Pite Sami language

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Pite Sami
Bidumsámegiella
RegionNorway, Sweden
Native speakers
25 to 50  (2010)[1]
Latin
Language codes
ISO 639-3sje
Glottologpite1240[2]
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Pite Sami is 3 on this map.
 
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Pite Sami
Bidumsámegiella
RegionNorway, Sweden
Native speakers
25 to 50  (2010)[1]
Latin
Language codes
ISO 639-3sje
Glottologpite1240[2]
{{{mapalt}}}
Pite Sami is 3 on this map.

Pite Sami, also known as Arjeplog Sami, is a Sami language traditionally spoken in Sweden and Norway. It is a critically endangered language[3] that has only about 25–50[1] native speakers left and is now only spoken on the Swedish side of the border along the Pite River in the north of Arjeplog and Arvidsjaur and in the mountainous areas of the Arjeplog municipality.

Classification[edit]

Pite Sami is a part of the Western Sami group, together with Southern Sami and Ume Sami to the south, Lule Sami and Northern Sami to the north. Of these, Pite Sami shows closest affinity to Lule Sami, but a number of features also show similarity to Ume and Southern Sami.

Grammar[edit]

Cases[edit]

Pite Sámi has 9 cases:

Verbs[edit]

Person[edit]

Pite Sami verbs conjugate for three grammatical persons:

Mood[edit]

Pite Sami has five grammatical moods:

Grammatical number[edit]

Pite Sami verbs conjugate for three grammatical numbers:

Tense[edit]

Pite Sami verbs conjugate for two simple tenses:

and two compound tenses:

Negative verb[edit]

Pite Sami, like Finnish, the other Sámi languages and Estonian, has a negative verb. In Pite Sámi, the negative verb conjugates according to mood (indicative, imperative and optative), person (1st, 2nd and 3rd) and number (singular, dual and plural). This differs from some other the other Sami languages, e.g., from Northern Sami, which do not conjugate according to tense and other Sami languages, that do not use the optative.

    Non-past indicative       Past indicative                               sg.  du.    pl.           sg.     du.        pl.       1  iv   ien    iehp        1 ittjiv  iejmen    iejmeh                    iep                   ittjijmen ittjijmeh            2  ih   iehpen iehpit      2 ittjih  iejten    iejteh             ähpen  ihpit                 ittjijten ittjijteh                                        ihpen 3  ij   iepá   ieh         3 ittjij  iejkán    ittjin              iepán                        ittjijka                   

For non-past indicative versions that have more than one form, the second one is from the dialect spoken around Björkfjället and the third is from the Svaipa dialect. The plurality in the other forms is due to parallel forms that are not bound by dialect.

    Imperative                Optative    sg.    du.     pl.        sg.    du.      pl.                         1  -      -       -       1  alluv  iellun   iellup                                     allun    allup 2  ieleh iellen iellit    2  alluh  ielluten ielluteh                                     alluten  alluteh 3  -      -       -       3  allus  ielluska ielluseh                                     alluska  alluseh 

Phonology[edit]

Consonants[edit]

Pite Sami has 22 basic consonant phonemes. Of these, all but the glottal fricative, [h], can occur both short and geminate, bringing the total to 43 if geminate consonants are counted as separate phonemes:

Pite Sami consonants[4]
LabialAlveolarPalatal /
Postalveolar
VelarGlottal
shortgem.shortgem.shortgem.shortgem.
Nasalmnɲɲːŋŋː
Plosiveplainptk
preaspiratedʰpʰpːʰtʰtːʰkʰkː
Affricatesplaint͡st͡sːt͡ʃt͡ʃː
preaspiratedʰt͡sʰt͡sːʰt͡ʃʰt͡ʃː
Fricativevoicelessfsʃʃːh
voicedv
Approximantlj
Trillr

Geminate and preaspirated consonants can only occur word-medially.

Vowels[edit]

Pite Sami has nine vowel phonemes. Length is contrastive only among the open vowels.

Pite Sami vowels[5]
FrontBack
Closei ~ ɪu ~ ʊ
Close-midie ~ eʊo ~ o
Open-midɛɔ
OpenShorta
Long
Opening
diphthong
ʊa

The close vowels /i/, /u/ are realized as laxer [ɪ], [ʊ] in unstressed positions. Close-mid /e/, /o/ are diphthongized to [ie], [ʊo] when stressed.

Prosody[edit]

Writing system[edit]

Pite Sámi is one of the four Sami languages that does not have an official written language. A working orthography has been developed in 2008–2011 by the Sami Association of Arjeplog.[6]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b At least 25 speakers in 2010 according to researcher Joshua Wilbur. At least 30 active, native speakers in 2010; at least an additional 20 native speakers who do not use the language actively according to the Pite Sami dictionary project leader Nils Henrik Bengtsson.
  2. ^ Nordhoff, Sebastian; Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2013). "Pite Sami". Glottolog 2.2. Leipzig: Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology. 
  3. ^ UNESCO Interactive Atlas of the World’s Languages in Danger
  4. ^ (Wilbur 2014:37–57)
  5. ^ (Wilbur 2014: 63–70)
  6. ^ (Wilbur 2014:18–19)

References[edit]

External links[edit]