Pole vault

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Pole vault
Pole Vault Sequence 3.jpg
An athlete in the middle of the vaulting phase
Men's records
WorldRenaud Lavillenie 6.16 m (20 ft 212 in) (2014)
OlympicRenaud Lavillenie 5.97 m (19 ft 7 in) (2012)
Women's records
WorldYelena Isinbayeva 5.06 m (16 ft 7 in) (2009)
OlympicYelena Isinbayeva 5.05 m (16 ft 634 in) (2008)
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Pole vault
Pole Vault Sequence 3.jpg
An athlete in the middle of the vaulting phase
Men's records
WorldRenaud Lavillenie 6.16 m (20 ft 212 in) (2014)
OlympicRenaud Lavillenie 5.97 m (19 ft 7 in) (2012)
Women's records
WorldYelena Isinbayeva 5.06 m (16 ft 7 in) (2009)
OlympicYelena Isinbayeva 5.05 m (16 ft 634 in) (2008)

Pole vaulting is a track and field event in which a person uses a long, flexible pole (which today is usually made either of fiberglass or carbon fiber) as an aid to jump over a bar. Pole jumping competitions were known to the ancient Greeks, Cretans and Celts. It has been a full medal event at the Olympic Games since 1896 for men and 2000 for women.

It is typically classified as one of the four major jumping events in athletics, alongside the high jump, long jump and triple jump. It is unusual among track and field sports in that it requires a significant amount of specialised equipment in order to participate, even at a basic level. A number of elite pole vaulters have had backgrounds in gymnastics, including world record breakers Yelena Isinbayeva and Brian Sternberg, reflecting the similar physical attributes required for the sports.[1][2]


Pole vault in the 1890s at US Naval Academy
Traditional fierljeppen in the Netherlands, using poles to clear distances over rivers

Poles were used as a practical means of passing over natural obstacles in marshy places such as provinces of Friesland in the Netherlands, along the North Sea, and the great level of the Fens across Cambridgeshire, Huntingdonshire, Lincolnshire and Norfolk. Artificial draining of these marshes created a network of open drains or canals intersecting each other. To cross these without getting wet, while avoiding tedious roundabout journeys over bridges, a stack of jumping poles was kept at every house and used for vaulting over the canals. Venetian gondoliers have traditionally used punting poles for moving to the shore from their boat.

Distance pole vaulting competitions continue to be held annually in the lowlands around the North Sea. These far-jumping competitions (Frysk: Fierljeppen) are not based on height.[3]

One of the earliest pole vaulting competitions where height was measured took place at the Ulverston Football and Cricket Club, Lancashire, north of the sands (now Cumbria) in 1843.[4] Modern competition began around 1850 in Germany, when pole vaulting was added to the exercises of the Turner gymnastic clubs by Johann C. F. GutsMuths and Friedrich L. Jahn. The modern pole vaulting technique was developed in the United States at the end of the nineteenth century. In Great Britain, it was first practiced at the Caledonian Games.

Initially, vaulting poles were made from stiff materials such as bamboo or aluminum. The introduction of flexible vaulting poles in the early 1950s made from composites such as fiberglass or carbon fiber allowed vaulters to achieve greater height.[5] Physical attributes such as speed, agility and strength are essential to pole vaulting effectively, but technical skill is an equally if not more important element. The object of pole vaulting is to clear a bar or crossbar supported upon two uprights (standards) without knocking it down.

Modern vaulting[edit]

Today, athletes compete in the pole vault as one of the four jumping events in track and field. Because the high jump and pole vault are both vertical jumps, the competitions are conducted similarly. Each athlete can choose what height they would like to enter the competition. Once they enter, they have three attempts to clear the height. If a height is cleared, the vaulter advances to the next height, where they will have three more attempts. Once the vaulter has three consecutive misses, they are out of the competition and the highest height they cleared is their result. A "no height", often denoted "NH", refers to the failure of a vaulter to clear any bar during the competition.

Once the vaulter enters the competition, they can choose to pass heights. If a vaulter achieves a miss on their first attempt at a height, they can pass to the next height, but they will only have two attempts at that height, as they will be out once they achieve three consecutive misses. Similarly, after earning two misses at a height, they could pass to the next height where they would have only one attempt.

An athlete passes the bar with the aid of a pole

The competitor who clears the highest height is the winner. If two or more vaulters have finished with the same height, the tie is broken by the number of misses at the final height. If the tied vaulters have the same number of misses at the last height cleared, the tie is broken by the total number of misses in the competition.

If there is still a tie for first place, a jump-off occurs to break the tie. Marks achieved in this type of jump-off are considered valid and count for any purpose that a mark achieved in a normal competition would.

If a tie in the other places still exists, a jump-off is not normally conducted, unless the competition is a qualifying meet, and the tie exists in the final qualifying spot. In this case, an administrative jump-off is conducted to break the tie, but the marks are not considered valid for any other purpose than breaking the tie.

A jump-off is a sudden death competition in which the tied vaulters attempt the same height, starting with the last attempted height. If both vaulters miss, the bar goes down by a small increment, and if both clear, the bar goes up by a small increment. A jump-off ends when one vaulter clears and the other misses. Each vaulter gets one attempt at each height until one makes and one misses.

The equipment and rules for pole vaulting are similar to the high jump. Unlike high jump, however, the athlete in the vault has the ability to select the horizontal position of the bar before each jump and can place it a distance beyond the back of the box, the metal pit that the pole is placed into immediately before takeoff. The range of distance the vaulter may place the standards varies depending on the level of competition.

Painting by former athlete Raffaello Ducceschi depicting the pole vault

If the pole used by the athlete dislodges the bar from the uprights, a foul attempt is ruled, even if the athlete has cleared the height. An athlete does not benefit from quickly leaving the landing pad before the bar has fallen. The exception to this rule if the vaulter is vaulting outdoors and has made a clear effort to throw the pole back, but the wind has blown the pole into the bar; this counts as a clearance. This call is made at the discretion of the pole vault official. If the pole breaks during the execution of a vault, it is considered an equipment failure and is ruled a non-jump, neither a make nor a miss. Other types of equipment failure include the standards slipping down or the wind dislodging the bar when no contact was made by the vaulter.

Each athlete has a set amount of time in which to make an attempt. The amount of time varies by level of competition and the number of vaulters remaining. If the vaulter fails to begin an attempt within this time, the vaulter is charged with a time foul and the attempt is a miss.

Poles are manufactured with ratings corresponding to the vaulter's maximum weight. Some organizations forbid vaulters to use poles rated below their weight as a safety precaution. The recommended weight corresponds to a flex rating that is determined by the manufacturer by placing a standardized amount of stress (most commonly a 50 lb weight) on the pole and measuring how much the center of the pole is displaced. Therefore, two poles rated at the same weight are not necessarily the same stiffness.

Because pole stiffness and length are important factors to a vaulter's performance, it is not uncommon for an elite vaulter to carry as many as 10 poles to a competition. The effective properties of a pole can be changed by gripping the pole higher or lower in relation to the top of the pole. The left and right handgrips are typically a bit more than shoulder width apart. Poles are manufactured for people of all skill levels and body sizes, with sizes as short as 3.05m (10 feet) to as long as 5.30 m (17 feet 4.5 inches), with a wide range of weight ratings. Each manufacturer determines the weight rating for the pole and the location of the maximum handhold band.


Competitive pole vaulting began using solid ash poles. As the heights attained increased, the bamboo poles gave way to tubular aluminum,[6] which was tapered at each end. Today's pole vaulters benefit from poles produced by wrapping pre-cut sheets of fiberglass that contains resin around a metal pole mandrel, to produce a slightly pre-bent pole that bends more easily under the compression caused by an athlete's take-off. The shape of the fiberglass sheets and the amount of fiberglass used is carefully planned to provide the desired length and stiffness of pole. Different fiber types, including carbon-fiber, are used to give poles specific characteristics intended to promote higher jumps. In recent years, carbon fiber has been added to the commonly used E-glass and S-glass materials to create a pole with a lighter carry weight.

As in the high jump, the landing area was originally a heap of sawdust or sand where athletes landed on their feet. As technology enabled higher vaults, mats evolved into bags of large chunks of foam. Today's high-tech mats are foam usually 1–1.5 meters (3 ft 3 in–4 ft 11 in) thick. Mats are growing larger in area as well to minimize risk of injury. Proper landing technique is on the back or shoulders. Landing on the feet should be avoided, to eliminate the risk of injury to the lower extremities, particularly ankle sprains.

Rule changes over the years have resulted in larger landing areas and additional padding of all hard and unyielding surfaces.

The pole vault crossbar has evolved from a triangular aluminum bar to a round fiberglass bar with rubber ends. This is balanced on standards and can be knocked off when it is hit by a pole vaulter or the pole. Rule changes have led to shorter pegs and crossbar ends that are semi-circular.


Phases of Pole Vaulting

Although many techniques are used by vaulters at various skill levels to clear the bar, the generally accepted technical model can be broken down into several phases:


During the approach the pole vaulter sprints down the runway in such a way as to achieve maximum speed and correct position to initiate takeoff at the end of the approach. Top class vaulters use approaches with 18 to 22 strides, often referred to as a "step" in which every other foot is counted as one step. At the beginning of the approach the pole is usually carried upright to some degree, and gradually lowered as the vaulter gets closer to the landing pit. This way the vaulter can minimize levered weight of the pole. The faster the vaulter can run and the more efficient his/her take-off is, the greater the potential energy that can be achieved and used during the vault. It is common for vaulters to gradually increase running speed throughout the approach, reaching maximum speed at take-off. Vaulters increase stride frequency while keeping the knees up like a sprinter. Unlike short sprint events such as the 100 m in which a forward lean is used to accelerate, vaulters maintain a more upright torso position throughout the approach to counterbalance the effect of carrying the pole.

Plant and take-off[edit]

The plant and take off is initiated typically three steps out from the final step. Vaulters will usually count their steps backwards from their starting point to the box only counting the steps taken on the left foot (vice versa for left-handers) except for the second step from the box, which is taken by the right foot. For example; a vaulter on a "ten count" (referring to the number of counted steps from the starting point to the box) would count backwards from ten, only counting the steps taken with the left foot, until the last three steps taken and both feet are counted as three, two, one. These last three steps are normally quicker than the previous strides and are referred to as the "turn-over". The goal of this phase is to efficiently translate the kinetic energy accumulated from the approach into potential energy stored by the elasticity of the pole, and to gain as much initial vertical height as possible by jumping off the ground. The plant starts with the vaulter raising his arms up from around the hips or mid-torso until they are fully outstretched above his head, with the right arm extended directly above the head and the left arm extended perpendicular to the pole (vice versa for left-handed vaulters). At the same time, the vaulter is dropping the pole tip into the box. On the final step, the vaulter jumps off the trail leg which should always remain straight and then drives the front knee forward. As the pole slides into the back of the box the pole begins to bend and the vaulter continues up and forward, leaving the trail leg angled down and behind him.

Swing up[edit]

The swing and row simply consists of the vaulter swinging his trail leg forward and rowing the pole, bringing his top arm down to the hips, while trying to keep the trail leg straight to store more potential energy into the pole, the rowing motion also keeps the pole bent for a longer period of time for the vaulter to get into optimum position. Once in a "U" shape the left arm hugs the pole tight to efficiently use the recoil within the pole. The goal is to carry out these motions as thoroughly and as quickly as possible; it is a race against the unbending of the pole. Effectively, this causes a double pendulum motion, with the top of the pole moving forward and pivoting from the box, while the vaulter acts as a second pendulum pivoting from the right hand. This action gives the vaulter the best position possible to be "ejected" off the pole. The swing continues until the hips are above the head and the arms are pulling the pole close to the chest; from there the vaulter shoots his legs up over the cross bar while keeping the pole close.


The extension refers to the extension of the hips upward with outstretched legs as the shoulders drive down, causing the vaulter to be positioned upside down. This position is often referred to as "inversion". While this phase is executed, the pole begins to recoil, propelling the vaulter quickly upward. The hands of the vaulter remain close to his body as they move from the shins back to the region around the hips and upper torso.


The turn is executed immediately after or even during the end of the rockback. As the name implies, the vaulter turns 180° toward the pole while extending the arms down past the head and shoulders. Typically the vaulter will begin to angle his body toward the bar as the turn is executed, although ideally the vaulter will remain as vertical as possible. A more accurate description of this phase of the vault may be "the spin" because the vaulter spins around an imaginary axis from head to toe.


This is often highly emphasized by spectators and novice vaulters, but it is arguably the easiest phase of the vault and is a result of proper execution of previous phases. This phase mainly consists of the vaulter pushing off the pole and releasing it so it falls away from the bar and mats. As his/her body goes over and around the bar, the vaulter is facing the bar. Rotation of the body over the bar occurs naturally, and the vaulter's main concern is making sure that his/her arms, face and any other appendages do not knock the bar off as he/she goes over. The vaulter should land near the middle of the foam landing mats, or pits, face up.


All-time top ten athletes[edit]

Men (outdoor)[edit]

16.14 m (20 ft 112 in) Sergey Bubka (UKR)Sestriere1994-07-31
26.05 m (19 ft 10 in) Maksim Tarasov (RUS)Athens1999-06-16
 Dmitri Markov (AUS)Edmonton2001-08-09
46.04 m (19 ft 934 in) Brad Walker (USA)Eugene2008-06-08
56.03 m (19 ft 914 in) Okkert Brits (RSA)Cologne1995-08-18
 Jeff Hartwig (USA)Jonesboro2000-06-14
76.02 m (19 ft 9 in) Renaud Lavillenie (FRA)London2013-07-27
86.01 m (19 ft 812 in) Igor Trandenkov (RUS)Saint Petersburg1996-07-04
 Timothy Mack (USA)Monaco2004-09-18
 Yevgeny Lukyanenko (RUS)Bydgoszcz2008-07-01
 Björn Otto (GER)Aachen2012-09-05

Men (indoor)[edit]

16.16 m (20 ft 212 in) Renaud Lavillenie (FRA)Donetsk2014-02-15
26.15 m (20 ft 2 in) Sergey Bubka (UKR)Donetsk1993-02-21
36.06 m (19 ft 1012 in) Steve Hooker (AUS)Boston2009-02-07
46.02 m (19 ft 9 in) Radion Gataullin (RUS)Gomel1989-02-04
 Jeff Hartwig (USA)Sindelfingen2002-03-10
66.00 m (19 ft 8 in) Maksim Tarasov (RUS)Budapest1999-02-05
 Jean Galfione (FRA)Maebashi1999-03-06
 Danny Ecker (GER)Dortmund2001-02-11
95.96 m (19 ft 612 in) Lawrence Johnson (USA)Atlanta2001-03-03
105.95 m (19 ft 614 in) Tim Lobinger (GER)Chemnitz2000-02-18

Women (outdoor)[edit]

15.06 m (16 ft 7 in) Yelena Isinbayeva (RUS)Zurich28 August 2009
24.92 m (16 ft 112 in) Jenn Suhr (USA)Eugene6 July 2008
34.90 m (16 ft 034 in) Yarisley Silva (CUB)Des Moines26 April 2013
44.88 m (16 ft 0 in) Svetlana Feofanova (RUS)Iraklio4 July 2004
54.85 m (15 ft 1034 in) Fabiana Murer (BRA)San Fernando4 June 2010
64.83 m (15 ft 10 in) Stacy Dragila (USA)Ostrava8 June 2004
 Anna Rogowska (POL)Brussels26 August 2005
84.82 m (15 ft 934 in) Monika Pyrek (POL)Stuttgart22 September 2007
94.82 m (15 ft 934 in) Silke Spiegelburg (GER)Fontvieille21 July 2012
104.80 m (15 ft 834 in) Martina Strutz (GER)Daegu30 August 2011

Women (indoor)[edit]

15.02 m (16 ft 512 in) Jennifer Suhr (USA)Albuquerque2 March 2013
25.01 m (16 ft 5 in) Yelena Isinbayeva (RUS)Stockholm23 February 2012
34.87 m (15 ft 1112 in) Holly Bleasdale (GBR)Villeurbanne21 January 2012
44.85 m (15 ft 1034 in) Svetlana Feofanova (RUS)Athens22 February 2004
 Anna Rogowska (POL)Paris6 March 2011
64.82 m (15 ft 934 in) Fabiana Murer (BRA)Birmingham20 February 2010
 Yarisley Silva (CUB)Des Moines24 April 2013
84.81 m (15 ft 914 in) Stacy Dragila (USA)Budapest6 March 2004
94.77 m (15 ft 734 in) Silke Spiegelburg (GER)Leverkusen15 January 2012
104.76 m (15 ft 714 in) Monika Pyrek (POL)Donetsk12 February 2006

Six metres club[edit]

The "six metres club" consists of pole vaulters who have reached at least 6.00.[11] In 1985 Sergey Bubka became the first pole vaulter to clear six metres; he has held the outdoor world record at 6.14, set on 31 July 1994 in Sestriere, for over 20 years.

MeasureAthleteNationOutdoorsIndoorsYear first
6 metres
6.16Renaud Lavillenie France6.026.162009
6.15Sergey Bubka Soviet Union /  Ukraine6.146.151985
6.06Steve Hooker Australia6.006.062008
6.05Maksim Tarasov Russia6.056.001997
Dmitri Markov Australia6.051998
6.04Brad Walker United States6.045.862006
6.03Okkert Brits South Africa6.031995
Jeff Hartwig United States6.036.021998
6.02Rodion Gataullin Soviet Union /  Russia6.006.021989
6.01Igor Trandenkov Russia6.011996
Timothy Mack United States6.012004
Yevgeniy Lukyanenko Russia6.012008
Björn Otto Germany6.012012
6.00Tim Lobinger Germany6.001997
Jean Galfione France6.001999
Danny Ecker Germany6.002001
Toby Stevenson United States6.002004
Paul Burgess Australia6.002005

Olympic medalists[edit]


1896 Athens
 William Hoyt (USA) Albert Tyler (USA) Evangelos Damaskos (GRE)
 Ioannis Theodoropoulos (GRE)
1900 Paris
 Irving Baxter (USA) Meredith Colket (USA) Carl Albert Andersen (NOR)
1904 St. Louis
 Charles Dvorak (USA) LeRoy Samse (USA) Louis Wilkins (USA)
1908 London
 Edward Cook (USA)none awarded Edward Archibald (CAN)
 Clare Jacobs (USA)
 Alfred Gilbert (USA)
 Bruno Söderström (SWE)
1912 Stockholm
 Harry Babcock (USA) Frank Nelson (USA) William Halpenny (CAN)
 Frank Murphy (USA)
 Marc Wright (USA)
 Bertil Uggla (SWE)
1920 Antwerp
 Frank Foss (USA) Henry Petersen (DEN) Edwin Myers (USA)
1924 Paris
 Lee Barnes (USA) Glen Graham (USA) James Brooker (USA)
1928 Amsterdam
 Sabin Carr (USA) William Droegemueller (USA) Charles McGinnis (USA)
1932 Los Angeles
 Bill Miller (USA) Shuhei Nishida (JPN) George Jefferson (USA)
1936 Berlin
 Earle Meadows (USA) Shuhei Nishida (JPN) Sueo Ōe (JPN)
1948 London
 Guinn Smith (USA) Erkki Kataja (FIN) Bob Richards (USA)
1952 Helsinki
 Bob Richards (USA) Don Laz (USA) Ragnar Lundberg (SWE)
1956 Melbourne
 Bob Richards (USA) Bob Gutowski (USA) Georgios Roubanis (GRE)
1960 Rome
 Don Bragg (USA) Ron Morris (USA) Eeles Landström (FIN)
1964 Tokyo
 Fred Hansen (USA) Wolfgang Reinhardt (EUA) Klaus Lehnertz (EUA)
1968 Mexico City
 Bob Seagren (USA) Claus Schiprowski (FRG) Wolfgang Nordwig (GDR)
1972 Munich
 Wolfgang Nordwig (GDR) Bob Seagren (USA) Jan Johnson (USA)
1976 Montreal
 Tadeusz Ślusarski (POL) Antti Kalliomäki (FIN) David Roberts (USA)
1980 Moscow
 Władysław Kozakiewicz (POL) Tadeusz Ślusarski (POL)none awarded
 Konstantin Volkov (URS)
1984 Los Angeles
 Pierre Quinon (FRA) Mike Tully (USA) Earl Bell (USA)
 Thierry Vigneron (FRA)
1988 Seoul
 Sergey Bubka (URS) Rodion Gataullin (URS) Grigoriy Yegorov (URS)
1992 Barcelona
 Maksim Tarasov (EUN) Igor Trandenkov (EUN) Javier García (ESP)
1996 Atlanta
 Jean Galfione (FRA) Igor Trandenkov (RUS) Andrei Tivontchik (GER)
2000 Sydney
 Nick Hysong (USA) Lawrence Johnson (USA) Maksim Tarasov (RUS)
2004 Athens
 Timothy Mack (USA) Toby Stevenson (USA) Giuseppe Gibilisco (ITA)
2008 Beijing
 Steve Hooker (AUS) Yevgeny Lukyanenko (RUS) Denys Yurchenko (UKR)
2012 London
 Renaud Lavillenie (FRA) Björn Otto (GER) Raphael Holzdeppe (GER)


2000 Sydney
 Stacy Dragila (USA) Tatiana Grigorieva (AUS) Vala Flosadóttir (ISL)
2004 Athens
 Yelena Isinbayeva (RUS) Svetlana Feofanova (RUS) Anna Rogowska (POL)
2008 Beijing
 Yelena Isinbayeva (RUS) Jennifer Stuczynski (USA) Svetlana Feofanova (RUS)
2012 London
 Jenn Suhr (USA) Yarisley Silva (CUB) Yelena Isinbayeva (RUS)

World Championships medalists[edit]


1983 Helsinki Sergey Bubka (URS) Konstantin Volkov (URS) Atanas Tarev (BUL)
1987 Rome Sergey Bubka (URS) Thierry Vigneron (FRA) Rodion Gataullin (URS)
1991 Tokyo Sergey Bubka (URS) István Bagyula (HUN) Maksim Tarasov (URS)
1993 Stuttgart Sergey Bubka (UKR) Grigoriy Yegorov (KAZ) Maksim Tarasov (RUS)
 Igor Trandenkov (RUS)
1995 Gothenburg Sergey Bubka (UKR) Maksim Tarasov (RUS) Jean Galfione (FRA)
1997 Athens Sergey Bubka (UKR) Maksim Tarasov (RUS) Dean Starkey (USA)
1999 Seville Maksim Tarasov (RUS) Dmitri Markov (AUS) Aleksandr Averbukh (ISR)
2001 Edmonton Dmitri Markov (AUS) Aleksandr Averbukh (ISR) Nick Hysong (USA)
2003 Saint-Denis Giuseppe Gibilisco (ITA) Okkert Brits (RSA) Patrik Kristiansson (SWE)
2005 Helsinki Rens Blom (NED) Brad Walker (USA) Pavel Gerasimov (RUS)
2007 Osaka Brad Walker (USA) Romain Mesnil (FRA) Danny Ecker (GER)
2009 Berlin Steve Hooker (AUS) Romain Mesnil (FRA) Renaud Lavillenie (FRA)
2011 Daegu Paweł Wojciechowski (POL) Lázaro Borges (CUB) Renaud Lavillenie (FRA)
2013 Moscow Raphael Holzdeppe (GER) Renaud Lavillenie (FRA) Björn Otto (GER)


1999 Seville Stacy Dragila (USA) Anzhela Balakhonova (UKR) Tatiana Grigorieva (AUS)
2001 Edmonton Stacy Dragila (USA) Svetlana Feofanova (RUS) Monika Pyrek (POL)
2003 Saint-Denis Svetlana Feofanova (RUS) Annika Becker (GER) Yelena Isinbayeva (RUS)
2005 Helsinki Yelena Isinbayeva (RUS) Monika Pyrek (POL) Pavla Hamáčková (CZE)
2007 Osaka Yelena Isinbayeva (RUS) Kateřina Baďurová (CZE) Svetlana Feofanova (RUS)
2009 Berlin Anna Rogowska (POL) Chelsea Johnson (USA)
 Monika Pyrek (POL)
none awarded
2011 Daegu Fabiana Murer (BRA) Martina Strutz (GER) Svetlana Feofanova (RUS)
2013 Moscow Yelena Isinbayeva (RUS) Jennifer Suhr (USA) Yarisley Silva (CUB)

Season's bests[edit]


19705.49 m (18 ft 0 in) Christos Papanikolaou (GRE)Athens
19715.43 m (17 ft 934 in) Kjell Isaksson (SWE)Siena
19725.63 m (18 ft 512 in) Bob Seagren (USA)Eugene
19735.49 m (18 ft 0 in) Steve Smith (USA)New York
19745.53 m (18 ft 112 in) Steve Smith (USA)Pocatello
19755.65 m (18 ft 614 in) David Roberts (USA)Gainesville
19765.70 m (18 ft 814 in) David Roberts (USA)Eugene
19775.66 m (18 ft 634 in) Wladyslaw Kozakiewicz (POL)Warsaw
19785.71 m (18 ft 834 in) Mike Tully (USA)Corvallis
19795.65 m (18 ft 614 in) Patrick Abada (FRA)
 Philippe Houvion (FRA)
19805.78 m (18 ft 1112 in) Wladyslaw Kozakiewicz (POL)Moscow
19815.81 m (19 ft 012 in) Vladimir Polyakov (URS)Tbilisi
19825.75 m (18 ft 1014 in) Dave Volz (USA)
 Jean-Michel Bellot (FRA)
19835.83 m (19 ft 112 in) Thierry Vigneron (FRA)Rome
19845.94 m (19 ft 534 in) Sergey Bubka (URS)Rome
19856.00 m (19 ft 8 in) Sergey Bubka (URS)Paris
19866.01 m (19 ft 812 in) Sergey Bubka (URS)Moscow
19876.03 m (19 ft 914 in) Sergey Bubka (URS)Prague
19886.06 m (19 ft 1012 in) Sergey Bubka (URS)Nice
19896.03 m (19 ft 914 in)i Sergey Bubka (URS)Osaka
19906.05 m (19 ft 10 in)i Sergey Bubka (URS)Donetsk
19916.12 m (20 ft 034 in)i Sergey Bubka (URS)Grenoble
19926.13 m (20 ft 114 in) Sergey Bubka (UKR)Tokyo; Berlin
19936.15 m (20 ft 2 in)i Sergey Bubka (UKR)Donetsk
19946.14 m (20 ft 112 in) Sergey Bubka (UKR)Sestriere
19956.03 m (19 ft 914 in) Okkert Brits (RSA)Cologne
19966.02 m (19 ft 9 in) Sergey Bubka (UKR)Atlanta
19976.05 m (19 ft 10 in) Sergey Bubka (UKR)Fukuoka
19986.01 m (19 ft 812 in) Jeff Hartwig (USA)Uniondale
19996.05 m (19 ft 10 in) Maxim Tarasov (RUS)Athens
20006.03 m (19 ft 914 in) Jeff Hartwig (USA)Jonesboro
20016.05 m (19 ft 10 in) Dmitriy Markov (AUS)Edmonton
20026.02 m (19 ft 9 in)i Jeff Hartwig (USA)Sindelfingen
20035.95 m (19 ft 614 in) Romain Mesnil (FRA)Castres
20046.01 m (19 ft 812 in) Timothy Mack (USA)Monaco
20056.00 m (19 ft 8 in) Paul Burgess (AUS)Perth
20066.00 m (19 ft 8 in) Brad Walker (USA)Jockgrim
20075.95 m (19 ft 614 in) Brad Walker (USA)Brisbane
20086.04 m (19 ft 934 in) Brad Walker (USA)Eugene
20096.06 m (19 ft 1012 in) Steve Hooker (AUS)Boston
20106.01 m (19 ft 812 in)i Steve Hooker (AUS)Doha
20116.03 m (19 ft 914 in)i Renaud Lavillenie (FRA)Paris
20126.01 m (19 ft 812 in) Björn Otto (GER)Aachen
20136.02 m (19 ft 9 in) Renaud Lavillenie (FRA)London
20146.16 m (20 ft 212 in)i Renaud Lavillenie (FRA)Donetsk


19914.05 m (13 ft 314 in) Zhang Chunzhen (CHN)Guangzhou
19924.05 m (13 ft 314 in) Sun Caiyun (CHN)Nanjing
19934.11 m (13 ft 534 in) Sun Caiyun (CHN)Guangzhou
19944.12 m (13 ft 6 in) Sun Caiyun (CHN)Guangzhou
19954.28 m (14 ft 012 in) Emma George (AUS)Perth
19964.45 m (14 ft 7 in) Emma George (AUS)Sapporo
19974.55 m (14 ft 11 in) Emma George (AUS)Melbourne
19984.59 m (15 ft 012 in) Emma George (AUS)Brisbane
19994.60 m (15 ft 1 in) Emma George (AUS)
 Stacy Dragila (USA)
20004.63 m (15 ft 214 in) Stacy Dragila (USA)Sacramento
20014.81 m (15 ft 914 in) Stacy Dragila (USA)Palo Alto
20024.78 m (15 ft 8 in) Svetlana Feofanova (RUS)Stockholm
20034.82 m (15 ft 934 in) Elena Isinbaeva (RUS)Gateshead
20044.92 m (16 ft 112 in) Elena Isinbaeva (RUS)Brussels
20055.01 m (16 ft 5 in) Elena Isinbaeva (RUS)Helsinki
20064.91 m (16 ft 114 in) Elena Isinbaeva (RUS)London; Donetsk
20074.93 m (16 ft 2 in)i Elena Isinbaeva (RUS)Donetsk
20085.05 m (16 ft 634 in) Elena Isinbaeva (RUS)Beijing
20095.06 m (16 ft 7 in) Elena Isinbaeva (RUS)Zürich
20104.89 m (16 ft 012 in) Jennifer Suhr (USA)Des Moines
20114.91 m (16 ft 114 in) Jennifer Suhr (USA)Rochester, New York
20125.01 m (16 ft 5 in)i Elena Isinbaeva (RUS)Stockholm
20135.02 m (16 ft 512 in)Ai Jennifer Suhr (USA)Albuquerque
20144.80 m (15 ft 834 in) Fabiana Murer (BRA)New York City


  1. ^ Rosenbaum, Mike. Yelena Isinbayeva: Pole Vault Record-Breaker. About Track and Field. Retrieved on 2014-01-25.
  2. ^ Rudman, Steve (2013-05-31). Huskies vault legend Brian Sternberg (1943-13). Sports Press NW. Retrieved on 2014-01-25.
  3. ^ "Info". Polsstokverspringen/ Fierljeppen Holland. 5 September 2012. Retrieved 7 September 2012. 
  4. ^ Turnbull, Simon (2009-06-13). Kate Dennison: 'It helps being a little bit crazy'. The Independent. Retrieved on 2009-06-15.
  5. ^ http://news.google.com/newspapers?nid=1356&dat=19620207&id=CWxPAAAAIBAJ&sjid=MwUEAAAAIBAJ&pg=4887,840268
  6. ^ McCormick, Matthew. Soaring to New Heights: The Evolution of Pole Vaulting and Pole Materials . Illumin. Retrieved on 2014-01-25.
  7. ^ Pole Vault - men - senior - outdoor. IAAF. Retrieved on 2014-01-25.
  8. ^ Pole Vault - women - senior - outdoor. IAAF. Retrieved on 2014-01-25.
  9. ^ Pole Vault - men - senior - indoor. IAAF. Retrieved on 2014-01-25.
  10. ^ Pole Vault - women - senior - indoor. IAAF. Retrieved on 2014-01-25.
  11. ^ US unit calculator for unofficial mark conversions in athletic events, hosted by USATF.org

External links[edit]