This article may require cleanup to meet Wikipedia's quality standards. The specific problem is: The article is misleading in its implication that in vitro pharmacology and/or animal study supports the claims of effects in humans. This is original research unless reliable sources making those connections can be produced. The article suggests that there are benefits for healthy individuals, but the only clinical study referenced relates to brain damaged subjects.. Please help improve this article if you can.(September 2014)
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Phenylpiracetam is typically prescribed as a general stimulant or to increase tolerance to extreme temperatures and stress.
In Wistar rats with gravitational cerebral ischemia, Phenylpiracetam reduced the extent of neuralgic deficiency manifestations, retained the locomotor, research, and memory functions, increased the survival rate, and lead to the favoring of local cerebral flow restoration upon the occlusion of carotid arteries to a greater extent than did piracetam.
In rats, it has been found to decrease the number of nACh and NMDAreceptors and increase the density of D1, D2 and D3 receptors.
Phenotropil 100 mg from Russia
While not prescribed as a pharmaceutical in the West, in Russia it is available as a prescription medicine under the name Phenotropil (but most drugstores sell it without prescriptions).
Because it increases physical stamina and provides improved tolerance to cold weather, it appears on the lists of banned substances issued by the World Anti-Doping Agency. This list is applicable in all Olympic sports.
^Savchenko, A. I.; Zakharova, N. S.; Stepanov, I. N. (2005). "The phenotropil treatment of the consequences of brain organic lesions". Zhurnal nevrologii i psikhiatrii imeni S.S. Korsakova105 (12): 22–26. PMID16447562. edit
^Bobkov, I.; Morozov, I. S.; Glozman, O. M.; Nerobkova, L. N.; Zhmurenko, L. A. (1983). "Pharmacological characteristics of a new phenyl analog of piracetam--4-phenylpiracetam". Biulleten' eksperimental'noi biologii i meditsiny95 (4): 50–53. PMID6403074. edit
^ abKim, S.; Park, J. H.; Myung, S. W.; Lho, D. S. (1999). "Determination of carphedon in human urine by solid-phase microextraction using capillary gas chromatography with nitrogen-phosphorus detection". The Analyst124 (11): 1559–1562. doi:10.1039/a906027h. PMID10746314.