Pittsburgh, Cincinnati, Chicago and St. Louis Railroad

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Pittsburgh, Cincinnati, Chicago and St. Louis Railroad
LocaleIllinois, Indiana, Ohio, Pennsylvania & West Virginia
Dates of operationJanuary 1, 1917–April 1, 1956
PredecessorPittsburgh, Cincinnati, Chicago and St. Louis Railway; Vandalia Railroad; Pittsburgh, Wheeling and Kentucky Railroad; Anderson Belt Railway; & Chicago, Indiana and Eastern Railway
SuccessorPhiladelphia, Baltimore and Washington Railroad
Track gauge4 ft 8 12 in (1,435 mm) (standard gauge)
 
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Pittsburgh, Cincinnati, Chicago and St. Louis Railroad
LocaleIllinois, Indiana, Ohio, Pennsylvania & West Virginia
Dates of operationJanuary 1, 1917–April 1, 1956
PredecessorPittsburgh, Cincinnati, Chicago and St. Louis Railway; Vandalia Railroad; Pittsburgh, Wheeling and Kentucky Railroad; Anderson Belt Railway; & Chicago, Indiana and Eastern Railway
SuccessorPhiladelphia, Baltimore and Washington Railroad
Track gauge4 ft 8 12 in (1,435 mm) (standard gauge)
Pittsburgh, Cincinnati, Chicago and St. Louis Railway
LocaleIllinois, Indiana, Ohio, Pennsylvania & West Virginia
Dates of operationDecember 22, 1853 (oldest predecessor line)
September 20, 1890–December 31, 1916
PredecessorPittsburgh, Cincinnati and St. Louis Railway; Chicago, St. Louis and Pittsburgh Railroad; Cincinnati and Richmond Railroad; & Jeffersonville, Madison and Indianapolis Railroad
SuccessorPittsburgh, Cincinnati, Chicago and St. Louis Railroad
Track gauge4 ft 8 12 in (1,435 mm) (standard gauge)
Pittsburgh, Cincinnati, Chicago, St. Louis Railroad bond, 1920, detail

The Pittsburgh, Cincinnati, Chicago and St. Louis Railroad, commonly called the Pan Handle Route (Panhandle Route in later days), was a railroad forming part of the Pennsylvania Railroad system. Its common name came from its main line west from Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania across the Northern Panhandle of West Virginia. The line continued west to Bradford, Ohio, where it split, with one line to Chicago and the other to East St. Louis, Illinois via Indianapolis, Indiana.

History[edit]

Pittsburgh to Columbus: 1848-1869[edit]

The Steubenville and Indiana Railroad was chartered February 24, 1848 in Ohio to build west from the Ohio River at Steubenville to the Indiana state line between Willshire and Fort Recovery, via Mt. Vernon. On March 12, 1849 it was authorized to build a bridge at Steubenville and a branch to Columbus.

The first section opened December 22, 1853 from Steubenville west to Unionport. On February 2, 1854 an extension from Unionport west to Cadiz Junction opened, and the branch to Cadiz opened June 12. Further extensions west from Cadiz Junction opened June 22 to Masterville, July 12 to Bowerston, and April 11, 1855 the rest of the way to Newark. However, it did not yet connect to any other railroads in Newark.

On December 25, 1854 the S&I came to an agreement with the Central Ohio Railroad to use its tracks from Newark west to Columbus. Some surveying had been done for a separate route via Granville. The connection at Newark opened April 16, 1857, and was built with funds provided by the Columbus and Xenia Railroad, which helped provide a through route to Cincinnati from the S&I. In 1864 the S&I outright bought a half interest in the Newark-Columbus track.

The Pittsburgh and Steubenville Railroad was chartered March 24, 1849 in Pennsylvania to build west from the Monongahela River near Pittsburgh to the Virginia (now West Virginia) state line towards the Steubenville and Indiana Railroad. It was authorized to extend across the Monongahela to Pittsburgh on April 21, 1852. The Western Transportation Company was incorporated by the Pennsylvania Railroad in Pennsylvania on March 15, 1856 to build and operate the P&S.

On July 22, 1853, the president of the S&I deeded right-of-way he had bought from 36 landowners across the Virginia Panhandle to the P&S. This allowed the railroad to build without a charter, which was required to use eminent domain; the powerful city of Wheeling had opposed the P&S, which bypassed Wheeling. The private Edgington and Wells Railroad (named after its owners, Jesse Edgington and Nathaniel Wells of Brooke County) opened July 4, 1854 but failed later that year, as it did not connect to any other railroads. The Holliday's Cove Rail Road was chartered by the Western Transportation Company on March 30, 1860 in Virginia to build across the Panhandle near what is now Weirton, West Virginia; the charter was only used to build the Steubenville Railroad Bridge. The next day the Wheeling Railroad Bridge Company was chartered by the same company, as a political promise to allow the incorporation of the HCRR.

The full P&S opened October 9, 1865, from Smithfield Street in Pittsburgh west to Wheeling Junction at the east end of the Steubenville Railroad Bridge. That same day, the Steubenville Railroad Bridge opened over the Ohio River, connecting the S&I and P&S, as did the connection at Pittsburgh, connecting the Pennsylvania Railroad with the P&S via the Monongahela River Bridge (commonly called the Panhandle Bridge) and Grant's Hill Tunnel. From then until 1868 the line was operated as the Pittsburgh, Columbus and Cincinnati Railroad by the Western Transportation Company.

The P&S was sold under foreclosure on November 6, 1867 to the Panhandle Railway, which had been chartered April 8, 1861. On April 30, 1868 the PHRy, S&I and HCRR merged to form the Pittsburgh, Cincinnati and St. Louis Railway, and the Western Transportation Company was dissolved soon after.

Columbus to Indianapolis: 1847-1867[edit]

The Terre Haute and Richmond Rail Road was chartered in 1847 to build across Indiana via Indianapolis. On May 25, 1850, stockholders east of Indianapolis organized the Terre Haute and Richmond Railroad (East of Indianapolis). On January 20, 1851 that section, from Indianapolis east to the Ohio state line, was renamed the Indiana Central Railway. On January 31 an Ohio law authorized the Dayton and Western Railroad to unite with the Indiana Central and operate jointly. The line from Indianapolis east to Greenfield opened in September 1853, and on October 8 it was completed to the state line, where it connected with the Dayton and Western. Joint operation of both lines between Indianapolis and Dayton, Ohio began August 1, 1854. In 1859 the rail gauge was changed from standard gauge to the broader Ohio gauge (4 ft 10 in) to allow for direct connections with the Little Miami Railroad and Columbus and Xenia Railroad at Dayton.

The Columbus, Piqua and Indiana Railroad was chartered in Ohio on February 23, 1849 to build from Columbus west via Urbana, Piqua and Greenville to the Indiana state line. On March 21, 1851 the CP&I was authorized to change the route west of Covington, and a more northerly alignment was chosen to meet the Indianapolis and Bellefontaine Railroad at Union City, Indiana for access to Indianapolis. The first section, from Columbus west to Plain City, opened June 6, 1853. Extensions opened to Urbana September 19 and Piqua October 16, 1854; on the latter date it changed its rail gauge to Ohio gauge to connect with the Indianapolis and Bellefontaine, which had also re-gauged. The rest of the line to Union City opened March 25, 1859 after some financial problems. The CP&I was sold at foreclosure on August 6, 1863 and reorganized October 30 as the Columbus and Indianapolis Railroad.

The Richmond and Covington Railroad was chartered in Ohio by the Indiana Central Railway and Columbus, Piqua and Indiana Railroad on March 12, 1862 to build a branch of the latter from Bradford to the former at the Indiana state line near New Paris. The R&C opened in early 1863, and the Indiana Central's joint operating contract with the Dayton and Western Railroad was dissolved on March 9. On January 10, 1864 the IC, C&I and R&C signed an agreement for joint operation as the Great Central Line between Columbus and Indianapolis, headed by the Indiana Central. The C&I bought the R&C on September 5, 1864. The Indiana Central Railway and Columbus and Indianapolis Railroad merged October 19 to form the Columbus and Indianapolis Central Railway, with a main line from Columbus, Ohio to Indianapolis, Indiana and a branch from Bradford, Ohio to Union City, Indiana.

Richmond to Chicago: 1848-1865[edit]

The New Castle and Richmond Railroad was chartered February 16, 1848 in Indiana to build a line from New Castle east via Hagerstown and Greens Fork to Richmond. The company was authorized on January 24, 1851 to extend northwest beyond New Castle to Lafayette. On February 26, 1853 it was renamed the Cincinnati, Logansport and Chicago Railway to better reflect its expanded role. The original line opened between New Castle and Richmond in December 1853, and it was operated jointly with the Richmond and Miami Railroad and Eaton and Hamilton Railroad, which continued the line southwest to Hamilton, Ohio. The Cincinnati, Hamilton and Dayton Railroad, connecting Hamilton to Cincinnati, joined the operations on February 1, 1854.

The Cincinnati, Cambridge and Chicago Short Line Railway was incorporated in Indiana on January 25, 1853, to build from New Castle southeast via Cambridge to the Ohio state line; the Cincinnati, New Castle and Michigan Railroad was incorporated April 11 of the same year to build northwest from New Castle towards St. Joseph, Michigan. The two companies merged May 1, 1854 to form the Cincinnati and Chicago Railroad. On October 10, 1854 the Cincinnati, Logansport and Chicago Railway was merged into the Cincinnati and Chicago Railroad. The unfinished line between Richmond and Logansport was leased to John W. Wright and Company on October 16, 1856. That company began operating it on December 1, and the joint operation towards Cincinnati ended. The full line between Richmond and Logansport opened on July 4, 1857. That line was sold at foreclosure on April 28, 1860 and reorganized July 10 as the Cincinnati and Chicago Air–Line Railroad. Grading had been done from Wabash southeast to the Ohio state line; portions were later sold to the Fort Wayne and Southern Railroad and Connersville and New Castle Junction Railroad.

On September 25, 1857 the Chicago and Cincinnati Railroad was chartered in Indiana to build a line from Logansport northwest to Valparaiso. That line opened in 1861, connecting at Valparaiso with the Pittsburgh, Fort Wayne and Chicago Railway to Chicago. The Cincinnati and Chicago Air–Line opened a bridge over the Wabash River at Logansport on September 25, 1861, connecting it to the Chicago and Cincinnati. Joint operation between Richmond and Chicago began July 1, 1862 and ended January 29, 1865.

Realignments towards Chicago and mergers: 1857-1869[edit]

The Galena and Illinois River Railroad was chartered in Illinois on February 18, 1857,[1] to build from Galena through Chicago to the Indiana state line towards Lansing, Michigan. The Chicago and Great Eastern Railway was incorporated in Indiana on June 19, 1863 to build from Logansport northwest to the Illinois state line towards Chicago. The charter of the G&IR was assigned to the C&GE on September 11, 1863, and the C&GE absorbed the G&IR on October 30. The line from Chicago (12th Street) south and southeast to the Chicago and Cincinnati at La Crosse, Indiana opened March 6, 1865, and the old line northwest from La Crosse to Valparaiso was abandoned. On May 15, 1865 the C&GE absorbed the Cincinnati and Chicago Air–Line Railroad and Chicago and Cincinnati Railroad.

The Marion and Mississinewa Valley Railroad was incorporated in Indiana on May 11, 1852 to build from Union City northwest to Marion. On May 14, 1853 the Marion and Logansport Railroad was incorporated to continue northwest from Marion to Logansport. The M&L conveyed its property to the M&MV on November 28, 1854. The Union and Logansport Railroad was incorporated January 5, 1863, and bought the unfinished M&MV on January 9.

In the meantime, the Logansport and Pacific Railroad was incorporated in 1853 to build from Logansport west to the Illinois state line. After several reorganizations, the Toledo, Logansport and Burlington Railroad opened to the Illinois state line near Effner in 1859. The Logansport, Peoria and Burlington Railroad continued as part of a line to the U.S. West, bypassing Chicago.

1868 map of the Columbus, Chicago and Indiana Central Railway

On September 11, 1867 the Columbus and Indianapolis Central Railway, Union and Logansport Railroad and Toledo, Logansport and Burlington Railway merged to form the Columbus and Indiana Central Railway. The main line, formerly being built by the Union and Logansport, opened from Union City to Marion in October 1867.

On February 12, 1868 the Columbus, Chicago and Indiana Central Railway was formed as a merger of the Columbus and Indiana Central Railway and Chicago and Great Eastern Railway. The rest of the new main line, from Marion northwest to Anoka, on the old main line east of Logansport, was completed March 15, 1868, making the old route via New Castle and Richmond into a branch. The CC&IC now had main lines from Columbus, Ohio to Chicago and Indianapolis, Indiana, with branches from near Logansport, Indiana southeast to Richmond, Indiana (on the Indianapolis line) and west to Effner, Indiana. The Erie Railway offered in late 1868 to lease the CC&IC, but the Pittsburgh, Cincinnati and St. Louis Railway made a better offer on January 22, 1869, leasing it on February 1.

Expansion: 1869-1890[edit]

1877 map

On December 1, 1869 (retroactive from February 23, 1870) the Pittsburgh, Cincinnati and St. Louis Railway leased the Little Miami Railroad. This included the Columbus and Xenia Railroad, Dayton and Western Railroad and Dayton, Xenia and Belpre Railroad, as well as the Richmond and Miami Railway's branch west to Richmond, Indiana. With that lease, the Pennsylvania Railroad acquired access to Cincinnati.

With the 1870 completion of the St. Louis, Vandalia and Terre Haute Railroad and Terre Haute and Indianapolis Rail Road, the PRR now had a route to East St. Louis via the PC&StL to Indianapolis.

The Columbus, Chicago and Indiana Central Railway went bankrupt and was sold at foreclosure on January 10, 1883. The Chicago, St. Louis and Pittsburgh Railroad was incorporated in Indiana on March 14 and Illinois on March 15, and the former CC&IC was conveyed to the two companies on March 17. Operation by the PC&StL continued until April 1, 1883. On April 1, 1884, the two companies merged to form one Chicago, St. Louis and Pittsburgh Railroad. That company was merged with the PC&StL, Cincinnati and Richmond Railroad and Jeffersonville, Madison and Indianapolis Railroad on September 30, 1890 to form the Pittsburgh, Cincinnati, Chicago and St. Louis Railway (PCC&StL).

20th Century[edit]

In 1891 the PCC&StL acquired stock ownership of the Little Miami Railroad. On December 21, 1916 (taking effect January 1, 1917), the Pittsburgh, Cincinnati, Chicago and St. Louis Railway merged with the Vandalia Railroad, Pittsburgh, Wheeling and Kentucky Railroad, Anderson Belt Railway and Chicago, Indiana and Eastern Railway, forming the Pittsburgh, Cincinnati, Chicago and St. Louis Railroad.

The PCC&StL was leased by the PRR on January 1, 1921, and finally was merged into the PRR's Philadelphia, Baltimore and Washington Railroad on April 2, 1956.

Branches[edit]

Chartiers
Dunkirk
New Cumberland
Wheeling, Indiana[disambiguation needed]
Muncie
Effner
Shelbyville
Madison


See also[edit]

References[edit]