Piombino

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Piombino
Comune
Comune di Piombino
Panorama of Piombino
Panorama of Piombino
Piombino is located in Italy
Piombino
Piombino
Location of Piombino in Italy
Coordinates: 42°55′N 10°32′E / 42.917°N 10.533°E / 42.917; 10.533Coordinates: 42°55′N 10°32′E / 42.917°N 10.533°E / 42.917; 10.533
CountryItaly
RegionToscana
ProvinceLivorno (LI)
FrazioniBaratti, Fiorentina, Gagno, Populonia, Populonia Stazione, Vignale Riotorto
Government
 • MayorGianni Anselmi (since June 2004)
Area
 • Total129 km2 (50 sq mi)
Elevation21 m (69 ft)
Population (2010[1])
 • Total34,921
 • Density270/km2 (700/sq mi)
DemonymPiombinesi
Time zoneCET (UTC+1)
 • Summer (DST)CEST (UTC+2)
Postal code57025
Dialing code0565
Patron saintSaint Anastasia
Saint dayMay 8
WebsiteOfficial website
 
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For other uses, see Piombino (disambiguation).
Piombino
Comune
Comune di Piombino
Panorama of Piombino
Panorama of Piombino
Piombino is located in Italy
Piombino
Piombino
Location of Piombino in Italy
Coordinates: 42°55′N 10°32′E / 42.917°N 10.533°E / 42.917; 10.533Coordinates: 42°55′N 10°32′E / 42.917°N 10.533°E / 42.917; 10.533
CountryItaly
RegionToscana
ProvinceLivorno (LI)
FrazioniBaratti, Fiorentina, Gagno, Populonia, Populonia Stazione, Vignale Riotorto
Government
 • MayorGianni Anselmi (since June 2004)
Area
 • Total129 km2 (50 sq mi)
Elevation21 m (69 ft)
Population (2010[1])
 • Total34,921
 • Density270/km2 (700/sq mi)
DemonymPiombinesi
Time zoneCET (UTC+1)
 • Summer (DST)CEST (UTC+2)
Postal code57025
Dialing code0565
Patron saintSaint Anastasia
Saint dayMay 8
WebsiteOfficial website
Aerial view
The Rivellino, the ancient main gate built in 1447 by Rinaldo Orsini.

Piombino is an Italian town and comune of circa 35,000 inhabitants in the province of Livorno (Tuscany). It lies on the border between the Ligurian Sea and the Tyrrhenian Sea, in front of Elba Island and at the northern side of Maremma.

Overview[edit]

It has an ancient historical center, derived from the time in which it was the Etruscans' port, in the surroundings of Populonia. In the Middle Ages, it was instead an important port of the Republic of Pisa.

Its hinterland hosts a considerable industrial area. Its port is still heavily used, both for industry and for tourism, with ferry-boats to Portoferraio (Elba) and Olbia (Sardinia).

Geography[edit]

The bounding communes of Piombino are Campiglia Marittima, Follonica, San Vincenzo and Suvereto. The town has 6 civil parishes (frazioni): Baratti, Fiorentina, Gagno, Populonia, Populonia Stazione and Vignale Riotorto.

History[edit]

The area of modern Piombino was settled since ancient times. During the Etruscan era the main city in the area was Populonia, now a frazione within the commune of Piombino.

The name Piombino derives almost certainly from Populino, meaning "Small Populonia", which the refugees gave to a small village where they had taken refuge after the city had been attacked by Greek pirates (9th century CE). It is also probable that Piombino had already been founded during the Ostrogoth domination.

In 1022 the Monastery of San Giustiniano was founded in the area, boosting the activity of fishers, sailors and workers. In 1115 Piombino submitted to the Republic of Pisa, becoming its second main port: authority was exerted by a Capitano ("Captain"). During the conflicts between the Pisane and the Genoese (12th-13th centuries) the city was sacked various times. In 1248 the Capitano Ugolino Arsopachi built the Channels.

The Castle of Piombino remained a Pisane possession until Gerardo Appiani, ceding Pisa to the Milanese Visconti, carved out the independent state of Piombino, Elba, Pianosa and Montecristo for his family, who held it until 1634. In 1445, through his marriage with Caterina Appiani, Rinaldo Orsini acquired the lordship. In 1501-1503 the principality was under Cesare Borgia. In 1509 the Appiani became princes of the Holy Roman Empire with the title of Piombino.

Map of Piombino and its fortifications, 18th century.

After Cosimo I de' Medici had occupied it in the course of the war against Siena, in 1553 and 1555 a French-Ottoman fleet attacked Piombino, but was pushed back. In 1557 the peace treaty reinstated the Appiani, with the exception of Portoferraio, given to the Grand Duchy of Tuscany, and the area of Orbetello, which became the State of Presidi under the Spanish control. In 1594 the Principality of Piombino was created by Emperor Rudolf II of Habsburg, the first prince being Alessandro Appiani d'Aragona. In 1634 the title was acquired by the Ludovisi, whose member Niccolò I had married Polissena Appiani in 1632. In 1708 it went to the Boncompagni with Antonio I. In 1801 Napoleon abolished the principate, Piombino and its lands being annexed to the Kingdom of Etruria; in 1809 they were given to Napoleon's sister, Elisa Baciocchi.

After the Napoleon's final defeat and the congress of Vienna, the state of Piombino was annexed to the Grand Duchy of Tuscany. It became part of the unified Kingdom of Italy in 1860.

During World War II, after the fall of the Fascist government, Piombino successfully resisted for some days an attempt of sea invasion by German forces. For the deeds of its citizens, the city received a Gold Medal for Military Valour by President Carlo Azeglio Ciampi.

Main sights[edit]

Main article: Populonia

Demographics[edit]

The ancient port
Train station building
Torre Mozza, 16th century Tuscan coastal tower. It is now a historical and tourist attraction in the Follonica gulf, in front of Elba island
YearPopulation
18612,905
18713,625
18814,058
19017,668
191118,649
192123,541
193125,981
193627,548
195132,336
196135,940
197139,654
198139,401
199136,774
200133,925
December 31, 200434,369

Twin cities[edit]

Miscellanea[edit]

Piombino has schools, gymnasia (middle school), lyceums (high school), churches, banks, parks and squares. In the locality of Punta Falcone is an astronomical observatory, created in 1976. East of Piombino, there is a power station with 1280 MW generation capacity with two chimneys, each 195 metres (640 ft) tall. West of Piombino, there is the start of the submarine power cable section to Corsica from HVDC SACOI.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Source : Istat 2010

External links[edit]