Pete Maravich

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Pete Maravich
Pete maravich.jpg
Pete Maravich from his days at LSU
No. 23, 44, 7
Guard
Personal information
Born(1947-06-22)June 22, 1947
Aliquippa, Pennsylvania
DiedJanuary 5, 1988(1988-01-05) (aged 40)
Pasadena, California
NationalityAmerican
Listed height6 ft 5 in (196 cm)
Listed weight197 lb (89 kg)
Career information
High schoolDaniel (Central, South Carolina)
Broughton (Raleigh, North Carolina)
Edwards Military Institute
(Salemburg, North Carolina)
CollegeLSU (1967–1970)
NBA draft1970 / Round: 1 / Pick: 3rd overall
Selected by the Atlanta Hawks
Pro playing career1970–1980
Career history
19701974Atlanta Hawks
19741980New Orleans / Utah Jazz
1980Boston Celtics
Career highlights and awards
Career statistics
Points15,948 (24.2 ppg)
Rebounds2,747 (4.2 rpg)
Assists3,563 (5.4 apg)
Stats at Basketball-Reference.com
Basketball Hall of Fame as player
 
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Pete Maravich
Pete maravich.jpg
Pete Maravich from his days at LSU
No. 23, 44, 7
Guard
Personal information
Born(1947-06-22)June 22, 1947
Aliquippa, Pennsylvania
DiedJanuary 5, 1988(1988-01-05) (aged 40)
Pasadena, California
NationalityAmerican
Listed height6 ft 5 in (196 cm)
Listed weight197 lb (89 kg)
Career information
High schoolDaniel (Central, South Carolina)
Broughton (Raleigh, North Carolina)
Edwards Military Institute
(Salemburg, North Carolina)
CollegeLSU (1967–1970)
NBA draft1970 / Round: 1 / Pick: 3rd overall
Selected by the Atlanta Hawks
Pro playing career1970–1980
Career history
19701974Atlanta Hawks
19741980New Orleans / Utah Jazz
1980Boston Celtics
Career highlights and awards
Career statistics
Points15,948 (24.2 ppg)
Rebounds2,747 (4.2 rpg)
Assists3,563 (5.4 apg)
Stats at Basketball-Reference.com
Basketball Hall of Fame as player

Peter Press "Pistol Pete" Maravich (June 22, 1947 – January 5, 1988) was an American professional basketball player. He was born and raised in Aliquippa, Pennsylvania, part of the Pittsburgh metropolitan area. Maravich starred in college at Louisiana State University (LSU) and played for three NBA teams until injuries forced his retirement in 1980. He is still the all-time leading NCAA Division I scorer with 3,667 points scored and an average of 44.2 points per game. All of his accomplishments were achieved before the three-point line was introduced to NCAA basketball and despite being unable to play varsity as a freshman under then-NCAA rules.[1] One of the youngest players ever inducted into the Naismith Memorial Basketball Hall of Fame, Maravich was cited by the Hall as "perhaps the greatest creative offensive talent in history".[2] In an April 2010 interview, Hall of Fame player John Havlicek said "the best ball-handler of all time was (Pete) Maravich."[3]

Early life[edit]

Pete Maravich was born in Aliquippa, a steel town in Beaver County in western Pennsylvania, near Pittsburgh. Maravich amazed his family and friends with his basketball abilities from an early age. He enjoyed a close but demanding father-son relationship that motivated him toward achievement and fame in the sport. Maravich's father, Petar "Press" Maravich, the son of Serbian immigrants[4][5] and a former professional player-turned-coach, showed him the fundamentals starting when he was seven years old. Obsessively, Maravich spent hours practicing ball control tricks, passes, head fakes, and long range shots.

This dedication and inventiveness manifested itself in early success: Maravich played high school varsity ball at Daniel High School in Central, South Carolina a year before being old enough to attend the school. While at Daniel from 1961 to 1963, Maravich participated in the school's first ever game against a team from an all-black school. In 1963 his father departed from his position as head basketball coach at Clemson University and joined the coaching staff at North Carolina State University. The Maravich family's subsequent move to Raleigh, North Carolina allowed Pete to attend Needham B. Broughton High School.[6] His high school years also saw the birth of his famous moniker. From his habit of shooting the ball from his side, as if he were holding a revolver, Maravich became known as "Pistol" Pete Maravich. From there "Pistol" then transferred to Edwards Military Institute where he averaged 33 points per game.

Playing career[edit]

College[edit]

While Maravich would tell friends later in life he always desired to play basketball for West Virginia University and was all set to be a Mountaineer, his father was the varsity coach at LSU and his father offered the "Pistol" a spot at LSU. In his first game on the LSU freshman team Maravich put up 50 points, 14 rebounds and 11 assists against Southeastern Louisiana College.[7]

In only three years playing for his father at LSU, Maravich scored 3,667 points — 1,138 of those in 1968, 1,148 in 1969 and 1,381 in 1970 while averaging 43.8, 44.2 and 44.5 points per game. In his collegiate career, the 6' 5" (1.96 m) guard averaged an incredible 44.2 points per game in 83 contests and led the NCAA in scoring in each of his three seasons.[8]

Maravich's longstanding collegiate scoring record is particularly impressive when two other factors are taken into account:

More than 35 years later, many of his NCAA and LSU records still stand. Maravich was a three-time All-American. Though he never appeared in the NCAA tournament, Maravich played a key role in turning around a lackluster program that had posted a 3–20 record in the season prior to his arrival.

At Louisiana State University, Maravich was a member of the Sigma Alpha Epsilon fraternity.

NCAA career statistics[edit]

Legend
  GPGames played  GS Games started MPG Minutes per game
 FG% Field goal percentage 3P% 3-point field goal percentage FT% Free throw percentage
 RPG Rebounds per game APG Assists per game SPG Steals per game
 BPG Blocks per game PPG Points per game Bold Career high
YearTeamGPGSMPGFG%3P%FT%RPGAPGSPGBPGPPG
1966–67[10]Louisiana State19.......452....83310.443.6
1967–68Louisiana State26.......423....8117.54.043.8
1968–69Louisiana State26.......444....7466.54.944.2
1969–70Louisiana State31.......447....7735.36.244.5
Career[11][12]83....438....7756.55.144.2

Professional[edit]

Atlanta Hawks[edit]

The Atlanta Hawks selected Maravich with the third pick in the first round of the 1970 NBA Draft.[13] He was not a natural fit in Atlanta, as the Hawks already boasted a top-notch scorer at guard in Lou Hudson. In fact, Pistol Pete's flamboyant style stood in stark contrast to the conservative play of Hudson and star center Walt Bellamy. And it did not help that many of the veteran players resented the $1.9 million contract that Maravich received from the team — a very large salary at that time.[14]

Still, the rookie's talent was undeniable. Maravich appeared in 81 games and average 23.2 points per contest — good enough to earn NBA All-Rookie Team honors. And he managed to blend his style with his teammates, so much that Hudson set a career high by scoring 26.8 points per game. But the team stumbled to a 36–46 record — 12 wins less than the previous season. Still, the Hawks qualified for the playoffs, where they lost to the New York Knicks in the first round.

Maravich struggled somewhat during his second season. His scoring average dipped to 19.3 points per game during the regular season, and the Hawks finished with another disappointing 36–46 record. Once again, they qualified for the playoffs, and once again, they were eliminated in the first round. However, Atlanta fought hard against the Boston Celtics, with Maravich averaging 27.7 points in the series.

It was a sign of things to come. Maravich erupted in his third season, averaging 26.1 points and dishing out 6.9 assists per game. With 2,063 points, he combined with Hudson (2,029 points) to become only the second set of teammates in league history to each score over 2,000 points in a single season. The Hawks soared to a 46–36 record, but again bowed out in the first round of the playoffs. However, the season was good enough to earn Maravich his first-ever appearance in the NBA All-Star Game, and also All-NBA Second Team honors.

The following season (1973–74) was his best yet — at least in terms of individual accomplishments. Maravich posted 27.7 points per game — second in the league behind Bob McAdoo — and earned his second appearance in the All-Star Game. However, Atlanta sank to a disappointing 35–47 record and missed the postseason entirely.

New Orleans Jazz[edit]

In the summer of 1974, an expansion franchise was preparing for its first season of competition in the NBA. The New Orleans Jazz were looking for something, or someone, to fire up basketball fans in "The Big Easy". With his exciting style of play, Pistol Pete was the perfect man for the job. Of course, it helped that he already enjoyed celebrity status in Louisiana thanks to his legendary accomplishments at LSU. To acquire Maravich, the Jazz sent two players and four draft picks to Atlanta.

Predictably, the expansion team struggled mightily in its first season. Maravich managed to score 21.5 points per game, but shot a career-worst 41.9 percent from the floor. The Jazz posted a 23-59 record, worst in the NBA.

Jazz management did their best to give Maravich a better supporting cast, and it worked – to an extent. The team posted a 38-44 record in its second season (1975–76), but did not qualify for postseason play, despite the dramatic improvement. Maravich struggled with injuries that limited him to just 62 games that season, but he averaged 25.9 points per contest and continued his crowd-pleasing antics. The entire league took notice of his extraordinary skills, electing him to the All-NBA First Team that year.

The following season (1976–77) was his best-ever as a professional player. He led the league in scoring with an average of 31.1 points per game. He scored 40 points or more in 13 different games, including a 68-point masterpiece on YouTube against the Knicks. At that time, it was the most points ever scored by a guard in one game. In fact, only two players in league history had scored more points in a single game: Wilt Chamberlain and Elgin Baylor.[15] Baylor had a front row seat for Maravich's performance - because he was serving as head coach of the Jazz.

Maravich earned his third All-Star Game appearance and was honored as All-NBA First Team for the second consecutive season. He was in the prime of his career, seemingly scoring at will and showing off his flashy dribbling and passing skills in arenas all across the country. But that all changed the following season. Injuries to both knees forced him to miss 32 games during the 1977–78 season. Despite being robbed of some quickness and athleticism, he still managed to score 27.0 points per game, and he also added 6.7 assists per contest, his highest average as a member of the Jazz. Many of those assists went to a new teammate: Truck Robinson, who had joined the franchise as a free agent during the offseason. In his first year in New Orleans, he averaged 22.7 points and a league-best 15.7 rebounds per game. His presence prevented opponents from focusing their defensive efforts entirely on Maravich, and it lifted the Jazz to a respectable 39–43 record — just short of making the club's first-ever appearance in the playoffs.

The good times did not last for long. Knee problems plagued Maravich for the rest of his career. He played in just 49 games during the 1978–79 season. He worked hard to overcome his injury troubles, scoring 22.6 points per game and earning his fifth (and final) All-Star appearance. But his scoring and passing abilities were severely impaired. The team struggled on the court, and faced serious financial trouble as well.[16] Management became desperate to make some changes. The Jazz traded Robinson to the Phoenix Suns, receiving draft picks and some cash in return. But it was too late to save the franchise. In 1979, team owner Sam Battistone moved the Jazz to Salt Lake City, Utah.

Final season[edit]

The Utah Jazz began play in the 1979-80 season. Maravich moved with the team to Salt Lake City, but his knee problems were worse than ever. He appeared in 17 games early in the season, but his injuries prevented him from practicing much, and new coach Tom Nissalke had a strict rule that players who didn't practice were not allowed to play in games. Thus, Pistol Pete was parked on the bench for 24 straight games, much to the dismay of Utah fans[17] and to Maravich himself. During that time, Adrian Dantley emerged as the team's franchise player.

The Jazz placed Maravich on waivers in January 1980. He was claimed by the Celtics, the top team in the league that year, led by rookie superstar Larry Bird.[18] Maravich adjusted to a new role as part-time contributor, giving Boston a "hired gun" off the bench. He helped the team post a 61-21 record in the regular season, best in the league. And, for the first time since his early career in Atlanta, Maravich was able to participate in the NBA playoffs. He appeared in nine games during that postseason, but the Celtics were upended by Julius Erving and the Philadelphia 76ers in the Eastern Conference finals four games to one.

Realizing that his knee problems would never go away, Maravich retired at the end of that season. It is noteworthy that the NBA instituted the 3-point shot just in time for Pistol Pete's last season in the league. He had always been famous for his long-range shooting, and his final year provided an official statistical gauge of his abilities. Between his limited playing time in Utah and Boston, he made 10 of 15 3-point shots, giving him a career 67% completion rate behind the arc.

During his ten-year career in the NBA, Maravich played in 658 games, averaging 24.2 points and 5.4 assists per contest. In 1987, he was inducted into the Naismith Memorial Basketball Hall of Fame, and his #7 jersey has been retired by both the Jazz and the New Orleans Pelicans.

NBA career statistics[edit]

Legend
  GPGames played  GS Games started MPG Minutes per game
 FG% Field goal percentage 3P% 3-point field goal percentage FT% Free throw percentage
 RPG Rebounds per game APG Assists per game SPG Steals per game
 BPG Blocks per game PPG Points per game Bold Career high

Regular season[edit]

YearTeamGPGSMPGFG%3P%FT%RPGAPGSPGBPGPPG
1970–71Atlanta8136.1.458.8003.74.423.2
1971–72Atlanta6634.9.427.8113.96.019.3
1972–73Atlanta7939.1.441.8004.46.926.1
1973–74Atlanta7638.2.457.8264.95.21.5.227.7
1974–75New Orleans7936.1.419.8115.36.21.5.221.5
1975–76New Orleans6238.3.459.8114.85.41.4.425.9
1976–77New Orleans7341.7.433.8355.15.41.2.331.1
1977–78New Orleans5040.8.444.8703.66.72.0.227.0
1978–79New Orleans4937.2.421.8412.55.01.2.422.6
1979–80Utah/Boston4322.4.449.667.8671.81.9.6.113.7
Career[12]65837.0.441.667.8204.25.41.4.324.2

Playoffs[edit]

YearTeamGPGSMPGFG%3P%FT%RPGAPGSPGBPGPPG
1970–71Atlanta539.8.377.6925.24.822.0
1971–72Atlanta636.5.446.8175.34.727.7
1972–73Atlanta639.0.419.7944.86.726.2
1979–80Boston911.6.490.333.667.9.7.3.06.0
Career[12]2629.1.423.333.7843.63.818.7

Career highs[edit]

40 point games[edit]

Maravich scored 50 or more points six times and 40 or more points thirty-five times in the regular season. Maravich's career high in the playoffs was 37 points.

PointsOpponentHome/AwayDateSeasonFGMFGAFTMFTA
68New York KnicksHomeFebruary 25, 19771976–7726431619
51Kansas City KingsHomeDecember 14, 19761976–7718381518
51Phoenix SunsAwayMarch 18, 19771976–7721349
50Philadelphia 76ersHomeJanuary 16, 19721971–72182914
50Cleveland CavaliersHomeFebruary 5, 19721971–72202710
50Washington BulletsHomeDecember 26, 19761976–7723394
49 (OT)Golden State WarriorsAwayFebruary 10, 19761975–76183613
47Atlanta HawksAwayFebruary 8, 19751974–75183711
46Los Angeles LakersAwayMarch 20, 19771976–7719388
45Phoenix SunsHomeNovember 18, 19721972–73151518
45 (2 OT)New York KnicksHomeOctober 26, 19751975–76112326
45Denver NuggetsHomeApril 10, 19771976–77131922
44Cincinnati RoyalsAwayMarch 13, 19711970–7118278
44Philadelphia 76ersHomeNovember 4, 19721972–73141622
44Boston CelticsHomeJanuary 18, 19771976–771710
44 (OT)Kansas City KingsHomeMarch 25, 19771976–7719406
43Boston CelticsHomeNovember 2, 19761976–77179
43Houston RocketsHomeFebruary 6, 19771976–77179
42Philadelphia 76ersHomeDecember 23, 19721972–731512
42Buffalo BravesHomeNovember 28, 19731973–74121818
42Seattle SuperSonicsHomeJanuary 17, 19751974–751610
42Cleveland CavaliersAwayDecember 27, 19771977–78178
41Buffalo BravesAwayJanuary 18, 19711970–71131519
41Golden State WarriorsAwayOctober 27, 19731973–74177
41Cleveland CavaliersHomeNovember 21, 19761976–77169
41Cleveland CavaliersHomeApril 1, 19771976–77177
41New Jersey NetsAwayOctober 21, 19771977–78121718
41Kansas City KingsHomeNovember 27, 19771977–7819343
41San Antonio SpursHomeNovember 10, 19781978–79
40New York KnicksAwayNovember 24, 19701970–71176
40Phoenix SunsAwayFebruary 16, 19731972–731510
40Buffalo BravesHomeJanuary 19, 19751974–75176
40Chicago BullsAwayMarch 13, 19761975–761412
40San Antonio SpursHomeFebruary 27, 19771976–77111820
40Los Angeles LakersHomeDecember 13, 19771977–7819352

Top assist games[edit]

AssistsOpponentHome/AwayDate
18 (OT)Detroit PistonsHomeJanuary 16, 1973
17Seattle SuperSonicsHomeJanuary 17, 1975
15Seattle SuperSonicsHomeNovember 17, 1977
15Buffalo BravesHomeJanuary 31, 1978

Regular season[edit]

StatHighOpponentDate
Field goal percentage
Field goals made26vs. New York KnicksFebruary 25, 1977
Field goal attempts43vs. New York KnicksFebruary 25, 1977
Free throws made, none missed18—18vs. Buffalo BravesNovember 28, 1973
Free throws made, none missed15—15at Milwaukee BucksJanuary 23, 1972
Free throws made, one missed17—18at New Jersey NetsOctober 21, 1977
Free throws made23 (2 OT)vs. New York KnicksOctober 26, 1975
Free throw attempts26 (2 OT)vs. New York KnicksOctober 26, 1975
Rebounds15
Steals
Blocked shots

Later life and death[edit]

After the injury forced him to leave basketball in the fall of 1980, Maravich became a recluse for two years. Through it all, Maravich said he was searching "for life." He tried the practices of yoga and Hinduism, read Trappist monk Thomas Merton's The Seven Storey Mountain and took an interest in the field of ufology, the study of unidentified flying objects. He also explored vegetarianism and macrobiotics. Eventually, he embraced evangelical Christianity. A few years before his death, Maravich said, "I want to be remembered as a Christian, a person that serves Him [Jesus] to the utmost, not as a basketball player."[19]

On January 5, 1988, Pete Maravich collapsed and died at age 40 of heart failure[20] while playing in a pickup basketball game in the gym at a church in Pasadena, California, with a group that included James Dobson of Focus on the Family fame. Maravich had flown out from his home in Louisiana to tape a segment for Dobson's radio show that aired later that day. Dobson has said that Maravich's last words, less than a minute before he died, were "I feel great." An autopsy revealed the cause of death to be a rare congenital defect; he had been born with a missing left coronary artery, a vessel which supplies blood to the muscle fibers of the heart. His right coronary artery was grossly enlarged and had been compensating for the defect.[21]

Maravich is buried at Resthaven Gardens of Memory and Mausoleum in Baton Rouge, Louisiana.

Legacy[edit]

Pete Maravich was survived by his wife, Jackie, and his two sons Jaeson, who was 8 years old, and Josh, aged 5. Only the previous year, Pete had taken Jaeson to the 1987 NBA All-Star Game in Seattle, Washington, and introduced him to Michael Jordan.

Since Maravich's children were very young when he died, Jackie Maravich initially shielded them from unwanted media attention, not even allowing Jaeson and Josh to attend their father's funeral.[22] However, a proclivity to basketball seemed to be an inherited trait. During a 2003 interview, Jaeson told USA Today that, when he was still only a toddler, "My dad passed me a (Nerf) basketball, and I've been hooked ever since... . My dad said I shot and missed, and I got mad and I kept shooting. He said his dad told him he did the same thing."[23]

Despite some setbacks coping with their father's death and without the benefit his tutelage might have provided, each eventually was inspired to play high school and collegiate basketball; Josh at his father's alma mater, LSU.[23][24]

Memorabilia[edit]

Maravich's untimely death and mystique have made memorabilia associated with him among the most highly prized of any basketball collectibles. Game-used Maravich jerseys bring more money at auction than similar items from anybody other than George Mikan, with the most common items selling for $10,000 and up and a game-used LSU jersey selling for $94,300 in a 2001 Grey Flannel auction.[25] The signed game ball from his career-high 68 point night on February 25, 1977 sold for $131,450 in a 2009 Heritage auction.[26]

Honors, books, films and music[edit]

Video game depictions[edit]

Collegiate awards[edit]

Collegiate records[edit]

NBA awards[edit]

NBA records[edit]

Free throws made, quarter: 14, Pete Maravich, third quarter, Atlanta Hawks vs. Buffalo Braves, November 28, 1973

Free throw attempts, quarter: 16, Pete Maravich, second quarter, Atlanta Hawks at Chicago Bulls, January 2, 1973

Second pair of teammates in NBA history to score 2,000 or more points in a season: 2, Atlanta Hawks (1972–73)
Maravich: 2,063
Lou Hudson: 2,029

Third pair of teammates in NBA history to score 40 or more points in the same game: New Orleans Jazz vs. Denver Nuggets, April 10, 1977
Maravich: 45
Nate Williams: 41
David Thompson of the Denver Nuggets also scored 40 points in this game.

Ranks 4th in NBA history — Free throws made, none missed, game: 18—18, Pete Maravich, Atlanta Hawks vs. Buffalo Braves, November 28, 1973

Ranks 5th in NBA history — Free throws made, game: 23, Pete Maravich, New Orleans Jazz vs. New York Knicks, October 26, 1975 (2 OT)

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Peter P. "Pete" Maravich". Naismith Memorial Basketball Hall of Fame. Retrieved October 31, 2008. [dead link]
  2. ^ hoophall.com
  3. ^ "What If——-Pete Maravich?". Thomaston Times. Retrieved 2013-05-04. 
  4. ^ Jennings, Jay (February 11, 2007). "Crowd Pleaser". The New York Times. Retrieved 2012-01-14. 
  5. ^ "Pistol: The Life of Pete Maravich". Amazon.com. Retrieved 2012-01-14. 
  6. ^ "Pete Maravich Summary". NBA.com. Retrieved 2010-09-06. 
  7. ^ Federman, Wayne; Terrill, Marshall; Maravich, Jackie (2006). Maravich. p. 68. ISBN 1-894963-52-0. 
  8. ^ Rogers, Thomas. "Pete Maravich, a Hall of Famer Who Set Basketball Marks, Dies", The New York Times, January 6, 1988. Retrieved June 14, 2009.
  9. ^ Levine, Les. "James' 55 were Pistol Pete-esque", The News-Herald (Ohio), February 22, 2009. Retrieved June 14, 2009.
  10. ^ At this time, freshmen did not play on the varsity team and these stats do not count in the NCAA record books.
  11. ^ Pete Maravich, LSU Sports. Retrieved March 19, 2010.
  12. ^ a b c Pete Maravich, basketball-reference.com. Retrieved March 19, 2010.
  13. ^ "1970 NBA Draft". Basketball Reference. Retrieved October 31, 2008. 
  14. ^ NBA.com: Pete Maravich Bio
  15. ^ NBA Hoops Online: Most points in a single game by one player
  16. ^ New Orleans Jazz: The Move to Utah
  17. ^ Deseret News: Pistol Pete's legacy lives on in NBA
  18. ^ Deseret Morning News | 25 years later the Jazz are going strong
  19. ^ Federman, p. 367
  20. ^ New York Times, 1988/01/10: MARAVICH IS EULOGIZED
  21. ^ Pistol Pete 23
  22. ^ Thamel, Pete (February 17, 2004). "In the Name of His Father: The Journey of Pete Maravich's Son". The New York Times. Retrieved May 22, 2010. [dead link]
  23. ^ a b Weir, Tom (February 14, 2003). "Playing in Pistol Pete's shadow". USA Today. Retrieved May 22, 2010. 
  24. ^ Josh Maravich Stats, Bio - ESPN
  25. ^ [1] Sports Collector's Digest. Retrieved 8-5-10.
  26. ^ "1977 Pete Maravich Sixty-Eighth Point Game Used Basketball Basketball Collectibles: Balls". Sports.ha.com. Retrieved 2010-09-06. 
  27. ^ PistolMovie.com – The Home of "The Pistol" on DVD
  28. ^ "Pistol Pete Lyric Meaning - The Ziggens Meanings". Songmeanings.net. Retrieved October 17, 2012. 
  29. ^ Remember the Name: Ben Woodside - ESPN The Magazine
  30. ^ New Jersey Nets vs. Miami Heat - Play By Play - December 23, 2005 - ESPN (4th quarter) NB: While this link only backs up the fact that Carter made 16 free throws in a quarter, there is no mention of any records broken or set.
  31. ^ Detroit Pistons vs. Los Angeles Clippers - Recap - December 11, 2005 - ESPN NB: While this link only backs up the fact that Wallace attempted 20 free throws in a quarter, there is no mention of any records broken or set.

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]