Peoria, Illinois

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Peoria City Hall.JPG
Peoria City Hall
Nickname: "The River city", "Whiskeytown"
CountryUnited States
Elevation659 ft (200.9 m)
Coordinates40°43′15″N 89°36′34″W / 40.72083°N 89.60944°W / 40.72083; -89.60944
Area50.23 sq mi (130.1 km2)
 - land48.01 sq mi (124 km2)
 - water2.22 sq mi (6 km2)
Population119,698 (Includes Far Northern Peoria) (2012)
 - metro373,590
Density2,543.4 / sq mi (982 / km2)
 - Incorporated, Town1835
 - Incorporated, City1845
MayorJim Ardis
TimezoneCST (UTC-6)
 - summer (DST)CDT (UTC-5)
ZIP codes61602–61606, 61614, 61615
Area code309
Location of Peoria in Illinois
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Coordinates: 40°43′15″N 89°36′34″W / 40.72083°N 89.60944°W / 40.72083; -89.60944
Peoria City Hall.JPG
Peoria City Hall
Nickname: "The River city", "Whiskeytown"
CountryUnited States
Elevation659 ft (200.9 m)
Coordinates40°43′15″N 89°36′34″W / 40.72083°N 89.60944°W / 40.72083; -89.60944
Area50.23 sq mi (130.1 km2)
 - land48.01 sq mi (124 km2)
 - water2.22 sq mi (6 km2)
Population119,698 (Includes Far Northern Peoria) (2012)
 - metro373,590
Density2,543.4 / sq mi (982 / km2)
 - Incorporated, Town1835
 - Incorporated, City1845
MayorJim Ardis
TimezoneCST (UTC-6)
 - summer (DST)CDT (UTC-5)
ZIP codes61602–61606, 61614, 61615
Area code309
Location of Peoria in Illinois

Peoria /pˈɔəriə/ is a city in and the county seat of Peoria County, Illinois, United States,[1] and the largest city on the Illinois River. Established in 1691 by the French explorer Henri de Tonti, Peoria is the oldest European settlement in Illinois,[2] and is named after the Peoria tribe. As of the 2010 census, the city was the seventh-most populated in Illinois (and the fourth largest outside of Chicagoland), with a population of 115,007.[3] The Peoria Metropolitan Statistical Area had a population of 373,590 in 2011. Peoria had a population of 118,943 in 2010, when far northern Peoria was also included. Peoria is the headquarters for Caterpillar Inc., one of the 30 companies composing the Dow Jones Industrial Average.


Peoria is one of the oldest settlements in Illinois, as explorers first ventured up the Illinois River from the Mississippi. The lands that eventually would become Peoria were first settled in 1680, when French explorers René-Robert Cavelier, Sieur de La Salle and Henri de Tonti constructed Fort Crevecoeur.[2] This fort would later burn to the ground, and in 1813 Fort Clark, Illinois was built. When the County of Peoria was organized in 1825, Fort Clark was officially named Peoria.[citation needed]

Peoria was named after the Peoria tribe, a member of the Illinois Confederation. The original meaning of the word is uncertain; a recent proposal suggests a derivation from a Proto-Algonquian word meaning "to dream with the help of a manitou".[4]

Peoria was incorporated as a village on March 11, 1835. The city did not have a mayor, though they had a village president, Rudolphus Rouse, who served from 1835 to 1836. The first Chief of Police, John B Lishk, was appointed in 1837. The city was incorporated on April 21, 1845. This was the end of a village president and the start of the mayoral system, with the first mayor being William Hale.

Peoria, Arizona, a suburb of Phoenix, was named after Peoria, Illinois because the two men who founded it in 1890 − Joseph B. Greenhut and Deloss S. Brown − wished to name it after their hometown.[5]


Peoria is located at 40°43′15″N 89°36′34″W / 40.72083°N 89.60944°W / 40.72083; -89.60944 (40.720737, -89.609421).[6]


According to the 2010 census, the city has a total area of 50.23 square miles (130.1 km2), of which 48.01 square miles (124.3 km2) (or 95.58%) is land and 2.22 square miles (5.7 km2) (or 4.42%) is water.[7]

Peoria is bounded on the east by the Illinois River except for the enclave of Peoria Heights, which also borders the river. Four bridges run directly between the city and neighboring East Peoria. On the south end of Peoria's western border are Bartonville and the newly established city of West Peoria. Local municipal plans indicate that the city intends to continue its expansion northwest, into an area unofficially considered part of Dunlap, Illinois.[citation needed]


Peoria has a humid continental climate (Köppen Dfa), with cold, snowy winters, and hot, humid summers. Monthly daily mean temperatures range from 22.5 °F (−5.3 °C) to 75.2 °F (24.0 °C). Snowfall is common in the winter, averaging 26.3 inches (67 cm), but this figure varies considerably for different years. Precipitation, averaging at 36 inches (914 mm), peaks in the spring and summer, and is the least in winter. Extremes have ranged from −27 °F (−33 °C) in January 1884 to 113 °F (45 °C) in July 1936.[8]

Climate data for Peoria, Illinois (Peoria Int'l), 1981–2010 normals
Record high °F (°C)71
Average high °F (°C)32.7
Daily mean °F (°C)24.9
Average low °F (°C)17.0
Record low °F (°C)−27
Precipitation inches (mm)1.78
Snowfall inches (cm)7.4
Avg. precipitation days (≥ 0.01 in)9.28.410.411.411.810.
Avg. snowy days (≥ 0.1 in)
Mean monthly sunshine hours148.8158.2189.1222.0272.8306.0310.0279.0234.0204.6129.0117.82,571.3
Source #1: NOAA[9]
Source #2: HKO (sun, 1961−1990)[10]


Panorama of downtown Peoria, viewed from across the Illinois River in East Peoria. In the middle are the Twin Towers, the Caterpillar World Headquarters Building, and the Associated Bank Building

Peoria's downtown area includes corporate, governmental, convention, educational, and medical facilities. It is also home to the Peoria Civic Center, Theatres, and Dozer Park, as well as an arts, dining, and entertainment area near the riverfront. The downtown area now also includes high-rise residential developments such as condominia, apartments, and riverfront lofts. Some of these were office buildings and warehouses converted to residential use.[11][citation needed]

The city of Peoria is home to a United States courthouse, the Peoria Civic Center (which includes Carver Arena), and the world headquarters for Caterpillar Inc.. Medicine has become a major part of Peoria's economy. In addition to three major hospitals, the USDA's National Center for Agricultural Utilization Research, formerly called the USDA Northern Regional Research Lab, is located in Peoria. This is the lab where mass production of penicillin was developed.[12]

Grandview Drive, which Theodore Roosevelt purportedly called the "world's most beautiful drive" during a 1910 visit,[13] runs through Peoria and Peoria Heights. In addition to Grandview Drive, the Peoria Park District boasts 9,000 acres (36 km2) of parks, including the Peoria Zoo and five public golf courses. There are also several private and semi-private golf courses. The Peoria Park District, the first and still largest park district in Illinois, was the 2001 Winner of the National Gold Medal Award for Excellence in Parks and Recreation for Class II Parks.[14]


Museums in Peoria include the Pettengill-Morron House, the John C Flanagan House of the Peoria Historical Society, and the Wheels o' Time Museum. A new Museum Square, opened on October 12, 2012, houses the Peoria Riverfront Museum, a planetarium, and the Caterpillar World Visitors Center.[15]

The Steamboat Classic, held every summer, is the world's largest four-mile (6 km) running race and draws international runners.[16]

Peoria's sister cities include Friedrichshafen, Germany; Benxi, China; Clonmel, Ireland; and Aitou, Lebanon.[17][18]

Peoria is the home to many great songwriters, musicians, and lyricists. Richard A. Whiting was born in Peoria in 1891, and inducted into the Songwriters' Hall of Fame in 1970. His first hit, "It's Tulip Time in Holland" sold more than one million copies in just a few months in 1915. Because he sold it outright, he never received any royalties. In 1918, his song, "Til We Meet Again," sold five million copies.

Whiting, having graduated from a California military academy, sung in vaudeville shows, and worked in Detroit and New York, went to Hollywood in 1929. In nine years of writing music for films, he produced more than 50 hit songs, including "On the Good Ship Lollipop", made famous by Shirley Temple in 1934. Other music includes "Hooray for Hollywood", "Ain't We Got Fun?," and "Beyond the Blue Horizon". He scored several Broadway shows and worked with some of the most successful lyricists of his day, including Raymond B. Egan, Gus Kahn, and Johnny Mercer. Al Jolson, Maurice Chevalier, Jeanette MacDonald, Bing Crosby, and Ethel Merman were among the stars who sang his melodies. His daughter, Margaret Whiting, born in 1924, made her debut in 1940 on Mercer's NBC Radio show, singing her father's "Too Marvelous for Words." Richard Whiting died of a heart attack in 1938, when he was only 46.

Performing arts[edit]

The Peoria Symphony Orchestra is the 10th oldest in the nation. Peoria is also home to the Peoria Municipal Band, the Peoria Area Civic Chorale, the Central Illinois Youth Symphony, and the Peoria Ballet. Several community and professional theaters have their home in and around Peoria, including the Peoria Players, which is the fourth-oldest community theater in the nation and the oldest in Illinois.[19] Corn Stock Theatre is another community theater company in Peoria, and is the only outdoor theater company in Central Illinois.[20]

The Peoria Art Guild hosts the Annual Art Fair, which is continually rated as one of the 100 top art fairs in the nation.[21]

Peoria has significantly expanded and refurbished the Peoria Zoo, formerly Glen Oak Zoo, at Glen Oak Park. Finished in 2009, the new zoo improvements more than triple the size of the zoo and feature a major African safari exhibit.[22] Work had begun in the fall of 2006. In addition, The Peoria Playhouse − An Interactive Children's Museum, spearheaded by the Junior League of Peoria − is planned in conjunction with the zoo expansion and further enhancements to Glen Oak Park campus.[23]

Peoria has hosted the Heart of Illinois Fair every year since 1949. The fair features livestock competitions, rides, concessions, motor contests, and concerts.


Registered historic places[edit]

View of Peoria Civic Center, Peoria City Hall, and Peoria's Twin Towers


Peoria ChiefsMidwest League Class-ABaseballDozer Park1983N/A1 League Title
Peoria RivermenSPHLIce HockeyCarver Arena2013N/A0
Peoria RivermenAHLIce HockeyCarver Arena200520130
Peoria RivermenECHLIce HockeyCarver Arena199620051 League title
Peoria RivermenIHLIce HockeyCarver Arena198219962 League titles
Peoria PiratesAF2Arena FootballCarver Arena199920092 ArenaCups
Peoria RedwingsAAGPBLBaseballPeoria Stadium194619510


Peoria is the 153rd largest radio market in the United States[24] and Peoria-Bloomington is the 116th largest television market in the United States.[25]

The area has 14 commercial radio stations with six owners among them; four non-commercial full-power radio stations, each separately owned; five commercial television stations with two operating owners among them; one non-commercial television station; and two daily newspapers (Peoria Journal Star and Pekin Daily Times), both with the same owner.

Civic Center[edit]

Civic Center
Main article: Peoria Civic Center

The Peoria Civic Center includes an arena, convention center, and theater, and was completed in the early 1980s, was designed by the famed late architect Philip Johnson. The three structures are connected via an enclosed glass panel arcade for all-weather protection and aesthetics.[citation needed] As of 2007, it has completed a $55 million renovation and expansion based on demand for larger conventions and entertainment venues.

Renovations to the older Pere Marquette have been completed by hotel developer Gary Matthews. It is now a full-service Marriott Hotel with a skyway linking to the Peoria Civic Center. A new 12-story Courtyard has been built adjacent to this hotel, completing a hotel campus for larger conventions.

Renaissance Park[edit]

Renaissance Park was originally designated as a research park, originally established in May 2003 as the Peoria Medical and Technology District. It consisted of nine residential neighborhoods, Bradley University, the medical district, Caterpillar world headquarters, and the National Center for Agricultural Utilization Research. The Peoria NEXT Innovation Center opened in August 2007 and provides both dry and wet labs, as well as conference and office space for emerging start-up companies. Over $2 billion in research is conducted in Peoria annually.[26] While the Renaissance Park research park project never came to full fruition, many of the original ideas from the original Renaissance Park concept still continue on a smaller level via The Renaissance Park Community Association.[27]

The Block (formerly Museum Square)[edit]

The Block is a $100+ million project that contains the Peoria Riverfront Museum[28] and The Caterpillar Experience,[29] a museum and visitor's center showcasing Caterpillar past, present, and future. It is located in downtown Peoria along the Illinois River at the site formerly known as the Sears Block. The Block opened in October 2012.



Peoria's first major industry was started in 1830 by John Hamlin and John Sharp, who constructed the flour mill on Kickapoo Creek.[30] In 1837, another industry was begun with E.F. Nowland's pork planting industry. Many other industries started slowly in Peoria including carriage factories, pottery makers, wholesale warehousing, casting foundries, glucose factories, ice harvesting, and furniture makers.

Peoria became the first world leader for distilleries thanks to Andrew Eitle (1837) and Almiron S. Cole (1844).[31] During this time, Peoria held 22 distilleries and multiple breweries. Together, they produced the highest amount of internal revenue tax on alcohol of any single revenue district in the entire U.S. Peoria also was one of the major bootlegging areas during the prohibition and home to the famed mobsters, the Shelton brothers. This great success placed Peoria into a building boom of beautiful private homes, schools, parks, churches, as well as municipal buildings.

In addition to the distilleries, came farm machinery manufacturing by William Nurse in 1837. Also, two men called Toby and Anderson brought the steel plow circa 1843, which gained immediate success. The dominant manufacturing companies in Peoria were Kingman Plow Co., Acme Harvester Co., Selby, Starr & Co., and Avery Manufacturing Co. In 1889, Keystone Steel & Wire developed the first wire fence and has since been the nation's leading manufacturer.

Around the 1880s, businesses such as Rouse Hazard Co. in Peoria, were dealers and importers of bicycles and accessories worldwide. Charles Duryea, one of the cycle manufacturers, developed the first commercially available gasoline-powered automobile in the U.S. in 1893.

At this time, agricultural implement production declined, which led the earth moving and tractor equipment companies to skyrocket and make Peoria in this field the world leader. In 1925, Caterpillar Tractor Co. was formed from the Benjamin Holt Co. and the C.L. Best Tractor Co. Robert G. LeTourneau's earth moving company began its production of new scrapers and dozers in 1935 which evolved into Komatsu-Dresser, Haulpak Division.[32] Today, the joint venture between Komatsu and Dresser Industries has long since passed. The entity that remains is the off-highway truck manufacturing division for Komatsu America Corporation.


The city's largest mall is Northwoods Mall.[33] Other retail centers include The Shoppes at Grand Prairie [2], Sheridan Village, Metro Centre [3], and Willow Knolls Court.

Well-known Peoria businesses[edit]

Top employers[edit]

According to Peoria's 2012 Comprehensive Annual Financial Report,[37] the top employers in the city are:

#Employer# of Employees
2Advanced Technology Services1,500+
3UnityPoint Health - Methodist1,500+
4OSF Saint Francis Medical Center1,500+
5Peoria Public Schools District 1501,500+
7HGS1,000 - 1,500
8Bradley University1,000 - 1,500
9Peoria County1,000 - 1,500
10United States Postal Service1,000 - 1,500
11University of Illinois College of Medicine1,000 - 1,500
12Ameren500 - 1,000
13Citizens Equity First Credit Union500-1,000
14City of Peoria500-1,000
15Illinois Central College500-1,000
16Keystone Steel & Wire500-1,000
18Journal Star500-1,000
19Proctor Hospital500-1,000


Historical population
Est. 2013116,5131.3%
2010 & estimates include Suburban North Peoria.[38][39]

As of the census[40] of 2000, there were 112,936 people, 45,199 households, and 27,345 families residing in the city. The population density was 2,543.4 people per square mile (982.1/km²). There were 49,125 housing units at an average density of 1,106.3 per square mile (427.2/km²). The racial makeup of the city was 69.29% White, 24.79% African American, 0.20% Native American, 2.33% Asian, 0.04% Pacific Islander, 1.20% from other races, and 2.16% of mixed races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 2.51% of the population. The city has a sizable, established Lebanese population with a long history in local business and government.

There were 45,199 households, out of which 29.0% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 41.6% were married couples living together, 15.5% had a female householder with no husband present, and 39.5% were non-families. Individuals made up 33.2% of all households, and 11.7% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.39 and the average family size was 3.04.

In the city, the population was spread out, with 25.7% under the age of 18, 12.0% from 18 to 24, 27.2% from 25 to 44, 20.8% from 45 to 64, and 14.2% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 34 years. For every 100 females, there were 89.9 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 85.0 males.

The median income for a household in the city was $36,397. The per capita income for the city was $20,512. Some 18.8% of the population was below the poverty line.

Special censuses were conducted in 2004 and 2007 that noted a total increase of 8,455 in the city's population since the 2000 census,[41] mainly in the northwest corridor making the current population 121,391. The metropolitan area has a population of 370,000, which includes Peoria, Tazewell, Woodford, Stark and Marshall counties. Suburbs and towns in this area include Bartonville, Bellevue, Creve Coeur, Dunlap, East Peoria, Germantown Hills, Groveland, Marquette Heights, Metamora, Morton, North Pekin, Pekin, Peoria Heights, Pottstown, Rome, Tremont, Washington, and West Peoria.[citation needed]

Law and government[edit]

Peoria is a home rule municipality with a mayor and ten city council members. It has a council-manager form of government. The city is divided into five districts. Five council members are elected at-large via cumulative voting.[citation needed]

Steven Settingsgaard became Chief of Police on March 9, 2005.

Elected officials[42]
OfficeOffice holder
MayorJim Ardis
City Councilperson – District 1Denise Moore
City Councilperson – District 2Chuck Grayeb
City Councilperson – District 3Timothy Riggenbach
City Councilperson – District 4Jim Montelongo
City Councilperson – District 5Casey L. Johnson
City Councilperson – At LargeChuck Weaver
City Councilperson – At LargeBeth Akeson
City Councilperson – At LargeRyan Spain
City Councilperson – At LargeElizabeth Jensen
City Councilperson – At LargeW. Eric Turner
City/Township ClerkBeth Ball
City Treasurer/Township CollectorPatrick Nichting
Township SupervisorJoe Whalen
Township AssessorBonnie D. Gavin

Township of the City of Peoria[edit]

Outline of the Township of the City of Peoria in Peoria County

The Township of the City of Peoria (sometimes called City of Peoria Township) is a separate government from the City of Peoria, and performs the functions of civil township government in most of the city. The border of the township matched the Peoria city limits until 1991,[citation needed] when it was frozen at its current boundaries; the City of Peoria itself has continued expanding outside of the City of Peoria Township borders into Kickapoo, Medina, Radnor Townships. In the years before the freeze, the Township of the City of Peoria had grown to take up most of the former area of Richwoods and what is now West Peoria Township.


The Dingeldine Music Center at Bradley University

Peoria is served by four public K-12 school districts:

The Roman Catholic Diocese of Peoria runs six schools in the city: five grade schools and Peoria Notre Dame High School. Non-denominational Peoria Christian School operates a grade school, middle school, and high school.

In addition, Concordia Lutheran School, Peoria Academy, Christ Lutheran School, and several smaller private schools exist.[citation needed]

Bradley University, Midstate College, Methodist College, OSF St. Francis College of Nursing, the University of Illinois College of Medicine at Peoria, the Downtown and North campuses of Illinois Central College, and the Peoria campus of Robert Morris University are based in the city. Additionally, Eureka College and the main campus of Illinois Central College are located nearby in Eureka and East Peoria, respectively.


Health and medicine[edit]

The health-care industry accounts for at least 25% of Peoria's economy.[citation needed] The city has three major hospitals: OSF Saint Francis Medical Center, UnityPoint Health - Methodist, and UnityPoint Health - Proctor. In addition, the Children's Hospital of Illinois, the University of Illinois College of Medicine at Peoria, and the Midwest Affiliate of St. Jude Children's Research Hospital are located in the city. The hospitals are all located in a medical district around the junction of Interstate 74 and Knoxville Avenue, adjacent to downtown in the southeast of the city, except for UnityPoint Health - Proctor in the geographic center of the city. The surrounding towns are also supported by UnityPoint Health - Proctor, Pekin Hospital, Advocate Eureka Hospital, and the Hopedale Medical Complex. The Institute of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation was created from the "Peoria Plan for Human Rehabilitation," a model for medical and occupational rehabilitation launched in 1943 to integrate returning World War II veterans back into the workplace.


The twin steel truss bridges known as McClugage Bridge, spanning the Illinois River at Peoria

Interstate and U.S. routes[edit]

The Peoria area is served by three Interstate highways: Interstate 74, which runs from northwest to southeast through the downtown area, Interstate 474, a southern bypass of I-74 through portions of Peoria and the suburbs of Bartonville and Creve Coeur, and Interstate 155, which runs south from I-74 in Morton to Interstate 55 in Lincoln which connects to Springfield and St. Louis. I-74 crosses over the Illinois River via the Murray Baker Bridge, while I-474 crosses via the Shade-Lohmann Bridge. The nearest metropolitan centers accessible on I-74 are the Quad Cities to the west, and Bloomington-Normal to the east.

From 2004 to 2006, Interstate 74 between Interstate 474 on the west and Illinois Route 8 on the east was reconstructed as part of the Upgrade 74 project.

In addition, U.S. Route 150 serves as the main arterial for the northern portion of the Peoria area, becoming War Memorial Drive before heading west towards Kickapoo. It enters from the McClugage Bridge; east of the bridge, U.S. 150 runs southeast to Morton.

State routes[edit]

The following state routes run through Peoria:

The planned Illinois Route 336 project will also connect Illinois 336 with I-474 between Illinois 8 and Illinois 116. Construction on the segment nearest Peoria has not started, nor has funding been allocated.

Rail transportation[edit]

Metro Peoria is served by ten common carrier railroads. Four are Class I railroads: BNSF, CNR, Norfolk Southern, and Union Pacific. The last one, Union Pacific, has a north-south oriented line which skirts the west edge of the city but a line branches off of it to enter Peoria. One Class II/Regional, Iowa Interstate, serves the city, coming out of Bureau Junction, Illinois. Five Class III/Shortline railroads: Central Illinois Railroad, which operates a portion of the city-owned Peoria, Peoria Heights and Western Railroad; three Genesee and Wyoming-owned operations: Toledo, Peoria and Western Railway, which runs next to US 24 east to Logansport, Indiana (formally owned by Rail America), Illinois & Midland Railroad (the former Chicago and Illinois Midland, comes up from Springfield and Havana) and Tazewell and Peoria Railroad (leases the Peoria and Pekin Union Railway from its owners Canadian National, Norfolk Southern and Union Pacific); Pioneer Railcorp's Keokuk Junction Railway (which now owns the Toledo, Peoria and Western's West End from Lomax and La Harpe in Western Illinois, plus the branch from Keokuk);[citation needed] There is no passenger rail connecting Peoria to other urban centers, although this possibility and the possibility of rail service that connects St. Louis to Chicago (by way of Springfield, Peoria, Bloomington-Normal, and Pontiac) has been and is being investigated.[44]

Peoria's last intercity rail service ended in 1981, when Amtrak withdrew the Prairie Marksman, which stopped in nearby East Peoria.

Public transportation[edit]

Public bus service is provided by the Greater Peoria Mass Transit District, which operates 21 bus routes under the name CityLink, that serve the city, Illinois Central College and much of East Peoria, Illinois, Peoria Heights, West Peoria, and points between Peoria and Pekin.[45]


The General Wayne Downing Peoria International Airport serves Peoria and surrounding communities. The airport is served by 4 passenger airlines (United, American, Delta, and Allegiant Air) and numerous cargo carriers. Nonstop destinations include Chicago, Atlanta, Dallas/Ft. Worth, Las Vegas, Minneapolis/St. Paul, Detroit, Denver, Phoenix, Orlando, and Tampa.[46] Cargo carriers serving Peoria include FedEx, UPS and Airborne Express (now DHL).

Mount Hawley Auxiliary Airport, on the north end of the city, also accepts general aviation. Numerous other general aviation airports are located in the tri-county region.[citation needed]

Pekin Municipal Airport, in Pekin (Tazewell County), across the river, also serves the area.

Points of interest[edit]

Waterfront in Peoria, Illinois, c. 1909

Notable people[edit]

Notable events[edit]



Peoria in popular culture[edit]

The theme of Peoria as the archetypical example of middle American culture runs throughout American culture, appearing in movies and books, on television and radio, and in countless advertisements as either a filler place name, the representative of mainstream taste, hence the phrase "Will it play in Peoria?".[58][59][60]



Peoria is usually used in a complimentary—and positive—fashion in advertising; in contrast, most fictional allusions are an obvious affront and literary usage often implies that "Peoria" is indeed equivalent to "provincial."

News commentary[edit]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ "Find a County". National Association of Counties. Retrieved 2011-06-07. 
  2. ^ a b "The First European Settlement in Illinois" (website). Peoria's History. Peoria, Illinois: Peoria Historical Society. Retrieved Aug 14, 2013. 
  3. ^ "Cities with 25,000 population or more, table C-1: Area and Population". County and City Data Book: 2007. United States Census Bureau. 2007. Retrieved 2009-03-12.  |chapter= ignored (help)
  4. ^ Edward Callary, Place Names of Illinois (Urbana-Champaign: University of Illinois Press, 2009), p. 273.
  5. ^ "The History of Peoria, Arizona". City of Peoria, Arizona. Retrieved 2008-11-09. 
  6. ^ "US Gazetteer files: 2010, 2000, and 1990". United States Census Bureau. 2011-02-12. Retrieved 2011-04-23. 
  7. ^ "2010 Census U.S. Gazetteer Files for Places – Illinois". United States Census. Retrieved 2012-10-13. 
  8. ^ "Average Weather for Peoria, IL − Temperature and Precipitation". The Weather Channel. Retrieved 2010-05-06. 
  9. ^ "NowData – NOAA Online Weather Data". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved 2012-02-22. 
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  11. ^ Martel, Janelle (December 2003 – January 2004). "Modern Perspectives". From House to Home (Publication Services of America, Inc.). Retrieved 2008-04-21. 
  12. ^ "Penicillin: Opening the Era of Antibiotics". National Center for Agricultural Utilization Research website. 2006-04-07. Retrieved 2007-06-19. 
  13. ^ [1]
  14. ^ "Welcome to the Peoria Park District, Peoria, Illinois, USA". Retrieved 2009-09-14. 
  15. ^ "Before It Became Museum Square". InterBusinessIssues. January 2011. Retrieved 15 September 2014. 
  16. ^ "Top International Field Expected at Steamboat Classic 4 Mile". Cool Running. San Diego, California: The Active Network, Inc. 2006-06-15. Retrieved 2007-06-19. 
  17. ^ "Sister City US Listings – Directory Search Results – Illinois". Washington, D.C.: Sister Cities International. Retrieved 2011-04-25. 
  18. ^
  19. ^ "Peoria Players History". 2007-03-19. Archived from the original on September 21, 2007. Retrieved 2007-06-19. 
  20. ^ "A Peoria Tradition for Six Decades". Retrieved 2014-02-06. 
  21. ^ Tori Phelps. "Annual Fine Art Fair |". Retrieved 2009-09-14. 
  22. ^ "Peoria Journal Star". Retrieved 2010-01-21. 
  23. ^ "Peoria Playhouse". Retrieved 2009-09-14. 
  24. ^ "Market Survey Schedule & Population Rankings". Arbitron. 2011-09-12. Retrieved 2011-09-12. 
  25. ^ "Local Television Market Universe Estimates: Comparisons of 2009–10 and 2010–11 Market Ranks" (PDF). New York City: The Neilsen Company. 2010-08-27. Retrieved 2011-01-15. 
  26. ^ "Peoria Progress". Central Illinois Business Publishers. 2014. p. 14. 
  27. ^
  28. ^ "Home". Peoria Riverfront Museum. Retrieved 2014-02-06. 
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  30. ^ Balance, Charles (1870). The History of Peoria, Illinois, pp. 127-28. N.C. Nason.
  31. ^ Ballance (1870), pp. 135-36.
  32. ^ Couri, Dr. Peter J. Accessed: 2008-07-02.
  33. ^ "Northwoods Mall, a Simon Mall - Peoria, IL". Retrieved 2014-02-06. 
  34. ^ "Komatsu America Corp. - Locations". 2014-01-29. Retrieved 2014-02-06. 
  35. ^ "Eye on the future". Industrial Supply Magazine. Retrieved 2014-02-06. 
  36. ^ Chovan, Amy. "150 Years, One Family". Retrieved 2014-02-06. 
  37. ^ City of Peoria CAFR
  38. ^ "Population Estimates for All Places, 2000–2007" (XLS). 2007-04-17. 
  39. ^ Decennial, USA: Census .
  40. ^ "American FactFinder". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2008-01-31. 
  41. ^ Ardis, Jim (February 2008). "State of the City 2008". InterBusiness Issues. Peoria, Illinois: Central Illinois Business Publishers, Inc. Retrieved 2008-02-26. 
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