Penis removal

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Not to be confused with Castration.

In ancient civilizations, the removal of the human penis was sometimes used to demonstrate superiority or dominance over an enemy. Armies were sometimes known to sever the penises of their enemies to count the dead, as well as for trophies. The practice of castration (removal of the testicles) sometimes involved the removal of all or part of the penis, generally with a tube inserted to keep the urethra open for urination. Castration has been used to create a class of servants or slaves called eunuchs in many different places and eras.

In the modern era, removing the human penis for any such activity is very rare (with some exceptions listed below), and references to removal of the penis are almost always symbolic. Castration is less rare, and is performed as a last resort in the treatment of androgen-sensitive prostate cancer.[1][2][3]

Penis removal in medicine and psychology[edit]

Main article: Penectomy

Some men have penile amputations, known as penectomies, for medical reasons. Cancer, for example, sometimes necessitates removal of all or part of the penis. In some instances, botched childhood circumcisions have also resulted in full or partial penectomies.[4]

Genital surgical procedures for trans women (transgender or transsexual women) undergoing sex reassignment surgery, do not usually involve the complete removal of the penis; part or all of the glans is usually kept and reshaped as a clitoris, and the skin of the penile shaft may also be inverted to form the vagina. When procedures such as this are not possible, other procedures such as colovaginoplasty are used which do involve the removal of the penis.

Issues related to the removal of the penis appear in psychology, for example in the condition known as castration anxiety. Others, who associate the organ with rape and male dominance and aggression, may consciously or subconsciously see the organ (their own or those of others) as a weapon and express a hatred for it, potentially desiring to see it violently removed.

Some men have undergone penectomies as a voluntary body modification, thus including it as part of a body dysmorphic disorder. Professional opinion is divided regarding the desire for penile amputation as a pathology, much as all other forms of treatment by amputation for body dysmorphic disorder. Voluntary subincision, removal of the glans penis, and bifurcation of the penis are related topics.

History of involuntary penis removal[edit]

China[edit]

In ancient China, for crimes including adultery, "licentious" and "promiscuous" activity, males had their penises removed in addition to being castrated. This was one of the Five Punishments that could be legally inflicted on criminals in China.[5] They were designed to permanently disfigure for life.[6] "Castration", in China, meant the severing of the penis in addition to the testicles, after which male offenders were sentenced to work in the palace as eunuchs. The punishment was called "gongxing" (宫刑), which meant "palace punishment", since castrated men would be enslaved to work in the harem of the palace. It was also called "fuxing"(腐刑).[7] Husbands who committed adultery were punished with castration as required under Zhou Dynasty law.[8] While men were castrated, women who committed adultery were punished by confinement.[9] The exact crime was called gong, and referred to "immoral" sex between males and females. The punishment stated, "If a male and female engage in intercourse without morality, their punishments shall be castration and sequestration [respectively]."[10]

Japan[edit]

The removal of the penis was used as a punishment for men in the Heian period in Japan, where it replaced execution. It was called rasetsu 羅切 (らせつ), and was separate from castration which was called kyūkei 宮刑 (きゅうけい).[11][12] Rasetsu was done voluntarily by some Japanese Buddhist priests to ensure celibacy.[13][14][15] Rasetsu was also known in Edo period Japan.[16][17][18]

The word rasetsu was made out of the components "ra" from "mara" which meant penis, and "setsu", which meant cutting.[19][20]

The word rasetsu was used in Japanese literature.[21]

Kyuukei in Japanese law referred to the punishment of castration, which was used for male offenders, and confinement for females.[22][23][24][25][26][27][28][29][30]

Sexual assault[edit]

There have been incidents in which men have been assaulted, usually by their sexual partners, by having their penises severed. The case of John and Lorena Bobbitt, for example, was popularly known for Lorena Bobbitt, cutting off the penis of her husband John in a rage, after he allegedly raped her. He claimed it was for revenge after she discovered his infidelity. Bobbitt's penis was successfully reattached, and he later had a brief career in pornographic movies.

This was not the first modern case, however. On May 18, 1936, Sada Abe strangled her lover, Kichizo Ishida (believed to be at his request, he wanted to die while having sex), and cut off his penis, placed it in her kimono and carried it around with her for days before eventually turning it over to the police. She spent a brief time in jail, and was granted amnesty in 1940. The penis was last seen at a department store exhibition in 1949. This episode was the basis of the film In the Realm of the Senses.

Mutilation or forcible removal of the penis can have special symbolic significance. As a symbol of male sexuality, fertility, and masculinity, the removal of the penis may be inspired by a desire to emasculate the victim.

From 1973 to 1980, one hundred cases of Thai women cutting off their husbands' penises were recorded,[31] most of them were not reattached.[32] Only with eighteen out of the hundred Thai men whose penises were severed was reattachment even attempted, and the reattachments were abysmal.[33] The spate was due to the prevalent practice of Thai men keeping secondary "wives" as sexual partners. While permitted in traditional Thai culture, current Thai law enforces monogamy.[34] The increase in penis severings was possibly stimulated by Thai women agitating and instigating more women to commit the act.[35]

Most Thai women who cut their husband's penis are not prosecuted.[36] Dr. Surasak Muangsombut is a prominent Thai surgeon known for reattaching penises.[37] He has reattached 32 penises, most of them cut by wives who drugged their husbands, as revenge for adultery. In all of his cases none of the women faced prosecution, the predominant view in Thailand being that the men deserved it.[38]

On August 15, 2008, it was reported in Thailand that a domestic abuse study of the previous decade by Mahidol University uncovered that some Thai men had their penises cut off by their wives due to rampant sexual abuse and other attacks on women.[39][40][41] In 2003, a rise in domestic violence by Chinese women against Chinese men was reported, including beatings and occasionally women cutting off their husband's penis.[42]

In 2006, in southern Vietnam, a spate of Vietnamese women cutting off their husbands' penises due to adultery, alcoholism and abuse was reported. All fifteen reported incidents occurred close to Ho Chi Minh City. In twelve of the incidents the penis was reattached to the body. It was noted that Thailand's many cases of penis severings could have played a role in the events in Vietnam, since the attacks were abnormal.[43]

An article titled "Status Quo of Female Criminals in Nanjing" was translated on the All-China Women's Federation's website on July 21, 2008, concerning the rise in young female criminals over the previous three years, numbering 2,140 and mostly aged 35 or younger. Under "Crime Caused by Impulsion", it stated that several incidents in Nanjing in China occurred where Chinese men had their penis severed by their wives. An explanation given by a procurator was that, "Their reasons are simple. The wife could not bear the fact that her husband is gambling or cheating on her. It is a crime of impulsion in an emotional crisis." It also stated the majority of the women criminals in Nanjing were given short amounts of jail time or not punished at all.[44][45]

Treatment and effects of penis removal[edit]

Severing the penis without removing the testicles causes intense sexual frustration, since sexual urges and drive originate from the testicles but with no penis there is no way to satisfy them.[citation needed]It is unclear because of the reluctance of victims of penis removal who have undergone penis reconstruction surgery to go to checkups, but acute pain when sitting on a bicycle saddle or other similar surfaces (and perhaps other activities that put much weight on the crotch area) may persist for a long period of time after the surgery, or even permanently.[36]

A study of penis reattachment in China found that in a group of 50 men, all but one reacquired functionality, even though some involved full reconstructive surgery using tissue and bone. Reportedly some of these men later fathered children.[46]

If reattachment is not an option, doctors can reconstruct a penis from muscle and skin grafted from another part of the body like the forearm. However, a penile implant is needed for an erection to be possible, the reconstructed penis would look strange and would either not be able to ejaculate,[47][48] or ejaculate with less force.[49] The patients are often dissatisfied with the reconstructed penis.[50] Standing during urination is an advantage offered by a reconstructed penis.[51] If penis reconstruction is not done, the patient will have to squat in order to urinate since doctors reroute the entrance of the urethra to below the scrotum.[47]

Various methods used by women to prevent reattachment of the penis after severing include flushing them down the toilet, feeding them to animals like ducks or dogs, boiling them in water, contaminating the penis with dirt or sand, and grinding the penis in a garbage disposal or a kitchen blender.[52][53]

Cases of penis removal[edit]

1800s[edit]

1920s[edit]

1930s[edit]

1970s[edit]

1980s[edit]

1990s[edit]

2000s[edit]

2010s[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

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External links[edit]