Pink Floyd live performances

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Pink Floyd's reunion, performing at Live 8 in London, July 2005

Pink Floyd were pioneers in the live music experience, renowned for their lavish stage shows that combine intense visual experiences with music to create a show in which the performers themselves are almost secondary. Pink Floyd's combination of music and visuals set the standard for rock musicians. As well as visuals, Pink Floyd set standards in sound quality with innovative use of sound effects and panning quadrophonic speaker systems.

Special effects[edit]

Besides the music, arguably the most important and certainly the most elaborate part to any Pink Floyd live show is the special effects.

'Yes, we did all sorts of strange things, you know, for live concerts as well, we used to make up tapes for the audience to come in by. We had one half-hour long tape, which we'd play for the half an hour the audience was coming in just before we started our show, and things like that. Just tapes of bird noises in quad--quadraphonic sound, you know, with birds singing, and pheasants taking off in the distance, and swans taking off from water, a tractor driving down one side of the room, and an airplane going over the top, and all these things carrying on, all just from just different sound effects records, you just stick them in and you--you create a type of mood.'

The light show[edit]

Pink Floyd were among the first bands to use a dedicated travelling light show in conjunction with their performances. During the Barrett era, dynamic liquid light shows were projected onto enormous screens behind the band while they played, and the band also incorporated large numbers of strobe lights, which were controlled manually by an engineer. This had the effect of totally obscuring the band itself, except for their shadows, which Barrett took advantage of: he would hold his arms up during parts where he was not required to play, making his shadow grow, shrink and undulate, adding to the visual spectacle. They developed many of these lighting techniques through their fortuitous early association with light artist Mike Leonard.

When psychedelia fell out of fashion from about 1970 onwards, elevated platforms of the type conventionally used for roof maintenance in high buildings were brought on tour and filled with lighting equipment to be raised and lowered during performances. Following Roger Waters' departure in 1984, the Pink Floyd light show reached a dazzling pinnacle. Marc Brickman, the group's lighting designer, utilized hundreds of automated intelligent lighting fixtures and lasers, which were state-of-the-art at the time. By the 1994 Division Bell tour, the band was using extremely powerful, isotope-splitting copper-vapor lasers. These gold-coloured lasers were worth over $120,000 a piece and previously had only been used in nuclear research and high speed photography.[2]

A large circular projection panel dubbed "Mr Screen" first made an appearance during performances of Dark Side of the Moon in 1974 and became a staple thereafter. Specially recorded films and animations were projected onto it, and for 1977 "In the Flesh" and 1980–1981 "The Wall Live" tours, coloured spotlights were fixed around the rim, an effect which reached its zenith with the dancing patterns of multi-coloured lights in the A Momentary Lapse of Reason and Division Bell tours. In the latter, the screen could be retracted behind the stage when not required, and was tilted horizontally with its peripheral lights focused onto the stage into a single spotlight during the final guitar solo in "Comfortably Numb".

Several generations of giant glitter balls began with the Dark Side of the Moon tour. By the Division Bell tour, the ball had evolved into a globe 4.9 metres in diameter, which rose from the mixing station to a height of 21.3 metres before opening into an array of petals 7.3 metres wide during the final guitar solo of "Comfortably Numb",[3] revealing a 12 kilowatt Phobeus HMI lamp inside.[2]

Props and pyrotechnics[edit]

Thanks to stage architect/designer Mark Fisher, Pink Floyd's tours became a staple in the industry because of their outstanding special and scenic effects. Pyrotechnics (such as exploding flashpots, an exploding gong and fireworks) and dry ice were used extensively throughout Pink Floyd's career. In 1973's tour to promote The Dark Side of the Moon, a large scale model plane flew over the audience and crashed onto the stage with a spectacular explosion, an effect repeated at the start of The Wall and the Division Bell shows. During shows to promote A Momentary Lapse of Reason, a similar effect was achieved with a flying bed.

Over-sized helium balloons were first introduced during the Dark Side of the Moon tours, but in 1975, this element began to play a central part of the live show. For the US leg of the 1975 tour, a pyramid shaped dirigible was floated above the stage. It proved unstable in windy conditions and blew into the crowd, which tore it into pieces for souvenirs.[4] The trademark giant pig was brought in for Animals in 1977,[5] floating over the audience, as well as a grotesque 'Nuclear Family', a refrigerator filled with snakes, a television and a Cadillac. In some shows, an envelope of propane gas was put inside the pig, causing it to explode. The inflatables reached their peak in 1980–1981 during The Wall shows, in which several of the characters from the album were brought to life in the form of fully mobile, giant string puppets with menacing spotlights for eyes, taking the traditional balloons to a new level. The characters were designed by the notable satirical artist, Gerald Scarfe.[6]

Special effects reached a new and outrageous level during these Wall shows.[7] For example, a 160-foot (49 m) long, 35-foot (11 m) high wall made from 340 white bricks was built between the audience and the band during the first half of the show.[6] The final brick was placed as Roger Waters sang "goodbye" at the end of the song "Goodbye Cruel World". For the second half of the show, the band was largely invisible, except for a hole in the wall that simulated a hotel room where Roger Waters "acted out" the story of Pink, and an appearance by David Gilmour on top of the wall to perform the climactic guitar solo in "Comfortably Numb". Other parts of the story were told by Gerald Scarfe animations projected onto the wall itself (these animations were later integrated into the film Pink Floyd: The Wall). At the finale of the concert, the wall was demolished amidst sound effects and a spectacular light show.

Major tours and concerts[edit]

Comprehensive details of all of Pink Floyd's live appearances can be found at The Pink Floyd Archives.

Performance history highlights[edit]

Barrett era[edit]

The earliest shows for what is considered to be "Pink Floyd" occurred in 1965 and included Bob Klose as a member of the band, which at the time played mainly R&B covers. Klose left the band after 1965. The remaining four members played very small (generally no more than 50 people), mostly unadvertised shows at the Marquee Club, London through June 1966. The set list continued to include R&B, but some original psychedelia was also being introduced.

On 30 September 1966, Pink Floyd were invited to play All Saint's Church Hall to raise money for the nascent International Times newspaper, and quickly became the "house band". At these shows, the band began its use of visual effects and gradually stopped covering R&B. Word of these shows quickly spread in the London underground culture and soon the band became very well-attended and developed a cult following. On 23 December 1966, the first of the "International Times" associated gigs to be held at the legendary UFO Club was performed. Mainstream interest about the counter-culture was increasing and a very small portion of their 20 January 1967 show at the UFO Club was broadcast as part of Granada TV's documentary entitled It's So Far Out, It's Straight Down, which constitutes the first audial or visual record of the band live.

Pink Floyd were among the 30 bands that played "The 14 Hour Technicolour Dream" benefit gig organised for the "International Times" legal defence fund and held at the Alexandra Palace, London between 29 April 1967 and 30 April 1967. Some of the other bands who played were The Who, The Move, The Pretty Things, Soft Machine, Tomorrow & The Creation. Notables in attendance included musician John Lennon, artist John Dunbar, actor Michael Caine, artist and musician Yoko Ono, actress Julie Christie, musician Mick Jagger and artist David Hockney. Although both the BBC and filmmaker Peter Whitehead filmed portions of the event, there is no known footage of Pink Floyd.

On 12 May 1967, Pink Floyd performed at Queen Elizabeth Hall, London, a concert entitled Games For May. At this show, they debuted a multi-speaker pan pot system controlled by joystick from the stage that allowed them to move sound to anywhere a speaker had been set up. This precursor to their later "Azimuth Coordinator" unfortunately was stolen after the show.

After their debut single, "Arnold Layne", charted well in the UK, the band was invited to perform on the BBC2 music show The Look of the Week on 14 May 1967. The setlist for the broadcast consisted of "Pow R. Toc H." and "Astronomy Domine". This was their first British television appearance.

Pink Floyd were invited to appear on the BBC2 music show Top of the Pops in July 1967 for three weeks after their second single "See Emily Play" reached #6 on the UK charts. By this time Syd Barrett's behavior had become somewhat unpredictable. On one occasion, the increasingly difficult Barrett remarked that if John Lennon didn't have to appear on Top of the Pops neither did he.[8] Consequently, their management company, Blackhill Enterprises, convinced the band to cancel all of their August shows and go to Spain to recuperate.

Increasingly, throughout the summer and into the fall of 1967, copious drug use (especially LSD) and pressure by the record company to constantly write new hit songs continued to take a toll on Barrett's mental state. He became unable to make a meaningful contribution to the group on stage, playing his guitar incoherently and sometimes not playing at all. By the time of the band's first tour of the US in early November 1967, his condition was plainly showing. He stared blankly into space on their 4 November American Bandstand performance, listlessly strummed and barely managed to mime the vocals to "Apples and Oranges". On 5 November, things got worse: they appeared on The Pat Boone Show and Syd sat in stubborn silence, refusing to answer any question put to him. He also refused to mime to "See Emily Play": Waters was forced to mime the track instead (Waters confirmed this on the VH1's Legends: Pink Floyd episode). After the 22 December show, the rest of band quietly put out word that they were in need of a guitarist.

Although both Jeff Beck and Davy O'List were considered, it was David Gilmour, then unobligated, who was brought on to augment Syd as need arose during live shows. For the first four shows of 1968, Pink Floyd was a five-man live act again. When they were on the way to their show at Southampton University on 26 January 1968, they decided not to pick up Syd.

Transition and experimentation[edit]

See: Pink Floyd European Tour 1968

A typical 1968 set list would include some of the following:

Although their management company Blackhill Enterprises parted ways with them over their decision about Syd Barrett on 29 June 1968, Pink Floyd headlined the first free Hyde Park concert organized by Blackhill. Others performing were Tyrannosaurus Rex, Roy Harper and Jethro Tull.

'The one in '68 was wonderful because it was much more a picnic in the park than a mini-Woodstock. A lovely day. It was important for us too because it reminded us of our, uh, roots -- whether spurious or not. They *were* our roots -- not personally, but as an enterprise. We were the house band.'

A second tour of the US during July and August 1968 (see A Saucerful of Secrets US Tour) was launched to tie into the release of their second album, A Saucerful of Secrets. Increasingly throughout 1968 and 1969, shows consisted of post-Barrett compositions, with notable exceptions being "Astronomy Domine" and "Interstellar Overdrive", both of which were performed into the 1970s. Their audiences changed during this time as well: while Barrett-era crowds consisted mainly of hippies who would dance in time with the music, they now drew more "intellectual" crowd, who would sit and remain quiet until the last note of a song was played.[10] By early 1969, most of their excess earnings were funneled into upgrading their sound equipment rather than maintaining a permanent light show. If visuals were to be used at all, they had to be provided by the venue or the local promoter.[10]

A typical 1969 set list would include some of the following:

See: The Man And The Journey Tour

The shows at Mothers, Birmingham on 27 April 1969 and the College of Commerce, Manchester on 2 May 1969 were recorded for the live part of the Ummagumma album. One source also claims that the show at Bromley Technical College on 26 April 1969 was also recorded for the album.[11]

On 14 April 1969, at Royal Festival Hall, they debuted their new pan pot 360 degree sound system dubbed the "Azimuth Coordinator". This show, named "More Furious Madness from the Massed Gadgets of Auximenes", consisted of two experimental "suites", "The Man" and "The Journey". Most of the songs were either renamed earlier material or under a different name than they would eventually be released.

A UK tour of occurred during May and June 1969 culminating in the show dubbed "The Final Lunacy" at Royal Albert Hall on 26 June 1969. Considered one of the most experimental concerts by Pink Floyd, it featured a crew member dressed as a gorilla, a cannon that fired, and band members sawing wood on the stage. At the finale of "The Journey" suite the band was joined on stage by the brass section of the Royal Philharmonic and the ladies of the Ealing Central Amateur Choir, and at the very end a huge pink smoke bomb was let off.[12]

An additional complete performance of "The Man/The Journey" occurred at the Concertgebouw, Amsterdam on 17 September and was taped and later broadcast by Dutch radio station Hilversum 3. Portions of the suites were being performed as late as early 1970.

The "Atom Heart Mother" era[edit]

A typical 1970 set list would include some of the following:

Early in 1970, Pink Floyd performed at gigs a piece from their film soundtrack for Michelangelo Antonioni's film Zabriskie Point referred to as "The Violent Sequence". This was the musical basis for "Us and Them", from their The Dark Side of the Moon album. Lacking only the lyrics, it is identical to the final song and is the earliest part of the seminal album to have been performed live. The song "Embryo" was also a part of the live repertoire around this time, but was never to appear on a studio album, until the compilation album Works.

On 18 January 1970 (possibly 17 January 1970), the band began performing a then untitled instrumental piece, which would eventually become the title track to their next album Atom Heart Mother. At this point, it had no orchestra or choir accompaniment. The song officially debuted at the Bath Festival, Somerset England on 27 June 1970 under the title "The Amazing Pudding" (later the name of a Pink Floyd fanzine) and for the first time with orchestra and choir accompaniment.

Announced as "The Atom Heart Mother" by legendary British broadcaster John Peel on his BBC Radio 1 show "Peel's Sunday Concert" on 16 July 1970, a name suggested by him to the band,[13] it was also announced as "The Atomic Heart Mother" two days later at the Hyde Park free concert.[14] Partly because of the difficulties of finding and hiring local orchestras and choirs, the band often played what is referred to as the "small band" version of the song when they performed it live.

Pink Floyd also appeared at a Free festival In Canterbury on August 31 which was filmed. This was the end leg of the Medicine Ball Caravan tour organised by Warner Brothers, which was later made into a film of the same name. It appears that the Pink Floyd footage was not included in the movie but spectators report that Atom Heart Mother was part of the set that was recorded.[15] The audience must have been one of the smallest to see Pink Floyd at this era, only 1500 were present as the festival was not widely promoted.

In contrast, over 500,000 people witnessed their show at Fête de L'Humanité, Paris on 12 September 1970, their largest crowd ever. Filmed by French TV, the show was never broadcast.[16]

Experimental on the album Atom Heart Mother, the song "Alan's Psychedelic Breakfast" was performed at a few gigs in December 1970. "Breakfast" being made was part of the song. The first part of this lasted around four minutes. The second part of "breakfast" preparation was around a minute followed by a 3-minute tape of British DJ Jimmy Young, whom the band disliked.

For a great recording of some of their material from this period check out the Fillmore West show in San Francisco, California on 29 April 1970 on Wolfgang's Vault. This show includes material from Ummagumma and Atom Heart Mother. This was a short tour since their equipment got stolen a few weeks after this show and they canceled the rest of their tour.[citation needed]

Early performances of "Echoes"[edit]

A typical 1971 set list would include some of the following:

January 1971 saw the band working on a track in the studio of then unconnected parts whose working title was either "Nothing - Parts 1 to 24"[17] or "Nothing Parts 1-36".[18] This song made its live debut under the working title "Return of the Son of Nothing" on 22 April 1971 at Norwich, England and as "Atom Heart Mother" before it, it was a work in progress. This was later to be released as "Echoes" on the album Meddle.

Although announced as "Echoes" on 6 August 1971 at Hakone, Japan,[19] the song was still performed with the additional lyrics at later August gigs. The show on 18 September 1971 at Montreux Switzerland and subsequent shows do not have the additional lyrics. In 1972, during a German tour, Waters sardonically introduced Echoes as "Looking Through the Knotholes in Granny's Wooden Leg" (A Goon Show reference) one one occasion and "The March of The Dam Busters" on another. On another occasion, during a live radio broadcast, Waters had instructed the DJ to announce "One Of These Days" to the home audience as "A poignant appraisal of the contemporary social situation."

After the band's Crystal Palace Garden Party performance (London, May 15, 1971), it was discovered that the sheer volume of the gig caused the nearby pond's entire fauna to die. The band was subsequently pressured to compensate for the ecological damage.[20]

Eclipse - A Piece for Assorted Lunatics[edit]

A typical 1972 set list included:

First Set:

Second Set:

Encore:
Rotated one of these three songs:

Occasionally, multiple song encores were performed, adding:

Playing 98 shows (the most until 1994), 1972 was the last time Pink Floyd varied their set lists each night on a tour until their final one. Songs played in the second set and encore were swapped constantly, and the band even varied the number of songs played in the encore from the usual one, to two or three.

1972 saw Pink Floyd debut the performance of a not just a song (like on previous tours), but an entire album prior to its release. The original title was Eclipse (A Piece for Assorted Lunatics), then The Dark Side of the Moon - A Piece for Assorted Lunatics, the name under which it made its press debut in February 1972 at London's Rainbow Theatre. The title changed for the first part of the US tour to Eclipse (A Piece for Assorted Lunatics) during April and May before reverting to Dark Side of the Moon - A Piece for Assorted Lunatics in September for the second part of the US tour[21] and finally released in 1973 under the title of The Dark Side of the Moon.

One of the two shows at The Dome, Brighton, England on 28 June and 29 June was filmed by Peter Clifton for inclusion on his film Sounds of the City. Clips of these appear occasionally on television and the performance of "Careful with That Axe, Eugene" is on the various artists video Superstars in Concert.[22]

In November 1972, during the middle of the European leg of their 1972 world tour and again in January 1973, Pink Floyd performed with the Roland Petit Ballet. The portion of the setlist for which the ballet was choreographed was "One of These Days", "Careful with That Axe, Eugene", "Obscured by Clouds", "When You're In" and "Echoes".

The Dark Side of the Moon[edit]

Dark Side of the Moon, Earls Court, 1973

An early 1973 set list (until mid-March) included:

First Set:

Second Set:
The Dark Side of the Moon entire album
Encore:

For remainder of 1973 (except 4 November), the set list included:

First Set:

Second Set:
The Dark Side of the Moon entire album
Encore:

In 1973, the band moved Dark Side of the Moon to the second set (where it would reside through 1975), and played the album version of the piece, notably the revamped versions of "On the Run" and "The Great Gig in the Sky." 1973 saw Pink Floyd go on two relatively short tours of the US, one in March to coincide with the release of The Dark Side of the Moon and a later one in June. Sandwiched between them were two nights at London's Earl's Court on 18 May and 19 May where they debuted the special effect of a plane crashing into the stage at the end of the song "On the Run".[23] This was also the first year that the band took additional musicians on tour with them, unlike the earlier performances of "Atom Heart Mother" where the band would often hire local musicians.

Because of the overwhelming chart success of both The Dark Side of the Moon, which reached #1 in the US in late April, #2 in the UK, and the US-released single "Money", the nature of Pink Floyd's audiences changed in June 1973. David Gilmour said of the change "It was "Money" that made the difference rather than The Dark Side of the Moon. It gave us a much larger following, for which we should be thankful. ... People at the front shouting, "Play Money! Gimme something I can shake my ass to!" We had to get used to it, but previously we'd been playing to 10,000 seaters where, in the quiet passages, you could hear a pin drop."[24] They could now sell out stadiums.

On 4 November 1973, Pink Floyd played two shows at London's Rainbow Theatre to benefit musician Robert Wyatt formerly the drummer of Soft Machine, a band they'd played with in their UFO Club days. Wyatt fell from a fourth floor window in June 1973, breaking his back and making him a paraplegic. The set list for these two shows were:

Main Set:
The Dark Side of the Moon entire album
Encore:

1974 Tours[edit]

A French Summer Tour set list would include all of the following:

Encore (one of the following):

A British Summer Tour set list included all of the following:

Encore:

These early versions of "Shine On You Crazy Diamond", "Raving and Drooling" & "You've Got to be Crazy" were released as part of the Wish You Were Here Experience and Immersion sets.

1975 North America Tour & Knebworth '75[edit]

A typical 1975 set would include all of the following:

Encore:

In 1975, the band launched a short tour that ended two months prior to the release of Wish You Were Here, which eventually sold out stadiums and arenas across America.

The last gig of the tour was as the headliner of 1975 Knebworth Festival, which also featured The Steve Miller Band, Captain Beefheart and Roy Harper (who joined Pink Floyd on the stage to sing "Have a Cigar"). It was the second Knebworth Festival, which featured artists such as The Rolling Stones, Led Zeppelin, Genesis and Frank Zappa between 1974 and 1979.

Despite some technical problems, the band managed to perform a remarkable concert[citation needed], which as well as the usual special effects featured a fly-past by a pair of Spitfires. This was supposed to synchronise with the start of 'Breathe' but the band had tuning difficulties and the planes flew over before the start of the set. Knebworth was the last time the band would perform "Echoes" and the entire Dark Side of the Moon with Roger Waters.

In the Flesh[edit]

A typical 1977 set list would include the following:

Encore:

The 1977 In the Flesh Tour was the last time Pink Floyd performed a major worldwide tour with Roger Waters. The tour featured the famous character inflatables puppets (designed by Mark Fisher and Andrew Sanders), and also featured a pyrotechnic "waterfall" and one of the biggest and most elaborate stages to date, including umbrella-like canopies that would raise from the stage to protect the band from the elements.;[25]

Pink Floyd's market strategy for the In the Flesh Tour was very aggressive, filling pages of The New York Times and Billboard magazine. To promote their four-night run at Madison Square Garden in New York City, there was a Pink Floyd parade on 6th Avenue featuring pigs and sheep.[26]

The Animals Tour was the first tour since their 1972 tour that Pink Floyd didn't use female backing singers. The musicians that augmented the band for the tour was sax player Dick Parry (occasionally playing keyboards too out of view of the audience) and guitarist Snowy White (who would also help out on bass guitar on some of the songs).

In the first half of the show, Pink Floyd played all of the Animals album in a slightly different sequence to the album starting with "Sheep" then "Pigs On the Wing (Part 1)", "Dogs", "Pigs On the Wing (Part 2) and "Pigs (Three Different Ones)". During "Pigs (Three Different Ones)", Waters would shout the number of the concert on the tour, such as "1-5!" for the fifteenth show. The second half of the show consisted of the Wish You Were Here album in its exact running order ("Shine On You Crazy Diamond (Parts 1-5)", "Welcome to the Machine", "Have a Cigar", "Wish You Were Here" and "Shine On You Crazy Diamond (Parts 6-9)"). The encores would usually consist of either "Money" or "Us and Them" from Dark Side of the Moon or both. At the Oakland, California show on 9 May they played "Careful with That Axe, Eugene" as a third encore; it was the last time it was ever performed live. The final night of the tour on 6 July at Montreal's Olympic Stadium had a third encore of "More Blues" which saw David Gilmour sit out the final encore as he was unhappy with the band's performance that night. Snowy White played a bluesy guitar solo with the rest of Pink Floyd in Gilmour's place.

During the tour, Waters began to exhibit increasingly aggressive behaviour, and would often yell abusively at disruptive audiences who wouldn't stop yelling and screaming during the quieter numbers.[26] In the New York shows they had to use local workers as lighting technicians because of union problems with their own crew. They had several difficulties with the workers; for example, Waters once had to beckon one of the spotlights to move higher when it only illuminated his lower legs and feet while he was singing.

The Montreal show, 6 July 1977, the final performance of the tour, ended with Pink Floyd performing a blues jam as the roadies dismantled the instruments in front of the insatiable audience, who refused to let the band leave the stadium. A small riot at the front of the stage followed the band's eventual exit. That night, Waters spat in the face of a disruptive fan; The Wall grew out of Waters' thoughts about this incident, particularly his growing awareness that stardom had alienated him from his audience.[27]

There were few shows on the tour that went smoothly. One example was at their Boston performance at Boston Garden on June 27, 1977 when Waters jokingly said "we're going to take a PIG break, back in 20 minutes". Then said the final good night in a jovial manner "The perfect end to the perfect day, good night and God bless". Another good performance came on May 9, 1977, in Oakland California. Throughout the show, the band played flawlessly while the audience remained attentive to the music. During "Have a Cigar," Waters and Gilmour can be heard laughing as they sing part of the opening line. This was also the last time the band played "Careful With That Axe, Eugene" live.

Although the Animals album had not been as commercially successful as the previous two, the band managed to sell out arenas and stadiums in America and Europe, setting scale and attendance records. In Chicago, the band played to an estimated audience of 95,000; in Cleveland and Montreal, they set attendance records for those venues by playing to over 80,000 people.

The Wall live[edit]

The 1980/1981 set lists comprised the entire album, The Wall.

Pink Floyd mounted its most elaborate stage show in conjunction with the tour of The Wall. A band of session musicians played the first song, wearing rubber face masks taken from the real band members, then backed up the band for the remainder of the show. Most notable was the giant wall constructed between band and audience.

The costs of the tour were estimated to have reached US$ 1.5 million even before the first performance. The New York Times stated in its 2 March 1980 edition that:

The 'Wall' show remains a milestone in rock history though and there's no point in denying it. Never again will one be able to accept the technical clumsiness, distorted sound and meagre visuals of most arena rock concerts as inevitable" and concluded that "the 'Wall' show will be the touchstone against which all future rock spectacles must be measured.

The show was designed by Mark Fisher with Art Direction by Gerald Scarfe.

The Wall concert was only performed a handful of times each in four cities: Los Angeles, Uniondale (Long Island), Dortmund, and London (at Earl's Court). The primary 'tour' occurred in 1980, but the band performed eight shows at Dortmund (14–20 February 1981) and five more shows at Earl's Court (13–17 June) for filming, with the intention of integrating the shows into the upcoming movie. The resulting footage was deemed substandard and scrapped; years later, Roger Waters has given conflicted answers on the status of the concert films stating from "trying to locate this footage for historical purposes but was unsuccessful and considers it to be lost forever" to "I have all of the film but am reluctant to release". There are several unofficial videos of the entire live show in circulation and some footage is shown on the Behind the Wall documentary.

Gilmour and Mason attempted to convince Waters to expand the show for a more lucrative, large-scale stadium tour, but because of the nature of the material (one of the primary themes is the distance between an artist and his audience) Waters balked at this. In fact, Waters had reportedly been offered a guaranteed US$ 1 million for each additional stadium concert, but declined the offer, insisting that such a tour would be hypocritical.

These shows are documented on the album Is There Anybody Out There? The Wall Live 1980-81.

Waters recreated the Wall show in Berlin in 1990, alongside the ruins of the Berlin Wall, and was joined by a number of guest artists (including Bryan Adams, Scorpions, Van Morrison, The Band, Tim Curry, Cyndi Lauper, Sinéad O'Connor, Marianne Faithfull, Joni Mitchell, Ute Lemper and Thomas Dolby). This concert was even bigger than the previous ones, as Waters built a 550-foot (170 m) long and 82-foot (25 m) high wall.[28] The size of the theatrical features of The Wall were increased to cater for a sold-out audience of 200,000 people and of another estimated 500 million, in 35 countries, watching on television. After the concert began, the gates were opened and an estimated 300,000 to 500,000 people were able to watch the concert. This show is available on The Wall Live in Berlin album and DVD.

Roger staged another tour of The Wall in 2010 saying of the story "it has occurred to me that maybe the story of my fear and loss with its concomitant inevitable residue of ridicule, shame and punishment, provides an allegory for broader concerns.: Nationalism, racism, sexism, religion, Whatever! All these issues and ‘isms are driven by the same fears that drove my young life."

A Momentary Lapse of Reason[edit]

After the release of A Momentary Lapse of Reason in 1987, Pink Floyd embarked on an 11-week tour to promote the album. The two remaining members of the band, David Gilmour and Nick Mason, along with Richard Wright, had just won a legal battle against Roger Waters and the future of the group was uncertain. Having the success of The Wall shows to live up to, the concerts' special effects were more impressive than ever. The initial "promotional tour" was extended, and finally lasted almost two years, ending in 1989 after playing around 200 concerts to about 5.5 million people in total, including 3 dates at Madison Square Garden (5–7 October 1987) and 2 nights at Wembley Stadium (5–6 August 1988). The tour took Pink Floyd to various exotic locations they had never played before such as shows in the forecourt of the Palace of Versailles, Moscow's Olympic Stadium, and Venice, despite fears and protests that the sound would damage the latter city's foundations.

These shows are documented by the Delicate Sound of Thunder album and video.

Pink Floyd was the second highest grossing act of 1987 and the highest grossing of 1988 in the U.S. Financially, Pink Floyd was the biggest act of these two years combined, grossing almost US$ 60 million from touring, about the same as U2 and Michael Jackson, their closest rivals, combined. Worldwide, the band grossed around US$ 135 million.

The tour marked the first time that the band played in Russia, Norway, Spain, New Zealand and was the first time that had played in Australia since 1973.

A further concert was held at the Knebworth Festival in 1990, a charity event that also featured other Silver Clef Award winners. Pink Floyd was the last act to play, to an audience of 125,000. During this gig Clare Torry sang backing vocals making it the second and last time she did so. Vicki and Sam Brown also attended as backing vocalists, as well as Candy Dulfer with saxophone solo. The £60,000 firework display that ended the concert was entirely financed by the band.

The Division Bell[edit]

The Division Bell Tour in 1994 was promoted by Canadian concert impresario Michael Cohl and became the highest-grossing tour in rock music history to that date, with the band playing the entirety of The Dark Side of the Moon in some shows, for the first time since 1975.

The concerts featured even more impressive[who?] special effects than the previous tour, including two custom designed airships.[29] The arch-shaped stage was designed by Mark Fisher with lighting by Marc Brickman. Three stages leapfrogged around North America and Europe, each 180 feet (55 m) long and featuring a 130-foot (40 m) arch modelled on the Hollywood Bowl[citation needed]. All in all, the tour required 700 tons of steel carried by 53 articulated trucks, a crew of 161 people and an initial investment of US$ 4 million plus US$ 25 million of running costs just to stage. This tour played to 5.5 million people in 68 cities; each concert gathered an average 45,000 audience. At the end of the year, the Division Bell Tour was announced as the biggest tour ever, with worldwide gross of over £150 million (about US$ 250 million). In the U.S. alone, it grossed US$ 103.5 million from 59 concerts. However, this record was short-lived; less than a year later, The Rolling Stones' Voodoo Lounge Tour (like the Division Bell Tour, also sponsored in part by Volkswagen) finished with a worldwide gross of over US$ 300 million. The Stones and U2 (with their Vertigo Tour) remain the only acts ever to achieve a higher worldwide gross from a tour, even when adjusting for inflation.

These shows are documented by the PULSE album and DVD.

1995–present[edit]

In 1996, Gilmour and Wright performed "Wish You Were Here" with Billy Corgan (of The Smashing Pumpkins fame) at their Rock and Roll Hall of Fame induction. In an interview with BBC2 Radio in October, 2001, Gilmour implied that the Echoes: The Best of Pink Floyd compilation "probably" signaled the end of the band. "You never know exactly what the future (holds)", Gilmour said. "I'm not going to slam any doors too firmly, but I don't see myself doing any more of that, and I certainly don't see myself going out on a big Floyd tour again." A few days later in an interview with Launch.com, Nick Mason contradicted the statement, saying "I don't feel I've retired yet. You know, if everyone wanted to, we could certainly still do something. I've spent 30 years waiting for the planets to align. I'm quite used to it." Longtime manager Steve O'Rourke died on 30 October 2003. Gilmour, Mason and Wright performed "Fat Old Sun" and "The Great Gig in the Sky" at his funeral at Chichester Cathedral, contrary to reports in the media claiming they played "Wish You Were Here".

David Gilmour released a solo concert DVD called David Gilmour in Concert in November 2002 which was compiled from shows on 22 June 2001 and 17 January 2002 at The Royal Festival Hall in London. Richard Wright, Robert Wyatt, and Bob Geldof (Pink in The Wall film) make guest appearances.

On 10 May 2007 the sans-Waters Pink Floyd (presented as Rick Wright, David Gilmour and Nick Mason) took part in a Syd Barrett tribute concert in London performing Arnold Layne, and Roger Waters performed Flickering Flame.

Live 8, 2005[edit]

On 2 July 2005 Pink Floyd performed at the London Live 8 concert with Roger Waters rejoining David Gilmour, Nick Mason and Richard Wright. It was the quartet's first performance together in over 24 years — the band's last show with Waters was at Earls Court in London on 17 June 1981.

Gilmour announced the Live 8 reunion on 12 June 2005:

Like most people I want to do everything I can to persuade the G8 leaders to make huge commitments to the relief of poverty and increased aid to the third world. It's crazy that America gives such a paltry percentage of its GNP to the starving nations. Any squabbles Roger and the band have had in the past are so petty in this context, and if re-forming for this concert will help focus attention then it's got to be worthwhile.

The band's set consisted of "Speak to Me/Breathe/Breathe (Reprise)", "Money", "Wish You Were Here", and "Comfortably Numb". As on the original recordings, Gilmour sang the lead vocals on "Breathe" and "Money", and shared them with Waters on "Comfortably Numb". For "Wish You Were Here", Waters sung half of the verse's lyrics, unlike the original recording. When Waters was not singing, he was often enthusiastically mouthing the lyrics off-microphone. During the guitar introduction of "Wish You Were Here", Waters said:

It's actually quite emotional standing up here with these three guys after all these years. Standing to be counted with the rest of you. Anyway, we're doing this for everyone who's not here, but particularly, of course, for Syd.

They were augmented by guitarist/bassist Tim Renwick (guitarist on Roger Waters' 1984 solo tour, who has since become Pink Floyd's backing guitarist on stage); keyboardist/lap steel guitarist/backup vocalist Jon Carin (Pink Floyd's backing keyboardist from 1987 onward who performed on the 1999–2000 North American leg of Waters' "In the Flesh" tour, his 2006–2008 "Dark Side of the Moon Live" tour, his 2010–2011 "The Wall" tour and David Gilmour's 2006 On an Island tour); saxophonist Dick Parry during "Money" (who played on the original recordings of "Money", "Us and Them", and "Shine on You Crazy Diamond"); and backing singer Carol Kenyon during "Comfortably Numb". During "Breathe", on the screen behind them, film of the iconic pig from the Animals album was shown flying over Battersea Power Station (itself visible on the horizon in television broadcasts of the performance), and during "Money", a shot of The Dark Side of the Moon record being played was shown. During "Comfortably Numb", the three giant screens showed the Pink Floyd Wall (from the cover of The Wall), and during the final guitar solo, the words "Make Poverty History" were written on the wall.

At the end, after the last song had been played, Gilmour said "thank you very much, good night" and started to walk off the stage. Waters called him back, however, and the band shared a group hug that became one of the most famous pictures of Live 8[citation needed]. As they proceeded to walk off, Nick Mason threw his drumsticks into the audience. With Wright's subsequent death, in September 2008, this was to be the final concert to feature all four bandmates.

Backing musicians[edit]

See: Pink Floyd Live Backing Musicians

Because of the increasingly complex nature of Pink Floyd's music, more and more musicians besides the band were required on stage to recreate sounds achieved in the studio. Some performances of Atom Heart Mother featured an entire orchestra and choir, reputedly a nightmare to bring on tour. Less 'weighty' contributions from other musicians followed. In 1973 Dick Parry provided saxophone for The Dark Side of the Moon and reprised this for live performances in every subsequent tour except those promoting The Wall and A Momentary Lapse of Reason, the latter in which Scott Page provided sax. For 1977's Animals promotion, Snowy White was brought in as an additional guitarist. He returned for The Wall shows along with a complete "surrogate band" consisting of Peter Wood (keyboards), Willie Wilson (drums) and Andy Bown (bass). Andy Roberts replaced White for the 1981 shows. For the A Momentary Lapse of Reason and Division Bell tours, Jon Carin (whom David Gilmour had met at Live Aid playing in Bryan Ferry's backing band) provided additional synthesizers and keyboards, Guy Pratt replaced Roger Waters on bass, Tim Renwick provided additional guitar and Gary Wallis additional percussion. Several backing vocalists, (the most notable of whom are Clare Torry, Sam Brown, Durga McBroom and Carol Kenyon) have accompanied the band on and off from The Dark Side of the Moon onwards. During their performance at Live 8, Pink Floyd used Tim Renwick, Jon Carin, Dick Parry and Carol Kenyon.

References[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Kendall, Charlie (1984). "Shades of Pink - The Definitive Pink Floyd Profile". The Source Radio Show. Retrieved 2011-07-26. 
  2. ^ a b Lighting Dimensions, September 1994, retrieved from here on 10 February 2006
  3. ^ http://www.stufish.com/pink-floyd/the-division-bell/reality.html
  4. ^ 1984 interview on "The Source"
  5. ^ http://www.stufish.com/pink-floyd/animals/reality.html
  6. ^ a b Schaffner, p. 241
  7. ^ http://www.stufish.com/pink-floyd/the-wall/reality.html
  8. ^ Watts, M. The Madcap Laughs. Melody Maker, 27 March 1971
  9. ^ Phil Sutcliffe (July 1995). "The 30 Year Technicolor Dream". Mojo Magazine. Retrieved 2011-07-23. 
  10. ^ a b Povey and Russell p. 55-57
  11. ^ Povey and Russell p. 72
  12. ^ Povey and Russell p. 75
  13. ^ Povey and Russell p 83
  14. ^ Povey and Russell p. 95
  15. ^ alembic sound webpage history
  16. ^ Povey and Russell p. 96
  17. ^ Povey and Russell p. 85
  18. ^ Fitch p. 93
  19. ^ Echoes FAQ, retrieved 7 July 2006
  20. ^ http://www.brain-damage.co.uk/live-at-pompeii/in-depth-analysis-part-two.html
  21. ^ Fitch p. 77
  22. ^ Povey and Russell p. 122
  23. ^ Fitch p. 227
  24. ^ Mojo Magazine, March 1998, p 78
  25. ^ Schaffner, p. 216-217
  26. ^ a b Schaffner, p. 218
  27. ^ Schaffner, p. 219
  28. ^ Schaffner, p. 308
  29. ^ VOLA Archive, retrieved 22 March 2006

External links[edit]