Performance-enhancing drugs

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia - View original article

Jump to: navigation, search

Performance-enhancing drugs (also known as PEDs) are substances used by athletes to improve their performances. The term may also refer to drugs used by military personnel to enhance combat performance.[1] Although the phrase performance-enhancing drugs is popularly used in reference to anabolic steroids or their precursors (hence the colloquial term "steroids"), world anti-doping organizations apply the term broadly.[2]

Types of performance-enhancing drugs[edit]

The phrase has been used to refer to several distinct classes of drugs:


The classifications of substances as performance-enhancing drugs are not entirely clear-cut and objective. As in other types of categorization, certain prototype performance enhancers are universally classified as such (like anabolic steroids), whereas other substances (like vitamins and protein supplements) are virtually never classified as performance enhancers despite their effects on athletes' performance. This is because athletes can get the correct amount of protein and supplements their body needs by having a proper diet[6] As is usual with categorization, there are borderline cases; caffeine, for example, is considered a performance enhancer by some athletic authorities but not others.[7]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Anon. Better Fighting Through Chemistry? The Role of FDA Regulation in Crafting the Warrior of the Future. Food and Drug Law: Final Paper. March 8, 2004.
  2. ^ "Performance-Enhancing Drug Resources". Drug Free Sport. Retrieved 14 April 2013. 
  3. ^ McKelvey Martin, Valerie. "Drugs in Sport". Retrieved 15 April 2013. 
  4. ^ "Stimulants". Retrieved 14 April 2013. 
  5. ^ Yesalis, Charles (2007). "12". Anabolic Steroids in Sport and Exercise. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics. 
  6. ^ Clark, Nancy. "Athletes and Protein: The Truth About Supplements". Retrieved 14 April 2013. 
  7. ^ "Caffeine and Sports Performance". Retrieved 2012-03-04. 

External links[edit]