The Pet Travel Scheme ("PETS") is a system which allows animals to travel easily between member countries without undergoing quarantine. A Pet Passport is a document that officially records information related to a specific animal, as part of that procedure. The effect is to drastically speed up and simplify travel with and transport of animals between member countries, compared to previous procedures, if the regulations are followed.
PETS was originally introduced for the benefit of animals entering or returning to the United Kingdom from other European Union countries, since historically the UK had very strong controls to safeguard against rabies including a compulsory 6 month quarantine period on imports of many animals. On October 1, 2001, several European Union countries introduced the PETS scheme, under which animals from any member country may freely travel (with the correct procedure) to any other member country on approved carriers. Over time the scheme has rolled out to other countries such as the United States, Canada, Australia and New Zealand.
The pet passport itself comes in multiple forms, sometimes a pink A4 sheet, sometimes a small blue booklet. It contains the microchip or tattoo number of the animal, the certification that it has had a rabies vaccination, and needs to be signed by an officially approved veterinary surgeon.
A new style passport with laminated strips and additional security measures is being introduced in the UK from December 2014. Old style passports remain valid.
The passport is not to be confused with a much smaller folder (sometimes purple coloured), routinely issued by vets, which records the complete vaccination history of the pet.
Details of procedure
Every country has different requirements, both for export and import of animals, although some features are common to all.
Certified rabiesvaccination, with some kind of prior period of time or evidence the vaccination is working (commonly bloodserology tests to confirm the vaccination has "taken" and a delay of some months to confirm the animal is rabies free initially). For pet travel in Europe, the rabies vaccine should be administered by a Vet with a minimum of 21 days (taken from UK Gov website 04 Feb 2014) before travel. Some countries may differ and always check with your local Vet for the procedures to follow.
Animal treated for ticks, fleas and tapeworms between 24 and 48 hours before boarding the outbound transport. The time limit is usually enforced strictly (ie no less than 24 hours and no more than 48 hours before check-in)
Vet's letter or certificate confirming fitness to travel and/or no obvious signs of disease.
Government certification that the vet's export documentation and certificates are in order for travel.
Sometimes certain carriers or import/export points only, will allow animals.
In some countries the formal passport is needed. Others will accept documentation in any form, so long as it is clearly evidential of the procedure being followed. Usually the animal and its papers are checked thoroughly both on boarding or export, and again upon arrival.
The Pet passport alone can be used to enter some countries if it records all relevant information (e.g. the UK), but it will not suffice to enter many countries. For instance Guatemala, in common with almost every country operating such a scheme, demands that all imported pets have a rabies vaccination, but will not accept the Pet Passport as proof of said vaccination. They need to see the proof of the rabies in the animal's vaccination records.
Tapeworm treatment must be administered by a vet not less than 24 hours and not more than 120 hours (1–5 days) before scheduled arrival time.
Specific country regulations
Tapeworm treatment – (dogs only): before entering the UK, all pet dogs (including assistance dogs) must be treated for tapeworm. The treatment must be administered by a vet not less than 24 hours and not more than 120 hours (1–5 days) before its scheduled arrival time in the UK. (There is no mandatory requirement for tick treatment. No treatment is required for dogs entering the UK from Finland, Ireland or Malta).
Prohibition on the transport of dogs and cats in the passenger cabin, or as baggage - British law precludes all animals entering or departing from the UK either in the cabin or in the hold as 'excess' or 'checked' baggage. Unlike the UK, most western countries do allow airlines to carry dogs/cats on flights provided that specific requirements are met regarding the container the pet will travel in. All animals (except guide dogs) travelling to or from the UK must travel in the hold as manifest cargo. Most airlines do not offer cargo services to individual passengers directly and specialist agents must be used. See Other useful information below for further travel details.
Though a participant in the PETs scheme, to bring pets into Japan from member states there are several separate procedures that must be followed. These do not cover Iceland, Australia, New Zealand, Fiji, Hawaii and Guam, which have designated region (rabies free) status. If you take a pet out of Japan, it may take between 6 months to a year for it to re-enter. Including prior contact with Japanese Quarantine several months before entry;
The dog or cat must be microchipped.
The dog or cat must have stayed in the country for at least 180 days (6 months) since its birth or having left Japan.
The dog or cat must have had 2 rabies injections and a blood test 6 month before entering/re-entering Japan, proving the pet is free of rabies. This test must be carried out at a designated laboratory.
The dog or cat does not have or show signs of rabies or Leptospirosis (dogs only).
To take a dog or cat out of Japan, on top of the necessary injections and microchip, you must;
Have certificates issued by an official vet to prove that your dog/cat has been vaccinated, microchipped and wormed as necessary. These are vets designated by the prefecture as able to issue certificates and officially vaccinate your dog. Contact your regional Animal Control for a full listing in your area. Your vet or local government offices can give you the information or the contact details for Animal Control.
More than a week before travelling, notify Animal Quarantine Service at the port of departure, and apply for an export inspection for your dog/ cat. The inspection will be carried out by the Quarantine Office (Ken'eki-kyoku) before you check your pet in. The application and contact details for each office can be found online at the AQS site ( http://www.maff.go.jp/aqs/english/animal/dog ). The Quarantine Offices at international departure are often open during set times, so you may have to book the inspection for the day prior to travel if you have an early flight.
Other useful information
The PETS scheme is not yet standardised. This leads to much confusion. Every journey between any two countries should be researched separately to ensure that the animal will be accepted for travel upon arrival at the departure point.
The major delay in obtaining a pet passport is the time requirement for the rabies vaccination. The implications are:
An animal may get a valid rabies vaccination and serology check, and then apply for a passport on the spot, at a later date.
An animal whose rabies vaccination is allowed to go out of date (typically 1–2 years) by even one day, without a booster, must start with a new vaccination and delay.
Because PETS is European wide, the regulations may differ for travel within, and outside, Europe. Pet owners should take care since the requirements for travel to a destination may be quite different from the requirements upon returning.
A suitable and carrier-approved travel crate may be required, which must have the correct food and water containers as set out by the relevant bodies.
Animals should not be sedated for air travel, since altitude can affect medications. Most airlines will not accept tranquilised animals nowadays. Instead, they are kept in a dark, heated, pressurized hold, which encourages them to sleep for the duration of travel.
Larger animals may be restricted to airline routes which can accommodate their crates. Not all airlines will carry animals, and charges vary widely - check with each airline before travel.
Some routes will not fly animals if the temperature is adverse
Many airlines are unable to provide details of formal procedures, you may need to check with a vet or the consulate of the relevant countries to confirm details.
Since airline staff are often (at present) poorly trained or uncertain, and conflicting information may be provided, at present it is sensible to double check and document all information supplied.
In airlines, animals may travel as excess baggage or cargo. "Excess baggage" (in effect treating the crate and animal as another suitcase) ensures they travel on the same flight and is often much cheaper.
The UK restricts incoming flights to ship animals as cargo. A cheaper alternative around this aberration in the rules is to fly to some other European city, such as Paris or Amsterdam, and then travel to the UK by rail or ferry instead, which do not have this restriction. It should be noted that passengers travelling with animals by rail or ferry to or from the UK must in many cases need to have access to a vehicle, as you cannot current take animals directly on foot by Eurostar, and neither on most ferry routes. After arriving in Europe from a non-EU participating country, the certificate received from customs/quarantine is valid for Europe wide travel for up to 4 months, though it is best to contact DEFRA directly prior to travel.
Travel by Ship: Cunard Line's "Queen Mary 2" kennel programme is available on all Transatlantic Crossings between New York and Southampton in either direction, and is managed by a full-time Kennel Master who takes care of responsibilities such as feeding, walking and cleaning the ship’s 12 spacious kennels. Travelling dogs and cats also receive a complimentary gift pack. Five other crew are assigned to the kennels to assure that all pets are loaded into the lifeboats should the need, however unlikely, arise. All pets are fitted with their own life jacket. The kennels and adjacent indoor and outdoor walking areas are open throughout the day, enabling guests to spend significant time with their pets. Reservations for the kennels may be made at time of booking, and are based on availability. Contact Cunard for fees, details and additional requirements. All animals must be in compliance with the Pets Travel Scheme and in possession of a pet passport.
List of countries exempt from rabies quarantines
Note: *=France or French DOM (Départements d’Outre-Mer)*Although Jamaica is a qualifying country under the EU Regulation, Jamaican law currently prevents the involvement of that country in PETS. PETS-prepared animals may not enter Jamaica and animals may not be prepared for PETS in Jamaica(Source:Defra).