Pepto-Bismol

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Pepto-Bismol
Systematic (IUPAC) name
2-hydroxy-2H,4H-benzo[d]1,3-dioxa-2-bismacyclohexan-4-one
Clinical data
AHFS/Drugs.comConsumer Drug Information
Licence dataEMA:Link
Pregnancy cat. ?
Legal statusOTC
RoutesOral
Identifiers
ATC code ?
Chemical data
FormulaC7H5BiO4 
Mol. massbase: 361 gm/mol
 YesY (what is this?)  (verify)
 
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Pepto-Bismol
Systematic (IUPAC) name
2-hydroxy-2H,4H-benzo[d]1,3-dioxa-2-bismacyclohexan-4-one
Clinical data
AHFS/Drugs.comConsumer Drug Information
Licence dataEMA:Link
Pregnancy cat. ?
Legal statusOTC
RoutesOral
Identifiers
ATC code ?
Chemical data
FormulaC7H5BiO4 
Mol. massbase: 361 gm/mol
 YesY (what is this?)  (verify)

Pepto-Bismol is an over-the-counter drug currently produced by the Procter and Gamble company in the United States of America, Canada and in United Kingdom, to treat minor digestive system upset. Its active ingredient is bismuth subsalicylate. The primary symptoms aided by Pepto-Bismol are nausea, heartburn, indigestion, upset stomach, diarrhea, and other temporary discomforts of the stomach and gastrointestinal tract.

Pepto-Bismol is made in chewable tablets[1] and swallowable caplets,[2] but is best known for its original formula which is a thick liquid. This original formula is a medium pink color with a strong wintergreen or cherry flavor.

Contents

Mechanism of action

Bismuth subsalicylate (the active ingredient in Pepto-Bismol) is used as an antidiarrheal and to treat some other gastro-intestinal diseases (oligodynamic effect, which relates to killing microbes with small doses of heavy metals).
The means by which this appears to work is still not well documented. It is thought to be some combination of:

Side effects

Children are usually more sensitive to the effects of salicylates, especially if they have a fever or have lost large amounts of body fluid because of vomiting, diarrhea, or sweating.

The bismuth in this medicine may cause severe constipation in children. In addition, it can combine with trace amounts of sulfur in saliva and the gastrointestinal tract, blackening the user's tongue and stool. This condition is harmless and subsides within a few days.[4]

Children should not take medication with bismuth subsalicylate while recovering from influenza or chicken pox, as epidemiologic evidence points to an association between the use of salicylate-containing medications during certain viral infections and the onset of Reye's syndrome.[5][6] For the same reason, it is typically recommended that nursing mothers not use medication containing bismuth subsalicylate (such as Pepto-Bismol) because small amounts of the medication are excreted in breast milk and pose a theoretical risk of Reye's syndrome to nursing children.[7]

History

Pepto-Bismol was invented in 1901 by a doctor in New York. It was originally sold as a remedy for infant diarrhea by Norwich Pharmacal Company under the name "Bismosal: Mixture Cholera Infantum", changing to Pepto-Bismol in 1919, and transferring to Procter and Gamble with their 1982 acquisition of Norwich Eaton Pharmaceuticals.[citation needed]

Disaster usage

Pepto-Bismol is utilized in the treatment of birds inundated by crude oil. For example, birds coated with oil from the Deepwater Horizon disaster received forced gastric infusions of Pepto-Bismol in efforts to rid their intestinal tracts of oil ingested while preening feathers of the contaminant. [8]

References

  1. ^ The trademark was extended to cover the tablets in 1973. Registration No. 0972198, November 6, 1973. http://tess2.uspto.gov/bin/showfield?f=doc&state=b8i462.2.2.
  2. ^ The capsules were introduced in 1983. Registration No. 1269605, March 13, 1984; cancelled July 16, 1990. http://tess2.uspto.gov/bin/showfield?f=doc&state=b8i462.2.1.
  3. ^ Sox TE, Olson CA (December 1989). "Binding and killing of bacteria by bismuth subsalicylate". Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 33 (12): 2075–82. PMC 172824. PMID 2694949. //www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC172824/. 
  4. ^ http://www.pepto-bismol.com/pepto-bismol-faq.php#faq7
  5. ^ Aspirin or Salicylate-Containing Medications, reyessyndrome.org
  6. ^ http://www.drugs.com/cons/pepto-bismol.html
  7. ^ CDC warning about breastfeeding while taking bismuth subsalicylate compounds such as Pepto-Bismol
  8. ^ Cain Burdeau and Holbrook Mohr. Deepwater Horizon drilling rig explosion. Associated Press. Posted: May 1, 2010.

External links