Physical medicine and rehabilitation

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Physiatrist
Occupation
NamesPhysician
Activity sectorsMedicine
Description
Education requiredM.D. or D.O. (US), M.B.B.S. (UK)
 
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Physiatrist
Occupation
NamesPhysician
Activity sectorsMedicine
Description
Education requiredM.D. or D.O. (US), M.B.B.S. (UK)

Physical medicine and rehabilitation (PM&R), also known as physiatry /fɨˈz.ətri/ or rehabilitation medicine, is a branch of medicine that aims to enhance and restore functional ability and quality of life to those with physical impairments or disabilities. A physician having completed training in this field is referred to as a physiatrist or rehabilitation medicine specialist. Physiatrists specialize in restoring optimal function to people with injuries to the muscles, bones, tissues, and nervous system (such as stroke patients).[1]

Scope of the field

Common conditions that are treated by the rehabilitation therapists include amputation, spinal cord injury, sports injury, stroke, musculoskeletal pain syndromes such as low back pain, fibromyalgia, and traumatic brain injury. Cardiopulmonary rehabilitation involves optimizing function in those afflicted with heart or lung disease. Chronic pain management is achieved through a multidisciplinary approach involving psychologists, physical therapists, occupational therapists, exercise therapists, anesthesiologist, and interventional procedures when indicated. In addition to the previous methodology, stroke is often treated with the help of a speech therapist and recreational therapist when possible.[2]

History

The term 'physiatry' was coined by Dr. Frank H. Krusen in 1938. The term was accepted by the American Medical Association in 1946. The field grew notably during World War II to accommodate the large number of injured soldiers.[3]

Treatment

The major concern that PM&R deals with as a medical field is the ability of a person to function optimally within the limitations placed upon them by a disabling impairment or disease process for which there is no known cure. The emphasis is not on the full restoration to the premorbid level of function, but rather the optimization of the quality of life for those not able to achieve full restoration. A team approach to chronic conditions is emphasized to coordinate care of patients. Comprehensive Rehabilitation is provided by specialists in this field, who act as a facilitator, team leader, and medical expert for rehabilitation.

Instrument list

InstrumentUses
Heating padsfor application of superficial heat
Ice packsfor application of cold
Traction devicesto apply therapeutic force on affected regions like the neck
Water bathsto apply heat or cold superficially
Paraffin wax bathto apply superficial heat
Short-wave diathermyto apply superficial heat
Infrared lightto apply superficial heat
Electrotherapy unitto apply heat for muscles.
Stimulatorfor giving stimulation to superficial skin and hence giving heat to muscles for mobility.

Training

Subspecialties

Six formal sub-specializations are recognized by the field in the United States:

Other subspecialties within the field that are recognized include the following:[citation needed]

See also

References

  1. ^ "What is Physiatry? - HSS". Hss.edu. Retrieved 2012-10-20. 
  2. ^ Frontera, W.R. (ed.). (2010). Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation: Principles and Practice. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
  3. ^ Grabois, M.; Garrison, S.J.; Hart, K.A; and Lehmkuhl, L.D, ed. (2000). Physical medicine and rehabilitation : the complete approach. Malden, Mass.: Blackwell Science. ISBN 978-0865425361. 

External links