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In diplomacy, the term persona non grata (Latin, plural: personae non gratae), literally meaning "an unwelcome person", refers to a foreign person whose entering or remaining in a particular country is prohibited by that country's government. It is the most serious form of censure which one country can apply to foreign diplomats, who are otherwise protected by diplomatic immunity from arrest and other normal kinds of prosecution.
Under the Vienna Convention on Diplomatic Relations Article 9, a receiving State may "at any time and without having to explain its decision" declare any member of a diplomatic staff persona non grata. A person so declared is considered unacceptable and is usually recalled to his or her home nation. If not recalled, the receiving State "may refuse to recognize the person concerned as a member of the mission."
While diplomatic immunity protects mission staff from prosecution for violating civil and criminal laws, depending on rank, under Articles 41 and 42 of the Vienna Convention, they are bound to respect national laws and regulations. Breaches of these articles can lead to a persona non grata declaration being used to punish erring staff. It is also used to expel diplomats suspected of espionage (described as "activities incompatible with diplomatic status") or any overt criminal act such as drug trafficking. The declaration may also be a symbolic indication of displeasure. So-called "tit-for-tat" exchanges have occurred, notably during the Cold War. In 2011, a notable occurrence was an exchange between the United States and Ecuador. In 2012, Canada declared diplomats from Iran personae non gratae after Foreign Affairs Minister John Baird announced his government is listing Iran as a state sponsor of terrorism under the Justice for Victims of Terrorism Act.
In non-diplomatic usage, referring to someone as persona non grata is to say that he or she is ostracized. Such a person is for all intents and purposes culturally shunned, so as to be figuratively nonexistent.
In police circles, this term is often applied to any officer who broke the Blue Wall by informing against fellow officers, e.g. testifying against officers who were corrupt. Frank Serpico was one real life example, while a cultural example is Paul Newman's character in Fort Apache, The Bronx, who informed on a fellow officer after witnessing him throw an unarmed man off a rooftop during a riot.
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