is a warranted employee of a police force. In the United States, "officer" is the formal name of the lowest police rank. In many other countries, "officer" is a generic term not specifying a particular rank, and the lowest rank is often "constable". In many other countries there is no such title as "police officer", as the use of the rank "officer" is legally reserved for military personnel only and thus not applicable. Police officers are generally charged with the apprehension of criminals and the prevention and detection of crime, and the maintenance of public order. Police officers may be sworn to an oath, and have the power to arrest people and detain them for a limited time, along with other duties and powers.

Some police officers may also be trained in special duties, such as counter-terrorism, surveillance, child protection, VIP protection, and investigation techniques into major crime, including fraud, rape, murder and drug trafficking.

Duties and functions[edit]

A group of Garda officers in the Republic of Ireland.
A British police officer on a police motorbike

Responsibilities of a police officer are varied, and may differ greatly from within one political context to another. Typical duties relate to keeping the peace, law enforcement, protection of people and property, and the investigation of crimes. Officers are expected to respond to a variety of situations that may arise while they are on duty. Rules and guidelines dictate how an officer should behave within the community, and in many contexts restrictions are placed on what the uniformed officer wears. In some countries, rules and procedures dictate that a police officer is obliged to intervene in a criminal incident, even if they are off-duty. Police officers in nearly all countries retain their lawful powers while off duty.[3]

In the community[edit]

In the majority of Western legal systems, the major role of the police is to maintain order, keeping the peace through surveillance of the public, and the subsequent reporting and apprehension of suspected violators of the law. They also function to discourage crimes through high-visibility policing, and most police forces have an investigative capability. Police have the legal authority to arrest and detain, usually granted by magistrates. Police officers also respond to emergency calls, along with routine community policing.

Police are often used as an emergency service and may provide a public safety function at large gatherings, as well as in emergencies, disasters, search and rescue situations, and Road Traffic Collisions. To provide a prompt response in emergencies, the police often coordinate their operations with fire and emergency medical services. In some countries, individuals serve jointly as police officers as well as firefighters (creating the role of Fire Police. In many countries, there is a common emergency service number that allows the police, firefighters, or medical services to be summoned to an emergency. Some countries, such as the United Kingdom have outlined command procedures, for the use in major emergencies or disorder. The Gold Silver Bronze command structure is a system set up to improve communications between ground based officers and the control room, typically, Bronze Commander would be a senior officer on the ground, coordinating the efforts in the center of the emergency, Silver Commanders would be positioned in an 'Incident Control Room' erected to improve better communications at the scene, and a Gold Commander who would be in the Control Room.

Police are also responsible for reprimanding minor offenders by issuing citations which typically may result in the imposition of fines, particularly for violations of traffic law. Traffic enforcement is often and effectively accomplished by police officers on motorcycles—called motor officers, these officers refer to the motorcycles they ride on duty as simply motors. Police are also trained to assist persons in distress, such as motorists whose car has broken down and people experiencing a medical emergency. Police are typically trained in basic first aid such as CPR.

In addition, some park rangers are commissioned as law enforcement officers and carry out a law-enforcement role within national parks and other back-country wilderness and recreational areas, whereas Military police perform law enforcement functions within the military.

Entry and promotion qualifications[edit]

In most countries, candidates for the police force must have completed some formal education.[citation needed] Increasing numbers of people are joining the police force who possess tertiary education[citation needed] and in response to this many police forces have developed a "fast-track" scheme whereby those with university degrees spend two to three years as a Constable before receiving promotion to higher ranks, such as Sergeants or Inspectors. (Officers who work within investigative divisions or plainclothes are not necessarily of a higher rank but merely have different duties.)[citation needed] Police officers are also recruited from those with experience in the military or security services. In the United States state laws may codify state-wide qualification standards regarding age, education, criminal record, and training but in other places requirements are set by local police agencies. Each local Police agency has different requirements.

Officers of the Polizia Municipale from Piacenza, Italy

Promotion is not automatic and usually requires the candidate to pass some kind of examination, interview board or other selection procedure. Although promotion normally includes an increase in salary, it also brings with it an increase in responsibility and for most, an increase in administrative paperwork. There is no stigma attached to this, as experienced line patrol officers are highly regarded.

Dependent upon each agency, but generally after completing two years of service, officers may also apply for specialist positions, such as detective, police dog handler, mounted police officer, motorcycle officer, water police officer, or firearms officer (in countries where police are not routinely armed).

In some countries such as in Singapore, police ranks may also be supplemented through conscription, similar to national service in the military. Qualifications may thus be relaxed or enhanced depending on the target mix of conscripts. In Singapore, for example, conscripts face tougher physical requirements in areas such as eyesight, but are less stringent with minimum academic qualification requirements. Some police officers join as volunteers, who again may do so via differing qualification requirements.

Police pay[edit]

In some societies, police officers are paid relatively well compared to other occupations; their pay depends on what rank they are within their police force and how many years they've served.[4] In the United States, a police officer's salary averaged $52,810 in 2008.[5] In the United Kingdom for the year 2011-2012 a police officer's average salary was £40,402. [6]

Occupational hazards[edit]

Line of duty deaths[edit]

Memorial to a fallen police officer at the Texas Department of Public Safety Houston Webster Office in Houston[7]

Line of duty deaths are deaths which occur while an officer is conducting his or her appointed duties. Despite the increased risk of being a victim of a homicide, automobile accidents are the most common cause of officer deaths. Officers are more likely to be involved in traffic accidents because of their large amount of time spent conducting vehicle patrols, or directing traffic, as well as their work outside their vehicles alongside or on the roadway, or in dangerous pursuits. Officers killed by suspects make up a smaller proportion of deaths. In the U.S. in 2005, 156 line of duty deaths were recorded of which 44% were from assaults on officers, 35% vehicle related (only 3% during vehicular pursuits) and the rest from other causes: heart attacks during arrests/foot pursuits, falling from heights during foot chases, diseases contracted either from suspects' body fluids or, more rarely, from emergency window period blood transfusions received after motor vehicle accidents, shootings, stabbings, accidental gun discharges or falls that result in blood loss.[8]

Police officers who die in the line of duty, especially those who die from the actions of suspects or in accidents or heart attacks, are often given elaborate funerals, attended by large numbers of fellow officers. Their families may also be entitled to special pensions. Fallen officers are often remembered in public memorials, such as the National Law Enforcement Officers Memorial in the U.S., the National Police Memorial in the U.K. and the Scottish Police Memorial, at the Scottish Police College.

In the United Kingdom, in the 10 years from April 2000 there were 143 line of duty deaths: 54 in road accidents travelling to or from duty, 46 in road accidents on duty, 23 from natural causes on duty, 15 from criminal acts, and 5 in other accidents.[9] In Great Britain, police do not normally carry firearms. Officers in Northern Ireland are routinely armed.

The Singapore Police Force registered just over 100 deaths in a century up to the year 2000. There have been 28 New Zealand police officers killed by criminal act since 1890.[10] Despite perceived dangers, policing has never been listed above number ten as one of the most dangerous jobs in the U.S. In terms of deaths per capita, driver-sales work such as food delivery is a more dangerous profession than being a police officer.[11]

Work stress[edit]

Indicators[edit]

Police uniforms when a majority of States

The actual presence of stress in police work is well documented and evidenced by certain statistics. Researchers typically use suicide, divorce and alcoholism rates as three key indexes of stress in a group of people.[12] These factors paint a compelling picture of police officers demonstrating signs of significant stress, for example:

Hans Selye, the foremost researcher in stress in the world, said that police work is "the most stressful occupation in America even surpassing the formidable stresses of air traffic control."[12]

Polish police (riot control squad)

Other researchers, though, claim that police officers are more psychologically healthy than the general population. Police officers are increasingly more educated, more likely to engage in a regular program of exercise and to consume less alcohol and tobacco, and increasingly family-oriented. Healthy behavior patterns typically observed at entry training usually continue throughout the career of an officer. Even though the presence of occupation related stress seems to be well documented, it is highly controversial. Many within the law enforcement industry claim the propagation of incorrect suicide, divorce, and substance abuse statistics comes from people or organizations with political or social agendas, and that the presence of these beliefs within the industry makes it hard for health workers to help police officers in need of treatment to deal with the fear of negative consequences from police work which is necessary to enable police officers to develop a healthy expectancy of success in treatment.[19]

Sources[edit]

Even though the presence of occupational stresses appear to be well documented, though not without controversy, the causes of workplace stress are comparatively unclear or even a matter of conjecture.

Although individual policemen and institutional public relations typically cite the risks of being killed in the line of duty as the predominant source of stress for individual policemen, there is significant controversy regarding the causes of personal workplace stress due to the fact that the actual risk of being killed is so small relative to other occupations.

It is charged that the myth of the high risks of occupational mortality connected with police work is often propagated by the law enforcement community as part of its institutional advancement and a central element in its public relations. Actual homicides of police are comparatively rare, but the reports of such incidents are typically reported in the press along with quotes by police officials or police officer family members stressing the notion that police officers 'put their lives on the line for the public' or 'risk their lives everyday', making it look like individual policemen routinely place themselves in mortal danger for low pay and little recognition, and that the view of police work as 'combat' is the source of police occupational stress indications.

Another explanation often advanced is the idea that police officers will undergo some traumatic experience in their police work that they never recover from, leading to suicide, divorce, etc. However, since the effects of such traumatic stresses is readily recognized, there are usually proactive programs in place to help individual police officers deal with the psychological effects of a traumatic event. Unfortunately, there is some evidence that such programs are actually ineffective, especially group therapies, may re-traumatize the participant, weaken coping mechanisms, and contribute to the development of post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD).[20][21][22]

Police officers in China

Observations where police officers and other emergency workers, such as firemen, experience the same traumatic event, it is more likely that the police officer will have difficulty dealing with the long term emotional effects of the traumatic event. On this observation, some of the academic literature suggests that along these lines the causes of occupational stress is more complex for police officers. Stress in police work is often present in other occupations, but not in an ongoing capacity. One line of thinking is that the individual stresses of police work produce a condition of chronic stress. Police officers encounter stressors in call after call which sap their emotional strength. Debilitation from this daily stress accumulates making officers more vulnerable to traumatic incidents and normal pressures of life. The weakening process is often too slow to see; neither a person nor his friends are aware of the damage being done. The effects of chronic stresses is two-fold:

The daily work of a police officer involves certain paradoxes and conflicts which may be difficult to deal with, the predominant examples are[12]

Deputy Sheriff with submachine gun

A more colloquial view looks at specific sources of stress in police work.[23] The sources of stress most often actually cited are:

Other more academic studies have produced similar lists, but may include items that the more colloquial surveys do not reveal, such as 'exposure to neglected, battered, or dead children'[24]

Again, the actual fear of occupational death or physical harm is not high on the list of stress sources.

There have been numerous academic studies on the specific sources of police stress, and most conclude organizational culture and workload as the key issues in officer stress.[25] Traumatic events are usually concluded to not be of sufficient scope or prevalence to account for prevalence of suicide, divorce, and substance abuse abnormalities.

Personality theories[edit]

Some of the more esoteric, least documented or cited, and more longstanding theories for police stress symptoms involves the interaction of the specifics of police work with the personalities of individual police officers. There has been a raging debate on the fringes of psychiatry as to whether there is something about police work that causes psychiatric symptomology and personality disorders or whether there are certain personalities susceptible to disorders that are attracted to police work. Theory holds that there are four general possibilities:

Some studies have tried to use personality traits to determine police applicant desirability.[26] These have generally looked at psychology's Big Five personality traits of openness, conscientiousness, extraversion, agreeableness and neuroticism. These studies have suggested that age, cynicism and institutional culture affect performance.

There are other personality traits that are specifically not desired for police work that are equally well documented. However, there has been relatively little academic work cited regarding the personality traits attracted to police work. The nature of personality traits of people attracted to police work tends to be a matter of conjecture and anecdotal observations. The personalities of people who are actually in police work tends to be different from that which is purported to be desired by police departments.[citation needed] Police officers tend to be isolated and suspicious, view expression of emotions as a weakness, and find it hard to trust and confide in others.[27] For example, police officers are often viewed by the public to be domineering, narcissistic, authoritarian, physically oppressive, and basically the opposite of the personality traits most often cited as being desirable in a police officer.[citation needed] There are studies that suggest that people who take risks are attracted to police work.[28][dead link][citation needed] There is a corresponding theory that police officers actually tend to be people seeking security and stability and are attracted to the job for the steady government paycheck and government pension and adverse to the risks of business, sales, or other occupations.[citation needed] There is ample evidence that there is something in police work that alters personality.[citation needed]

The theory that there is an interaction between the personality attracted to the work and the work itself is mostly conjecture[citation needed]. For example, people attracted to police work are thought to crave the respect and authority that they expect with a badge, gun, uniform, and commission, but most of the people that police officers come in contact with do not respect them, and their authority is strongly regulated and limited by law, policies, and procedures, setting up a conflict resulting in chronic stress.[citation needed]

Abuse of power[edit]

Systematic cases[edit]

In dictatorial, corrupt, or weak states, police officers may carry out many criminal acts for the ruling regime with impunity. Institutional racism has been found in modern police forces.[29][broken citation]

Individual cases[edit]

Individual officers, or sometimes whole units, can be corrupt or carry out various other forms of misconduct; this occasionally happens in many forces, but is particularly problematic where police pay is very low unless supplemented by bribes.[30] Police sometimes act with unwarranted brutality when they overreact to confrontational situations,[31] to extract a confession from a person they may or may not genuinely suspect of being guilty,[32][broken citation] or in other circumstances. Instances of racism occur, even when the police force as a whole is not found to be racist.[33]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Police ranks and pay in England and Wales". Police-information.co.uk. Retrieved 2010-05-22. 
  2. ^ "Police rank structure and other information in Scotland". Scotland.gov.uk. 1994-12-31. Retrieved 2010-05-22. 
  3. ^ "Educational Requirements for Police Officers". education-portal.com. 2011. Retrieved June 24, 2011. 
  4. ^ "Police Pay". Police-information.co.uk. Retrieved 2013-02-06. 
  5. ^ "Police Officer Salary - Police Test Guide | Police Officer Test". Police Test Guide. Retrieved 2013-11-13. 
  6. ^ "Generous Pay and Perks mean Police Officers are in the top 20% of Earners.". Retrieved 2012-01-12. 
  7. ^ "Houston Dacoma Driver License office to close for expansion." Texas Department of Public Safety. October 29, 2008. Retrieved on June 16, 2009.
  8. ^ "Honoring Officers Killed in the Year 2005". Odmp.org. Retrieved 2010-05-22.  See also 2011 figures
  9. ^ "UK Police Line of Duty Fatalities by Cause of Death, April 2000 to March 2010". Policememorial.org.uk. Retrieved 2010-05-22. 
  10. ^ "Policeman 28th killed in line of duty". New Zealand Herald. 11 September 2008. Retrieved 2009-01-15. 
  11. ^ "Extra: The 10 most dangerous jobs in America – MSN Money". Moneycentral.msn.com. 2003-10-14. Retrieved 2010-05-22. 
  12. ^ a b c "Not So Obvious Police Stress". Tearsofacop.com. Retrieved 2010-05-22. 
  13. ^ O'Hara, A. F.; Violanti, J. M. (Winter 2009). "Police suicide- A web surveillance of national data". Journal Of Emergency Mental Health 11 (1). 
  14. ^ "Suicide in the U.S.: Statistics and Prevention". NIMH. Retrieved 26 June 2011. 
  15. ^ Aamodt MG, Stalnaker NA. Police officer suicide: frequency and officer profiles. In Sheehan D, Warren J, eds. Suicide and Law Enforcement. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office;2002:383-98
  16. ^ Sheehan D, Warren J, eds. Suicide and Law Enforcement. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 2002
  17. ^ W C Terry, Police Stress – The Empirical Evidence, Journal of Police Science and Administration Volume:9 Issue:1 Dated:(March 1981) Pages:61–75.
  18. ^ McCoy, S. P.; Aamodt, M. G. (Spring 2010). "A comparison of law enforcement divorce rates with those of other occupations". Journal of Police & Criminal Psychology. 
  19. ^ [1][dead link]
  20. ^ Rose S, Bisson J, Wessely S. Psychological debriefing for preventing post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) (Cochrane Review). In The Cochrane Library, Issue 3. Oxford: Update Software, 2001.
  21. ^ Kaplan Z, Iancu I, Bo E. A review of psychological debriefing after extreme stress. Psychiatr Serv 2001;52:824-7.
  22. ^ Raphael B, Wilson JP, eds. Psychological Debriefing: Theory, Practice and Evidence. Cambridge University Press;2000:357
  23. ^ "Effects of Stress on police officers". Heavybadge.com. Retrieved 2010-05-22. 
  24. ^ Spielberger, C. D.; Westberry, L.G.; Grier, K. S.; Greenfield, G. "Police Stress Survey – Sources of Stress in Law Enforcement". University of South Florida Human Resources Institute. 
  25. ^ Collins, P. A.; Gibbs, A. C. C. (June 2003). "Stress in police officers: a study of the origins, prevalence and severity of stress-related symptoms within a county police force". Occupational Medicine 53 (4): 256–264. doi:10.1093/occmed/kqg061. Retrieved 2010-05-22. 
  26. ^ "Using the Big Five Personality Traits to Predict Police Officer Performance". American Society of Criminology. Allacademic.com. 
  27. ^ Aviva Twersky-Glasner, City University of New York, Police Personality: What Is It and Why Are They Like That?, Journal of Police and Criminal Psychology, 2005, Volume 20, Number 1
  28. ^ Encyclopedia.com "Cullen, Link, Travis, & Lemming, 1983; Kraus, 1987; Skolnick, 1966, as quoted in Risk Taking and Police Pursuit". 
  29. ^ "Microsoft Word - Lawrence Inquiry.doc" (PDF). Retrieved 2010-05-22. 
  30. ^ "IPS: DRUGS-MEXICO: Police Caught Between Low Wages, Threats and Bribes". Ipsnews.net. 2007-06-07. Retrieved 2010-05-22. 
  31. ^ Edwards, Richard (2009-04-17). "Ian Tomlinson G20 protests death: police office faces manslaughter charge". The Telegraph. Retrieved 2010-05-22. 
  32. ^ "The police often argue that the tough 'interviewing' of suspects is the best way to extract the truth. But such strategies are exactly the sort to provoke false confessions". New Scientist. Retrieved 2010-05-22. 
  33. ^ Malkin, Bonnie (25 March 2010). "Dozens of Australian police officers under investigation over racist and pornographic emails". The Telegraph. Retrieved 2010-05-22. 

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]