Penguin (comics)

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Penguin
The Penguin/Oswald Cobblepot
Art by Brian Bolland
Publication information
PublisherDC Comics
First appearanceDetective Comics #58 (December 1941)
Created byBob Kane
Bill Finger
In-story information
Full nameOswald Chesterfield Cobblepot
Team affiliationsInjustice League
Iceberg Lounge
Suicide Squad
The Society
Super Foes
PartnershipsThe Joker
Riddler
Two-Face
Notable aliasesPenguin
AbilitiesGenius-level intellect
Assorted bird-related paraphernalia
Deadly trick umbrellas
Vast underworld connections
Organizational leadership
Surprising physical strength
Knowledge of judo and boxing
 
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"The Penguin" redirects here. For other uses, see Penguin (disambiguation).
Penguin
The Penguin/Oswald Cobblepot
Art by Brian Bolland
Publication information
PublisherDC Comics
First appearanceDetective Comics #58 (December 1941)
Created byBob Kane
Bill Finger
In-story information
Full nameOswald Chesterfield Cobblepot
Team affiliationsInjustice League
Iceberg Lounge
Suicide Squad
The Society
Super Foes
PartnershipsThe Joker
Riddler
Two-Face
Notable aliasesPenguin
AbilitiesGenius-level intellect
Assorted bird-related paraphernalia
Deadly trick umbrellas
Vast underworld connections
Organizational leadership
Surprising physical strength
Knowledge of judo and boxing

The Penguin or Oswald Chesterfield Cobblepot is a fictional character, a supervillain who appears in comic books published by DC Comics. He is known as one of Batman's oldest and most persistent enemies. Artist Bob Kane and writer Bill Finger introduced him in Detective Comics #58 (December 1941). The Penguin is a short, round man known for his love of birds and his specialized high-tech umbrellas. A mobster and thief, he fancies himself as being a "gentleman of crime"; his nightclub business provides a cover for criminal activity, which Batman sometimes uses as a source of criminal underworld information. According to Kane the character was inspired from the then advertising mascot of Kool cigarettes – a penguin with a top hat and cane. Finger thought the image of high-society gentlemen in tuxedos was reminiscent of emperor penguins.[1]

Burgess Meredith portrayed the Penguin in the 1960s Batman television series and its movie. Danny DeVito played a darker, more grotesque version in the 1992 film Batman Returns. Subsequent Batman animated series featured him in depictions that alternated between deformed outcast and high-profile aristocrat. The former interpretation appeared in comics, most notably in the miniseries Batman: The Long Halloween and its sequel Dark Victory. He made a cameo appearance at the end of the Long Halloween with no lines. He had a slightly more notable role in Dark Victory – this incarnation included elements of Meredith's interpretation. The Penguin has repeatedly been named one of the best Batman villains, and one of the greatest villains in comics[2][3][4][5][6] and, paradoxically, has also been described by others as among the least convincing.[7][8] Penguin was ranked #51 in IGN's list of the Top 100 Comic Book Villains of All Time.[9]

Unlike most of Batman's rogues gallery, the Penguin is in control of his actions and perfectly sane, features that help him maintain a unique relationship with the crime-fighter. His latest characterization has him running a nightclub and casino that is popular with the underworld. Batman comes to tolerate his operations so long as the Penguin remains one of his informants. The entrepreneurial Penguin often fences stolen property or arranges early prison furloughs for a hefty fee.

Fictional character biography[edit]

Born Oswald Chesterfield Cobblepot,[10] the Penguin was bullied as a child for his short stature, weight, and beak-like nose. In some media, his fingers are fused, resulting in flipper-like hands. Several stories relate that he was forced as a child to always carry an umbrella by his overprotective mother due to his father's death from pneumonia after a drenching. His mother owns pet birds that Cobblepot lavishes with attention, and served as his only friends growing up. His love for birds would eventually lead him to obtaining an Ornithology major in college. In some versions, Cobblepot turns to crime after his mother dies and the birds are repossessed to pay his mother's debts; in others, he is an outcast in his high society family and their rejection drives him to become a criminal. In keeping with his origins, the Penguin pursues his criminal career with class. He prefers formal wear such as a top hat, monocle, and tuxedo while he steals.

The Penguin's alias first came from a childhood taunt over his grotesque appearance and love of birds.[11] In an early account, when Cobblepot first attempted to join a gang, he was belittled as a "penguin" and mocked for his umbrella before being literally kicked from the crime den. Outraged at the rejection, he resolved to make "the Penguin" a name to fear and the umbrella a fearsome weapon. He returned to the den and killed the crime boss with "the world's first .45 caliber umbrella," then claimed leadership of the now-terrified criminals. Some later stories suggest that he tried to abandon the nickname, which he initially hated but came to accept.

Pre-Crisis[edit]

Originally known only by his alias, the Penguin first appeared in Gotham City as a skilled thief, sneaking a priceless painting out of the museum by hiding the rolled-up canvas in the handle of his umbrella. The Penguin later used the canvas as proof of his intellect to a local mob, which he was then allowed to join. With the Penguin's help, the mob pulled off a string of ingenious heists, but the mob's leader and the "be-monocled bird" eventually fell out, leading Cobblepot to kill him with his umbrella gun. The Penguin became leader of the mob and attempted to neutralize Batman by framing him for theft. The Penguin's plans were eventually thwarted, but the bandit himself escaped.[12]

The Penguin was a persistent nemesis for the Dynamic Duo (Batman and Robin) throughout the Golden and Silver Ages, pulling off ploy after ploy, such as teaming up with The Joker,[13] attempting to extort money from a shipping company by pretending to flash-freeze a member of its board of directors,[14] and participating in Hugo Strange's auction of Batman's secret identity.[15]

The Penguin made his last appearance, fittingly, during the last appearance of the Earth-One Batman. After he and a multitude of Batman's enemies are broken out of Arkham Asylum and Blackgate Prison by Ra's al Ghul, the Penguin carries out Ra's' plans to kidnap Batman's friends and allies. The Penguin, along with the Joker, the Mad Hatter, Cavalier, Deadshot and Killer Moth, lay siege to Gotham City Police Headquarters, but are infuriated when the Joker sabotages their attempt at holding Commissioner Gordon for ransom. A standoff ensued, with the Joker on one side and the Penguin and the Mad Hatter on the other. The Joker quickly subdues both with a burst of laughing gas from one of his many gadgets.[16]

Post-Crisis[edit]

Following the Crisis rebooting the history of the DC Universe, the Penguin was relegated to cameo appearances, until writer Alan Grant (who had earlier penned the Penguin-origin story "The Killing Peck") and artist Norm Breyfogle brought him back, deadlier than ever. Within the era of the Tim Drake Robin, the Penguin forms a brief partnership with macabre criminal and hypnotist Mortimer Kadaver, who helps him fake his own death as a ploy to strike an unsuspecting Gotham. The Penguin later guns down Kadaver, after plugging his own ears with toilet paper so that the hypnotist no longer has power over him.[17]

After Batman foils this particular endeavor, the Penguin embarks on one of his grandest schemes in the three-part story "The Penguin Affair." After finding Harold Allnut on a lonely street, undergoing physical and verbal abuse by two gang members, the Penguin takes the technologically-gifted hunchback in, showing him kindness in exchange for services. Harold builds a gadget that allowed the Penguin to control flocks of birds from miles away, which the Penguin utilized to destroy radio communications in Gotham and crash a passenger plane. This endeavor, too, was foiled by Batman. Batman finally hired Harold as his mechanic.

The Penguin resurfaces during Jean Paul Valley's tenure as Batman as one of the few to deduce that Valley is not the original Caped Crusader. To confirm this theory, he kidnaps Sarah Essen Gordon, places her in a death-trap set to go off at midnight, and turns himself in, utilizing the opportunity to mock Commissioner Gordon as midnight approached. An increasingly infuriated Gordon is nearly driven to throw him off the police headquarters roof before Valley shows up in the nick of time with a rescued Sarah. As Valley left, he commented, "There's nothing the Penguin can throw at me that I haven't encountered before." The Penguin reluctantly agrees with this sentiment, accepting that he has become passé.[18]

Subsequently, the Penguin turned his attentions to a new modus operandus, operating under the front of a legitimate restaurant and casino known as the Iceberg Lounge.[19] Though he is arrested for criminal activities several times during the course of his "reform", he always manages to secure a release from prison thanks to his high-priced lawyers.

During the storyline "No Man's Land," when Gotham City is nearly leveled by an earthquake, the Penguin stays behind when the US government closes down and blockades the city. He becomes one of the major players in the lawless city, using his connections to profit by trading the money that nobody else in Gotham could use for goods through his outer-Gotham contacts. One of these connections is discovered to be Lex Luthor and his company, LexCorp.

The Penguin, as seen in Batman #287 (May 1977). Art by Mike Grell.

The Penguin is swept up in the events of Infinite Crisis. In the limited series' seventh issue, he is briefly seen as part of the Battle of Metropolis, a multi-character brawl started by the Secret Society of Super Villains. The Penguin, along with several other villains, is bowled over at the surprise appearance of Bart Allen.

One Year Later, while the Penguin is away from Gotham City, the Great White Shark and Tally Man kill many of the villains who had worked for him, and frame the reformed Harvey Dent. Great White had planned to take over Gotham's criminal syndicate and eliminate the competition, the Penguin included. Upon his return to Gotham, the Penguin continues to claim that he has gone straight, and reopens the Iceberg, selling overpriced Penguin merchandise. He urges the Riddler to avoid crime, as their non-criminal lifestyle is more lucrative.

The Penguin was featured as a prominent figure in the Gotham Underground tie-in to the series Countdown. He fights a gang war against Tobias Whale and Intergang while supposedly running an "underground railroad" for criminals. As the Penguin conducts his affairs, Two-Face enters the club and demands to be let in on his underground railroad project. The Penguin tells him to meet him after hours and subsequently brings him into a meeting with several of Gotham's most notorious villains, including Hugo Strange, Scarecrow, and Mad Hatter. Batman, in the disguise of Matches Malone, spies on the meeting from behind a darkened alcove. Suddenly, the Suicide Squad bursts into the room and attacks the assemblage of villains.[20] It is revealed that the Penguin is involved with the Suicide Squad, and that he had set up the other villains to gain the favor of the Squad.[21] The Penguin later meets up with Tobias Whale in order to negotiate with him.[22] The Penguin and Spoiler had assembled gangs like the Bat Killers, who were based on Batman's enemies; the Dead End Boys, based on the Suicide Squad; the Femme Fatales, based on female villains; the Five Points Gang, based on the Fearsome Five; the L.O.D., based on the Legion of Doom to which the Penguin himself had once belonged; and the New Rogues, based on the Rogues.[23] The Penguin and Tobias Whale fight each other as Robin, the Huntress, Batgirl, and the fourth Wildcat all get involved. Even though the Penguin gets the upper hand, Whale reluctantly calls a truce with him to stop Johnny Stitches and Intergang.[24] Johnny Stitches sends the Penguin a package containing the Riddler's glasses and Mr. Jessup's dismembered body. Johnny tells the Penguin that Tobias Whale was not on his side any longer. Johnny also mentions that he had threatened the families of those fighting on the Penguin's side, and that he is giving him one day to get out of town.[25] The Intergang then attacks the Iceberg Lounge, only to be foiled by Batman. In return for his help, Batman makes the Penguin become his informant.[26]

Cobblepot later loses Batman's support after the latter's mysterious disappearance and Intergang's exploitation of the return of the Apokoliptan Gods. He appears in Battle for the Cowl: The Underground, which portrays the effects of Batman's disappearance on his enemies.

The Penguin's mob is absorbed by Black Mask II, who controls his criminal activities. The Penguin, with the aid of the Mad Hatter, abducts Batman and brainwashes him to assassinate Black Mask.

During the events of Brightest Day, the Birds of Prey discover the Penguin beaten and stabbed at the feet of the White Canary.[27] The Birds rescue him and flee to the Iceberg. While recovering, the Penguin expresses his attraction to Dove.[28] Eventually, the Penguin reveals that his injury had been a ruse, and that he is working with the White Canary in exchange for valuable computer files on the superhero community. He betrays the Birds and seriously injures both Lady Blackhawk and Hawk before the Huntress defeats him.[29] The Huntress tapes him up with the intention of taking him with her, only to be informed by Oracle that she has to let him go due to a police manhunt for the Birds. The Huntress considers killing him with her crossbow, but ultimately leaves him bound and gagged in an alley with the promise that she would exact her vengeance on him later.[30]

The Penguin is eventually attacked by the Secret Six, who kill many of his guards in an ambush at his mansion. Bane informs him that he needs information on Batman's partners, as he plans on killing Red Robin, Batgirl, Catwoman, and Azrael.[31] The Penguin soon betrays the team's location, which results in the Justice League, the Teen Titans, the Birds of Prey, the Justice Society, and various other heroes hunting down and capturing the criminals.[32]

Around this time, a new super-villain, who called himself the Architect, plants a bomb in the Iceberg Lounge as revenge for crimes committed by the Penguin's ancestor. Though Blackbat and Robin are able to evacuate the building, the Lounge is destroyed in the ensuing explosion.[33]

The New 52[edit]

In The New 52 (a reboot of the DC Comics universe), the Penguin is a client of a criminal named Raju who was sent to offer gold to Dollmaker for Batman's release.[34] While in his Iceberg Casino, the Penguin views a disguised Charlotte Rivers on his surveillance cameras and he tells his henchwoman Lark to make sure Rivers gets "a story to die for".[35] During the Death of the Family crossover, the Penguin puts his right-hand man Ignatius Ogilvy in charge of his operations in his temporary absence. Ogilvy, however, uses the Penguin's absence to declare him dead, taking over his gang and killing those loyal to him. Under the alias of Emperor Penguin,[36] Ogilvy takes over the Penguin's operations. Upon the Joker's defeat, Batman unsuccessfully attempts to imprison the Penguin in Blackgate Penitentiary only to be forced to release him later. Upon learning of Ogilvy's betrayal, the Penguin attacks his former henchman's new empire, but Batman intervenes and arrests him. The Penguin is found not guilty, however, thanks to the machinations of his ally Mr. Combustible. Meanwhile, Ogilvy releases Kirk Langstrom's Man-Bat serum on Gotham City, turning many of the citizens into the creatures. Langstrom discovers a cure, returning the citizens to normal. Ogilvy then takes the serum himself, along with additions made by Poison Ivy. Emperor Penguin then challenges Batman openly to a fight, defeating the masked vigilante with his newfound prowess, and leaving him to be rescued by the Penguin. The pair forge a temporary alliance, and defeat Ogilvy.[37]

The Penguin also played a role in Black Canary's rebooted origin. In Birds of Prey vol. 4 #0, Dinah sought to land a job at Iceberg Lounge, knowing that a lead on the Basilisk organization which she was pursuing would soon spring up there. Unfortunately, the Penguin was not in the habit of taking job applications, so she decided to prove her worth by infiltrating the outfit by herself. When she arrived in the Penguin's bathroom, he was unimpressed. To prove her worth, she demonstrated her special ability: a sonic scream that could shake down the roof, if it were intense enough. Naturally the scream alerted Penguin's henchmen, and she made short work of them with her martial arts skills. Finally impressed, Penguin hired her, and dubbed her Black Canary in keeping with the ornithological theme.

During the Forever Evil storyline, Penguin is among the villains recruited by the Crime Syndicate of America to join the Secret Society of Super Villains.[38] With the heroes gone, Penguin becomes the Mayor of Gotham City and divides the different territories amongst the inmates of Arkham Asylum.[39] Bane retrieves Emperor Penguin for the Penguin as part of their agreement. When he brings him to the Penguin, he tells Emperor Penguin that the Arkham fighters are not scared of Bane as he does not instill fear as Batman did.[40]

Characterization[edit]

Skills and abilities[edit]

The Penguin is a master criminal and occasional engineer who uses his genius-level intellect to gain money and power through criminal means. Penguin's wealth gives him access to better resources than most other Batman villains and his life as a millionaire gives him superior knowledge of the backgrounds of celebrities and politicians, especially those he plans to target in his future crimes. He is also capable of returning to his luxurious lifestyle very easily despite his violent criminal history and prison record. He has even attempted multiple times to enter the political world, even launching expensive election campaigns. The Penguin also has strong connections with other criminal kingpins across Gotham, allowing him to hire their assassins and workers or to spy on them easily. The Penguin relies on cunning, wit, and intimidation to exploit his surroundings for profit. Penguin is normally depicted as being more rational and sane than other Batman villains, at least relatively speaking.

Although he often delegates the dirty work to his henchmen, he is not above taking aggressive and lethal actions on his own, especially when provoked. In spite of his appearance, he is a dangerous hand-to-hand combatant with enough self-taught skills in judo and bare-knuckle boxing to overwhelm attackers many times his size and physical bearing. The Penguin is usually portrayed as a capable physical combatant when he feels the situation calls for it, but his level of skill varies widely depending on the author; the character has been written both as a physical match for Batman and as someone the masked vigilante is capable of defeating with a solid punch. His crimes often revolve around stealing valuable bird-related items, and his car and other vehicles often have an avian theme.

Equipment[edit]

The Penguin utilizes an assortment of novelty umbrellas, particularly the Bulgarian umbrella. These usually contain weapons such as machine guns, sword tips, missiles, lasers, flamethrowers, and acid or poison gas spraying devices fired from the ferrule (however Penguin is able to weaponize his umbrellas in an almost unlimited variety of ways). Depending on the writer, some of his umbrellas can carry multiple weapons at once. He often carries an umbrella that can transform its canopy into a series of spinning blades: this can be used as a miniature helicopter or as an offensive weapon; he often uses this to escape a threatening situation. The canopy of the umbrella is sometimes depicted as being a bullet resistance shield, and some are patterned in different ways from a spiral capable of hypnotizing opponents to flashy signs.

Other versions[edit]

Joker[edit]

The Penguin (referred to mockingly as "Abner"[41] by the Joker) appeared in Joker, a graphic novel by Brian Azzarello and Lee Bermejo. This incarnation operates the Iceberg Lounge, handles most of Joker's personal investments, and deals with revenues from boxing matches.

Elseworlds[edit]

In the Elseworlds story Batman: Crimson Mist, the third part in a trilogy that turned Batman into a vampire, the Penguin is the first of many criminals to be killed by the vampiric Batman after he surrenders to his darker instincts. Batman brutally tears the Penguin's throat out as he drinks his blood and subsequently decapitates his enemy to ensure that he cannot return as a vampire.

In The Doom That Came to Gotham, an Elseworlds setting based on the works of H. P. Lovecraft, Oswald Cobblepot is the leader of an expedition to Antarctica of which there is only one survivor. The rescue team finds no trace of him, but it is revealed to the reader that the now half-mad Cobblepot has abandoned his humanity, and joined the albino penguins of the Elder Things city.

Flashpoint[edit]

In the alternate timeline of Flashpoint, Oswald Cobblepot works as the security chief of Wayne Casinos, providing information about his clients and the criminal underworld to that universe's Batman, Thomas Wayne.[42]

Earth One[edit]

In Batman: Earth One by Geoff Johns and Gary Frank, Oswald Cobblepot is the corrupt mayor of Gotham City. He attempts to have Thomas Wayne, the opposing mayoral candidate, killed, but his plan fails. Wayne, along with his wife, are instead killed in a random mugging on election night. Cobblepot runs Gotham with an iron fist, controlling all the power centers of the city and using a hired killer named "Birthday Boy". He almost kills Batman with his umbrella (which conceals a blade) once he discovers Batman's secret identity, but Alfred Pennyworth shoots and kills him just in time. It is also implied that Cobblepot had James Gordon's wife murdered when the detective got too close to finding out Cobblepot's involvement with the Waynes' murder. He tries to do the same thing to Gordon's daughter Barbara by "sending" her to Birthday Boy, but she is saved by Batman, Gordon, and Harvey Bullock.[43]

Tales of the Batman[edit]

In the short story "Vulture : A Tale of the Penguin", by Steve Rasnic,[44] Oswald has an epiphany. After a bout with depression, he loses a lot of weight and becomes a vigilante with a bit of blood thirst, calling himself The Vulture.

Relationships[edit]

The idea of the Penguin and the Joker as a team is one that is decades old, as the two villains, pop-culture wise, are arguably Batman's two most famous enemies. Their first meeting took place fairly early, in "Knights of Knavery". Since then, the two have teamed up countless times throughout the Golden and Silver ages. This carried over into television as well; they've both appeared together as a team numerous times. They have a very strong friendship with each other, Penguin has always referred to Joker as a very close friend and best friend of his, which Joker has said the same for Penguin. They've even shown affection towards each other on more than one occasion. One time, the Joker actually cried when he thought the Penguin was murdered, and Joker wanted to avenge Penguin's death.[45][46]

In other media[edit]

Television[edit]

Live-action[edit]

Burgess Meredith as the Penguin as he was seen in Batman.
Robin Lord Taylor portrays young Cobblepot on the Fox series Gotham.

Animation[edit]

Penguin, as he appears in Batman: The Animated Series (left) and The New Batman Adventures (right).

Film[edit]

Movie poster for Batman Returns (1992) featuring Danny DeVito as the Penguin.

Video games[edit]

Batman: Arkham[edit]

Lego Batman[edit]

The Lego version of the Penguin orders his penguins to attack the Batboat.

Toys[edit]

Parodies[edit]

Politics[edit]

The character of the Penguin, particularly as portrayed by Burgess Meredith, has often been used as a theme to mock public figures that supposedly resemble him. Jon Stewart, host of The Daily Show, has made numerous references comparing former Vice President Dick Cheney with the Penguin, including a laugh similar to the one heard in the 1960s Batman series.[55] In a similar manner, Stephen Colbert, host of The Colbert Report, called Franklin D. Roosevelt a criminal and told his audience to "ask Batman" "if they don't believe him," showing a picture of Meredith as the Penguin next to one of the former President; Roosevelt and the Penguin are both pictured wearing a monocle and sporting a cigarette holder, suggesting a resemblance.[56] Cheney was mocked in a similar capacity on Late Night with Conan O'Brien, while The Late Late Show with Craig Ferguson chose to imitate John McCain with Meredith's Penguin laugh.

In May 2006, a Republican-led PR firm, DCI Group, created a YouTube video satirizing Al Gore's film An Inconvenient Truth. The video portrayed Gore as the Penguin using one of his trick umbrellas to hypnotize a flock of penguins into believing in the existence of global warming and climate change.[57]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "The Enemies List". Comics 101. January 14, 2004. Retrieved December 25, 2010. 
  2. ^ Top 10 Greatest Batman Villains, WatchMojo.
  3. ^ 75 Greatest Friends and Foes of Batman.
  4. ^ Top Five Greatest Batman Villains.
  5. ^ Batman's Ultimate Villains, IGN.
  6. ^ Batman 75 Years: The Top 10 Batman Villains of All-Time.
  7. ^ Goldstein, Hilary (June 3, 2005). "IGN Best and Worst Batman villains". Au.comics.ign.com. Retrieved December 25, 2010. 
  8. ^ "Top Tenz Lamest Batman villains". Toptenz.net. Retrieved December 25, 2010. 
  9. ^ Penguin is number 51, IGN.
  10. ^ In the television series Gotham, his heavily-accented mother's name is Gertrud Kapelput, implying an immigrant background.
  11. ^ The Penguin's origin was first revealed in the digest publication Best of DC Blue Ribbon Digest #10 (March 1981), almost 40 years after the character was introduced.
  12. ^ Detective Comics#58
  13. ^ Batman #25
  14. ^ Detective Comics #99
  15. ^ Detective Comics #472
  16. ^ Batman #400
  17. ^ Detective Comics #610-611
  18. ^ Showcase '94 #7
  19. ^ Detective Comics #683
  20. ^ Gotham Underground #1
  21. ^ Gotham Underground #2
  22. ^ Gotham Underground #3
  23. ^ Gotham Underground #6
  24. ^ Gotham Underground #7
  25. ^ Gotham Underground #8
  26. ^ Gotham Underground #9
  27. ^ Birds of Prey vol. 2 #1
  28. ^ Birds of Prey vol. 2 #2-3
  29. ^ Birds of Prey vol. 2 #4
  30. ^ Birds of Prey vol. 2 #5
  31. ^ Secret Six (vol. 3) #35
  32. ^ Secret Six (vol. 3) #36
  33. ^ Batman: Gates of Gotham #2
  34. ^ Detective Comics Vol. 2 #4
  35. ^ Detective Comics vol. 2 #5 (January 2012)
  36. ^ Detective Comics vol. 2 #15
  37. ^ Detective Comics Vol. 2 #23
  38. ^ Forever Evil #1
  39. ^ Detective Comics Vol. 2 #23.3
  40. ^ Forever Evil: Arkham War #3
  41. ^ Joker's Wild Ride (an interview with the author), on IGN.com
  42. ^ Flashpoint: Batman – Knight of Vengeance #1 (June 2011)
  43. ^ Batman: Earth One
  44. ^ Tales of the Batman, edited by Martin Greenberg chapter 16
  45. ^ Batman #25
  46. ^ Brave and the Bold #191
  47. ^ Gotham episode "Selina Kyle"
  48. ^ "Fox’s ‘Gotham’ Casts Classic ‘Batman’ Characters the Penguin, Alfred Pennyworth". Variety. 2014-02-11. Retrieved February 11, 2014. 
  49. ^ Matsuda, Jeff. "The Batman Unused Character Designs – Behind the Scenes". BringOnTheBatman.com. Archived from the original on May 21, 2007. Retrieved August 29, 2008. 
  50. ^ "Batman Arkham City • Portrait of a Penguin". Arkhamcity.co.uk. 2011-05-25. Retrieved 2011-07-12. 
  51. ^ Logan Westbrook. "Arkham City's Penguin Shares a Voice With Nathan Drake | The Escapist". Escapistmagazine.com. Retrieved 2013-09-14. 
  52. ^ Game Informer features a two-page gallery of the many heroes and villains who appear in the game with a picture for each character and a descriptive paragraph. See "LEGO Batman: Character Gallery," Game Informer 186 (October 2008): 93.
  53. ^ "Episode 241". Thisamericanlife.org. Retrieved 2013-09-14. 
  54. ^ Bricken, Rob (April 15, 2013). "Patton Oswalt is a perfect Penguin in the newest Badman installment". io9.
  55. ^ "Jon Stewart Gets His Props, Even Without Them". Washingtonpost.com. September 18, 2006. Retrieved December 25, 2010. 
  56. ^ "The Colbert Report Full Episode | Monday Mar 16 2009". Comedy Central. Retrieved December 25, 2010. 
  57. ^ Regalado, Antonio and Searcey, Dionne, "Where Did That Video Spoofing Gore's Film Come From?", online.wsj.com, 3 August 2006, retrieved 1 August 2012

External links[edit]