Phenylpiracetam is typically prescribed as a general stimulant or to increase tolerance to extreme temperatures and stress.
In Wistar rats with gravitational cerebral ischemia, Phenylpiracetam reduced the extent of neuralgic deficiency manifestations, retained the locomotor, research, and memory functions, increased the survival rate, and lead to the favoring of local cerebral flow restoration upon the occlusion of carotid arteries to a greater extent than did piracetam.
In rats, it has been found to decrease the number of nACh and NMDAreceptors and increase the density of D1, D2 and D3 receptors.
When neuroleptic (antipsychotic) activity of phenotropil was studied in an experimental animal model, it showed marked neuroleptic activity in models of positive (apomorphine-induced verticalization test) and negative (5-HTP-induced hyperkinesis test) symptoms of psychoses as well as in the m-cholinergic pathway hyperactivation (arecoline-induced tremor test). The compound markedly antagonized haloperidolcatalepsy. Used in a single dose or as a course treatment, phenotropil did not provoke nor intensify aggression. In contrast to typical and atypical antipsychotics, phenotropil had no sedative action and other adverse effects. It exhibited a positive effect on exploratory behavior and motor activity, had anxiolytic (anti-anxiety) and antidepressant action.
Racemic phenylpiracetam and its enantiomers were tested for locomotor, antidepressant and memory-improving activity and influence on the central nervous system using general pharmacological tests in mice. In the open-field test, a significant increase in locomotor activity was observed after a single administration of R-phenylpiracetam at doses of 10 and 50 mg/kg and S-phenylpiracetam at a dose of 50 mg/kg. In the forced swim test, R-phenylpiracetam induced an antidepressant effect at doses of 100 and 50 mg/kg, and S-phenylpiracetam was active at a dose of 100 mg/kg. R-phenylpiracetam significantly enhanced memory function in a passive avoidance response test at a dose of 1 mg/kg; the S-enantiomer did not show any activity in this test. In conclusion, the antidepressant and increased locomotor activity relies on both R- and S-phenylpiracetam, but the memory-improving activity is only characteristic of R-phenylpiracetam.
Phenotropil 100 mg from Russia
While not prescribed as a pharmaceutical in the West, in Russia it is available as a prescription medicine under the name Phenotropil (but most drugstores sell it without prescriptions).
Phenylpiracetam has recently gained niche popularity from online nootropics suppliers in the US and other countries outside of Russia. Given its lack of abuse potential, Phenylpiracetam is not scheduled by the DEA, and is legal for personal use.
Because it increases physical stamina and provides improved tolerance to cold weather, it appears on the lists of banned substances issued by the World Anti-Doping Agency. This list is applicable in all Olympic sports.
^Savchenko, A. I.; Zakharova, N. S.; Stepanov, I. N. (2005). "The phenotropil treatment of the consequences of brain organic lesions". Zhurnal nevrologii i psikhiatrii imeni S.S. Korsakova105 (12): 22–26. PMID16447562. edit
^Bobkov, I.; Morozov, I. S.; Glozman, O. M.; Nerobkova, L. N.; Zhmurenko, L. A. (1983). "Pharmacological characteristics of a new phenyl analog of piracetam--4-phenylpiracetam". Biulleten' eksperimental'noi biologii i meditsiny95 (4): 50–53. PMID6403074. edit
^ abKim, S.; Park, J. H.; Myung, S. W.; Lho, D. S. (1999). "Determination of carphedon in human urine by solid-phase microextraction using capillary gas chromatography with nitrogen-phosphorus detection". The Analyst124 (11): 1559–1562. PMID10746314.