Pereira, Colombia

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Pereira
City
Skyline of Pereira
Flag of Pereira
Flag
Official seal of Pereira
Seal
Nickname(s): La Querendona, Trasnochadora y Morena
Motto: Pereira con Vida
Location of the city and municipality of Pereira in Risaralda Department.
Location of the city and municipality of Pereira in Risaralda Department.
Pereira is located in Colombia
Pereira
Pereira
Location in Colombia
Coordinates: 4°48′51.4″N 75°41′40.41″W / 4.814278°N 75.6945583°W / 4.814278; -75.6945583Coordinates: 4°48′51.4″N 75°41′40.41″W / 4.814278°N 75.6945583°W / 4.814278; -75.6945583
CountryColombia
DepartmentRisaralda
RegionAndean
FoundationAugust 30, 1863
Government
 • MayorEnrique Vásquez Zuleta
Area
 • City702 km2 (271 sq mi)
 • Metro628 km2 (242 sq mi)
Elevation1,411 m (4,629 ft)
Population (2005 est.)
 • City576,329
 • Density820/km2 (2,100/sq mi)
DemonymPereira
Time zoneEastern Time Zone (UTC-05)
Area code(s)57 + 6
WebsiteOfficial website (Spanish)
 
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For other uses, see Pereira.
Pereira
City
Skyline of Pereira
Flag of Pereira
Flag
Official seal of Pereira
Seal
Nickname(s): La Querendona, Trasnochadora y Morena
Motto: Pereira con Vida
Location of the city and municipality of Pereira in Risaralda Department.
Location of the city and municipality of Pereira in Risaralda Department.
Pereira is located in Colombia
Pereira
Pereira
Location in Colombia
Coordinates: 4°48′51.4″N 75°41′40.41″W / 4.814278°N 75.6945583°W / 4.814278; -75.6945583Coordinates: 4°48′51.4″N 75°41′40.41″W / 4.814278°N 75.6945583°W / 4.814278; -75.6945583
CountryColombia
DepartmentRisaralda
RegionAndean
FoundationAugust 30, 1863
Government
 • MayorEnrique Vásquez Zuleta
Area
 • City702 km2 (271 sq mi)
 • Metro628 km2 (242 sq mi)
Elevation1,411 m (4,629 ft)
Population (2005 est.)
 • City576,329
 • Density820/km2 (2,100/sq mi)
DemonymPereira
Time zoneEastern Time Zone (UTC-05)
Area code(s)57 + 6
WebsiteOfficial website (Spanish)

Pereira is the capital city of the Colombian Department (governmental region) of Risaralda. It is located in the west of Colombia in the foothills of the Andes in a coffee producing area.[1]

Location[edit]

Map of the city.

Pereira is located in the Central Cordillera (mountain range) of Colombia in the valley of the river Otún and part of the Cauca river valley. To the north is La Virginia and Marseille Dosquebradas. To the northeast is Santa Rosa de Cabal and to the east is Tolima. To the south is Quindío and Valle del Cauca and to the west is Balboa and Valle del Cauca.

Geography[edit]

The city follows the relief of the land with some steep or high areas. Its elevation is about 1,500 metres (4,900 ft). It is located in a zone of high seismic vulnerability.[2]

Waterways[edit]

The river system of the municipality includes the rivers Cauca, Barbas, Old, the Otún River, the Consota and many tributaries.

History[edit]

Origin[edit]

The indigenous people of Pereira were the Quimbaya, a community of gold artisans.[3]

Colonial settlement[edit]

In about 1540 CE, the Spanish arrived in the area. The first settlement, Cartago Viejo was founded by the conquistadors, Jorge Robledo and Diego de Mendoza. In about 1691, the settlement was moved to the current location of Pereira.[4]

Independence[edit]

In 1816, the brothers, José Francisco and Manuel Pereira, took shelter near the settlement after the defeat of Simón Bolivar and his army at the Battle of Cachiri. José Francisco died on 24 August 1863. On 30 August 1863, Remigio Antonio Cañarte, a priest, arrived from Cartago and founded Pereira at the site, granted by the Pereira family for the city, which is now the Plaza de Bolivar.

Expansion and decline[edit]

In the 1920s particularly, settlers from Antioquia moved to Pereira for its economically strategic location, fertile soil, and good weather. The settlers grew large quantities of high-quality coffee in the mineral-rich, volcanic, Andean soil.[5] Other produce included sugarcane and cattle.[6] Settlers also came from cities such as Valle del Cauca and Bogotá. In the economic recession of 1999, and the low-growth years of 2000 and 2001, some residents of Pereira emigrated to the United States and Spain.

Governance[edit]

A panorama of Pereira

The Pereira municipal area covers 702 square kilometres (702,000,000 m2). Pereira is divided into 19 municipalities: Ferrocarril, Olímpica, San Joaquín, Cuba, Del Café, El oso, Perla del Otún, Consota, El Rocío, El poblado, El jardín, San Nicolás, Centro, Río Otún, Boston, Universidad, Villavicencio, Oriente y Villasantana. Pereira is a service centre for Altagracia, Arabia, Caimalito, Cerritos, La Florida, Puerto Caldas, Combia Alta, Combia Baja, La Bella, Estrella- La Palmilla, Morelia, Tribunas. Pereira, La Virginia, and Dosquebradas form the Area Metropolitana de Centro Occidente (AMCO).

Demographics[edit]

In 2005, Pereira had about 576,329 residents and was the sixth largest city of Colombia. Pereira has a twin city, Dosquebradas, (about five minutes drive from the Plaza de Bolivar), which has about 200,000 residents. The Pereira cornubation with a total population of about 986,000 includes Cartago, La Virginia, and Santa Rosa de Cabal. Pereira, Dosquebradas and La Virginia comprise the Pereira metropolitan area. As a result of urbanisation, Pereira is one of Colombia's cities with the most equitable distribution of wealth.[7]

Economy[edit]

68.1 percent of Pereira's economy lies in the tertiary sector, 26.2 percent in governance and 5.7 percent in primary production. The economy is supported by good prices for oil, coal, nickel and coffee; microcredit ventures; provision of security in the city and region; and taxes on residents living abroad.

Agriculture[edit]

In the region of Pereira, agricultural employment is 70 percent in permanent cropping, 8 percent in annual crops and 22 percent engaging transient workers. Agricultural products include a variety of crops such as sugarcane, cacao and rubber, cereals, coffee and livestock. Pereira is part of the Colombian coffee growing axis.[6]

Manufacturing[edit]

Pereira's main manufacturing product is apparel. Other products include aluminium goods, motorcycles and telecommunications technology. Pereira also hosts multinational corporations such as Avesco, Nestle and Coats. In the future, Ethanol may be produced in Pereira, as sugarcane (an essential raw material for ethanol production) is farmed in the nearby Cauca valley.[8]

Logistics[edit]

Pereira is a centre for transport logistics. Logistics companies include Servientrega International Logistics, FedEx, DHL, Central and TCC. There are logistics centres in Dosquebradas and Alpina.

Trade and commerce[edit]

Trade and commerce is the second biggest employment sector in Pereira and in 2010, Pereira was the city with the highest rate of unemployment in Colombia. Commercial enterprises include malls, home centres, hypermarkets and supermarkets. There are also fast food outlets, hotels and a convention centre.

Services[edit]

Pereira is a service centre for surrounding rural areas.

Tourism[edit]

Pereira has several landmarks which attract tourists. Lake Otún and Santa Isabel, provide a destination for sports adventure tourism. Pereira also has a "night life" with bars and nightclubs.

Drugs[edit]

Pereira has been affected by drug trade. In 1979, "social cleansing" of criminals was reported in Pereira.[9] In 2001, "White Horse", a joint US Colombian investigation into the transportation of heroin between Periera and Philadelphia.[10]

Transportation[edit]

Unit Integrated Mass Transit System Megabús parked in the station at the Lucy Tejada Cultural Center.

Air[edit]

Pereira's airport is the Matecaña International Airport. It was built between 1944 and 1946 and opened in August 1947. It operates both nationally and internationally. It is currently undergoing a large expansion which will include a new control tower, a longer runway, new access roads and new destinations such as New York, which will make Matecaña Internatinal Airport one of the most important of the country,

Road[edit]

Pereira is a transport hub for Caldas and Quindio. Interdepartmental roads make up the Autopista del Café (Coffee Freeway).[11] Other routes include: 30th of August Avenue, Circunvalar Avenue, Americas Avenue, Railway Avenue, Belalcazár Avenue, The River Avenue and streets Sixth, Seventh and Eighth and other highways.

Megabus[edit]

Megabús is the mass transport system of Pereira which was founded in 2006. It compromises 3 trunk routes that link Dosquebradas and Cuba, and feeder routes which connect the rest of the metroploitan area including La Virgina, Puerto Caldas, Cerritos, Morelia, and many other neighbourhoods, which connect with the trunk routes at Interchanger stations.

Cesar Gaviria Trujillo Viaduct[edit]

Pilares del Viaducto César Gaviria Trujillo.

The architectural award winning César Gaviria Trujillo Viaduct, a cable-stayed bridge, was opened on 15 November 1997. It is named after César Gaviria, the 40th president of Colombia, who was born in the city of Pereira. The viaduct links Pereira with Dosquebradas and the cities of Armenia, Pereira and Manizales. The length of its centre span is 211 metres (692 ft), one of the longest in South America.[12]

Climate[edit]

Pereira is located in a warm moorland area. The average temperature is 22 °C (72 °F). The annual average rainfall is 2,750 millimetres (108 in). There is a large degree of biodiversity in the region.

Climate data for Pereira, Colombia
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
Record high °C (°F)32.0
(89.6)
32.8
(91)
34.6
(94.3)
32.0
(89.6)
30.0
(86)
30.0
(86)
32.0
(89.6)
31.6
(88.9)
31.8
(89.2)
30.2
(86.4)
32.0
(89.6)
30.4
(86.7)
34.6
(94.3)
Average high °C (°F)27.0
(80.6)
27.1
(80.8)
27.0
(80.6)
26.3
(79.3)
25.9
(78.6)
26.1
(79)
26.7
(80.1)
26.8
(80.2)
26.4
(79.5)
25.7
(78.3)
25.8
(78.4)
26.3
(79.3)
26.43
(79.56)
Daily mean °C (°F)21.6
(70.9)
21.8
(71.2)
21.7
(71.1)
21.4
(70.5)
21.1
(70)
21.3
(70.3)
21.5
(70.7)
21.6
(70.9)
21.2
(70.2)
20.6
(69.1)
20.7
(69.3)
21.1
(70)
21.3
(70.35)
Average low °C (°F)16.7
(62.1)
16.9
(62.4)
17.0
(62.6)
17.0
(62.6)
16.9
(62.4)
16.8
(62.2)
16.5
(61.7)
16.5
(61.7)
16.5
(61.7)
16.5
(61.7)
16.7
(62.1)
16.8
(62.2)
16.73
(62.12)
Record low °C (°F)12.2
(54)
13.0
(55.4)
13.6
(56.5)
12.4
(54.3)
13.4
(56.1)
11.0
(51.8)
12.4
(54.3)
10.0
(50)
13.0
(55.4)
12.3
(54.1)
12.0
(53.6)
12.4
(54.3)
10
(50)
Precipitation mm (inches)135.3
(5.327)
121.0
(4.764)
191.1
(7.524)
221.3
(8.713)
255.2
(10.047)
178.7
(7.035)
123.4
(4.858)
134.4
(5.291)
185.3
(7.295)
267.6
(10.535)
271.3
(10.681)
173.6
(6.835)
2,258.2
(88.905)
Avg. precipitation days151418212321181720242218231
 % humidity74747678797875747679797776.6
Mean monthly sunshine hours189.8164.6163.3134.1134.8149.6185.2180.0150.6141.9151.1170.81,915.8
Source: Instituto de Hidrologia Meteorologia y Estudios Ambientales.[13]

Places of interest[edit]

Lucy Tejada Cultural Center, taken in 2005.
Macaws in the Zoo Matecaña city of Pereira.

Monuments[edit]

"Naked Bolivar", by Rodrigo Arenas Betancur.

Education[edit]

Educational computer resource center (CRIE) in the Universidad Tecnológica de Pereira.

Places of learning in Pereira include:

Pereira also has a number of training institutions associated with the National Learning Service (SENA).

Fiesta de la Cosecha[edit]

The Fiesta de la Cosecha (Harvest Fest) is celebrated on the anniversary of the founding of the city. it has led to phrases such as asi no vamos a llegar a ningún Pereira ("This way, we'll never get to Pereira", meaning "this is useless") and hicieron su Agosto ("they made their August", meaning that someone made a really good deal, referring to the belief that everyone would sell all their merchandise at the festival of Pereira).[15]

Sports[edit]

Pereira's main football team is the Deportivo Pereira, which plays in the Categoría Primera B. The city hosts the Hernán Ramírez Villegas stadium, a velodrome, a skating area, an Olympic swimming pool and a motocross track. Pereira is also home to the "coffee marathon". Pereira is the birthplace of the Colombian tennis player, Santiago Giraldo.

Religion[edit]

The predominant religion is Catholicism. There are also Protestant churches.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "Colombia green guide Michelin 2012-2013." Michelin. 2012. Accessed at Google Books 29 December 2013.
  2. ^ Lallinde C. P. et al "Geological criteria for evaluating seismicity revisited: forty years of paleoseismic investigations and the natural record of past earthquakes." Geological Society of America, 2011 p79. ISBN 0813724791, 9780813724799. Accessed at Google Books 28 December 2013.
  3. ^ Caputo L. "Colombia adventure guide." VIVA 14 July 2011. ISBN 1937157059, 9781937157050. Accessed at Google Books 28 December 2013.
  4. ^ "Antiqueno colonization in Western Colombia." University of California Press. p77 Accessed at Google Books 28 December 2013.
  5. ^ Sharpless R. E. "Gaitán of Colombia: a political biography." University of Pittsburgh 1978 p16. ISBN 0822976196, 9780822976196. Accessed at Google Books 29 December 2013.
  6. ^ a b Palacios M. "Coffee in Colombia, 1850-1970: an economic, social and political history." Cambridge University Press, 25 July 2002. p162. ISBN 0521528593, 9780521528597. Accessed at Google Books 29 December 2013.
  7. ^ Hudson R. A. "Colombia, a country study." Government Printing Office, Library of Congress, USA. p95 ISBN 016088277X, 9780160882777.
  8. ^ Toasa J. "Colombia: a new ethanol producer on the rise?" Diane publishing and Department of Agriculture, Economic Research Service, USA 2009 p4. ISBN 1437923674, 9781437923674. Accessed at Google Books 29 December 2013.
  9. ^ Solimano A. "Colombia: essays on conflict, peace, and development." World Bank Publications, 2000 p. 17. ISBN 0821346709, 9780821346709. Accessed at Google Books 28 December 2013.
  10. ^ Marcella G. "The United States and Colombia: the journey from ambiguity to strategic clarity." Diane Publishing May 2003 p28. Accessed at Google Books 29 December 2013.
  11. ^ "En servicio calzada de la Autopista del Café." Eldiario website. Accessed 1 February 2013.
  12. ^ "Cesar Gaviria Trujillo Viaduct." Structurae, International database and gallery of structures. Website in English. Accessed 30 December 2013.
  13. ^ "Cartas climatologicas, medias mensuales, aeropuerto Matecana." Instituto de Hidrologia Meteorologia y Estudios Ambientales. Spanish. Accessed 1 February 2013.
  14. ^ Duncan R. J. "The Ceramics of Ráquira, Colombia: Gender, Work, and Economic Change." University Press of Florida, 1998. p93. Accessed at Google Books 29 December 2013.
  15. ^ "Harvest Festivals." Colombia Festiva website, in English, 2011. Accessed 30 December 2013.

External links[edit]