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in the United Kingdom
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A police and crime commissioner is charged with securing efficient and effective policing of a police area in England and Wales, and is elected for a four year term. The first incumbents were elected on 15 November 2012. Commissioners replaced the now abolished police authorities.
Separate arrangements exist for London. Policing in Scotland and Northern Ireland has been devolved to the Scottish Parliament and Northern Ireland Assembly, respectively. In Scotland, the Cabinet Secretary for Justice serves in a similar capacity for Police Scotland while in Northern Ireland, the Minister of Justice fulfills a similar role for the Police Service of Northern Ireland.
The post of police and crime commissioner should not be confused with the police rank of "Commissioner", held by the chief police officers for the Metropolitan Police Service and the City of London Police, which cover the two police areas in London.
In the 2010 British general election campaign, both the Conservative Party and Liberal Democrats' manifestos outlined plans, respectively, to replace or reform the existing police authorities, both parties raising concerns about the perceived lack of accountability of police authorities to the communities they serve. Following the election the 2010 Conservative – Liberal Democrat coalition agreement set out that:
We will introduce measures to make the police more accountable through oversight by a directly elected individual, who will be subject to strict checks and balances by locally elected representatives.
Later in 2010 the Government published 'Policing in the 21st Century', a consultation on the Government's vision for policing, including the introduction of police and crime commissioners. This was followed by the introduction of the Police Reform and Social Responsibility Bill into Parliament in December 2010. The Bill received Royal Assent on 15 September 2011, becoming the Police Reform and Social Responsibility Act 2011.
The first elections for police and crime commissioners were held on 15 November 2012, and the new commissioners took office on 22 November 2012. They replace the existing police authority framework. The next elections will take place in May 2016 and every four years after that
The Association of Police and Crime Commissioners has been commissioned by the Home Office to facilitate co-ordination, representation and support for police and crime commissioners and police governance bodies from November 2012. http://www.apccs.police.uk
Candidates must be 18 or over and registered to vote within the police area on the date of nomination. Members of the House of Lords are not barred from standing. Members of the House of Commons are not barred from standing but, if they win, they must resign before they can take up a PCC appointment.
Those disqualified from standing/continuing to hold office include:
Candidates must secure the signatures of 100 people registered to vote within the force area in which they wish to stand and must pay a deposit of £5,000.
Nominations for the 2012 elections closed at 12:00 on 19 October 2012.
On 16 August 2012 the Home Office announced that every newly elected police and crime commissioner would be required to swear an "oath of impartiality" before taking office. The oath reads:
I do solemnly and sincerely promise that I will serve all the people of Police Force Area in the office of police and crime commissioner without fear or favour. I will act with integrity and diligence in my role and, to the best of my ability, will execute the duties of my office to ensure that the police are able to cut crime and protect the public. I will give a voice to the public, especially victims of crime and work with other services to ensure the safety of the community and effective criminal justice. I will take all steps within my power to ensure transparency of my decisions, so that I may be properly held to account by the public. I will not seek to influence or prevent any lawful and reasonable investigation or arrest, nor encourage any police action save that which is lawful and justified within the bounds of this office.
Police and crime commissioners will be important public servants and it is right that they make a formal public commitment to the communities they will serve. Although police and crime commissioners may stand for a political party, the public will expect them to represent all the people in their area impartially, without fear or favour. The swearing of an oath will be an important symbol of this impartiality, emphasising both the significance of this new role in local communities and that commissioners are there to serve the people, not a political party or any one section of their electorate. An oath will also underline the particular importance of even-handedness in an office which holds to account the local chief constable and police force who themselves are bound to serve impartially.
The newly formed Association of Police and Crime Commissioners, set up to act as an "umbrella body" for the elected PCCs, announced it had been asked by the Home Office to "seek views from police authorities and prospective candidates on the wording of the oath". By the time the first police and crime commissioner had been elected, in November 2012, the original Home Office text of the "Oath of Impartiality" had been significantly modified. As an example, this is the amended oath actually delivered by the police and crime commissioner for Avon and Somerset:
I Sue Mountstevens of North Somerset do hereby declare that I accept the office of Police and Crime Commissioner for Avon and Somerset. In making this declaration, I solemnly and sincerely promise that during my term in office:
I will serve all the people of Avon and Somerset in the office of Police and Crime Commissioner. I will act with integrity and diligence in my role and, to the best of my ability, will execute the duties of my office to ensure that the police are able to cut crime and protect the public. I will give a voice to the public, especially victims of crime, and work with other services to ensure the safety of the community and effective criminal justice. I will take all steps within my power to ensure transparency of my decisions, so that I may be properly held to account by the public. I will not interfere with the operational independence of police officers.
In South Wales the title "Oath of Impartiality" was replaced by the term "Oath of Office" on the PCC's website with no mention of "impartiality". In other police areas, like Thames Valley, the PCC's website describes it simply as "The Oath".
The written form of the oath which is signed by all PCCs on taking office is not headed "Oath of Impartiality" but "Declaration of Acceptance of Office" 
The core functions of police and crime commissioners are to secure the maintenance of an efficient and effective police force within their area, and to hold the Chief constable to account for the delivery of the police and crime plan. Police and crime commissioners will be charged with holding the police fund (from which all policing of the area is financed) and raising the local policing precept from council tax. Police and crime commissioners will also be responsible for the appointment, suspension and dismissal of the Chief Constable.
Shortly after their election to office, a police and crime commissioner must produce a "police and crime plan". That plan must include his or her objectives for policing, what resources will be provided to the Chief Constable and how performance will be measured. Both the police and crime commissioner and the Chief Constable must have regard to the police and crime plan in the exercise of their duties. The PCC is required to produce an annual report to the public on progress in policing.
Police and crime commissioners hold the 'police fund', from which all policing is financed. The bulk of funding for the police fund comes from the Home Office in the form of an annual grant (calculated on a proportionate basis by the Home Office to take into account the differences between the 43 forces in England and Wales, which vary significantly in terms of population, geographical size, crime levels and trends), though Commissioners will also set a precept on the Council Tax to raise additional funds. Plans under the Localism Bill will trigger a referendum where a Commissioner intends to increase the precept by an amount deemed to be excessive (as defined in the Localism Bill). It will be the Commissioner's responsibility to set the budget for the force area, which includes allocating enough money from the overall policing budget to ensure that he or she can discharge his or her own functions effectively.
The Police Reform and Social Responsibility Act 2011 established police and crime panels within each force area in England and Wales (excluding Greater London). These panels consist of at least one representative from each local authority in that area, and at least two independent members co-opted by the panel.
Panels are responsible for scrutinising commissioners' decisions and ensuring this information is available to the public. They must review the commissioner's draft police and crime plan and draft annual report before publication, and the commissioner must give their comments due consideration. A Police and Crime Panel may require the attendance of the commissioner or a member of his or her staff at any time, and may suspend a commissioner from office where he or she is charged with a serious criminal offence. Police and crime panels will be able to veto a Commissioner's proposed precept or proposed candidate for Chief Constable by a two-thirds majority.
A National Audit Office report published in January 2014 found that there were "few checks and balances" on the 41 commissioners between elections. It said police and crime panels, which were set up to scrutinise PCCs, "lack powers" to act on the information they receive. 
Summary of election results in November 2012:
|Police area||Police and crime commissioner|
|Avon and Somerset Constabulary||Sue Mountstevens (Independent)|
|Bedfordshire Police||Olly Martins (Labour)|
|Cambridgeshire Constabulary||Graham Bright (Conservative)|
|Cheshire Constabulary||John Dwyer (Conservative)|
|Cleveland Police||Barry Coppinger (Labour)|
|Cumbria Constabulary||Richard Rhodes (Conservative)|
|Derbyshire Constabulary||Alan Charles (Labour)|
|Devon and Cornwall Police||Tony Hogg (Conservative)|
|Dorset Police||Martyn Underhill (Independent)|
|Durham Constabulary||Ron Hogg (Labour)|
|Essex Police||Nicholas Alston (Conservative)|
|Gloucestershire Constabulary||Martin Surl (Independent)|
|Greater Manchester Police||Tony Lloyd (Labour, Greater Manchester Police and Crime Commissioner)|
|Hampshire Constabulary||Simon Hayes (Independent)|
|Hertfordshire Constabulary||David Lloyd (Conservative)|
|Humberside Police||Matthew Grove (Conservative)|
|Kent Police||Ann Barnes (Independent)|
|Lancashire Constabulary||Clive Grunshaw (Labour)|
|Leicestershire Police||Clive Loader (Conservative)|
|Lincolnshire Police||Alan Hardwick (Independent)|
|Merseyside Police||Jane Kennedy (Labour)|
|Norfolk Constabulary||Stephen Bett (Independent)|
|Northamptonshire Police||Adam Simmonds (Conservative)|
|Northumbria Police||Vera Baird (Labour)|
|North Yorkshire||Julia Mulligan (Conservative)|
|Nottinghamshire Police||Paddy Tipping (Labour)|
|South Yorkshire Police||Shaun Wright (Independent, formerly Labour)|
|Staffordshire Police||Matthew Ellis (Conservative)|
|Suffolk Constabulary||Tim Passmore (Conservative)|
|Surrey Police||Kevin Hurley (Zero Tolerance Policing)|
|Sussex Police||Katy Bourne (Conservative)|
|Thames Valley Police||Anthony Stansfeld (Conservative)|
|Warwickshire Police||Ron Ball (Independent)|
|West Mercia Police||Bill Longmore (Independent)|
|West Midlands Police||David Jamieson (Labour), following the by-election resulting from the death of Bob Jones|
West Midlands Police and Crime Commissioner
|West Yorkshire Police||Mark Burns-Williamson (Labour)|
|Wiltshire Police||Angus Macpherson (Conservative)|
In Greater London there are two police forces. The City of London is policed by the City of London Police and the City of London Corporation is the police authority. The Metropolitan Police District is policed by the Metropolitan Police Service and the Mayor of London is the police authority through the Mayor's Office for Policing and Crime. The mayor may also appoint a Deputy Mayor for Policing and Crime to act on his behalf.
|Police area||Police and crime commissioner|
|Dyfed-Powys Police||Christopher Salmon (Conservative)|
|Gwent Police||Ian Johnston (Independent)|
|North Wales Police||Winston Roddick (Independent)|
|South Wales Police||Alun Michael (Labour Co-operative)|
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