Pendleton, Oregon

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Pendleton, Oregon
—  City  —
Main Street in Downtown Pendleton
Motto: The Real West
Location in Oregon
Coordinates: 45°40′11″N 118°47′29″W / 45.66972°N 118.79139°W / 45.66972; -118.79139Coordinates: 45°40′11″N 118°47′29″W / 45.66972°N 118.79139°W / 45.66972; -118.79139
CountryUnited States
StateOregon
CountyUmatilla
Incorporated1880
Government
 • MayorPhillip Houk
Area
 • Total10.1 sq mi (26.0 km2)
 • Land10.1 sq mi (26.0 km2)
 • Water0 sq mi (0 km2)
Elevation1,200 ft (365.8 m)
Population (2010[1])
 • Total16,612
 • Density1,627.2/sq mi (628.3/km2)
Time zonePacific (UTC-8)
 • Summer (DST)Pacific (UTC-7)
ZIP code97801
Area code(s)458 and 541
FIPS code41-57150[2]
GNIS feature ID1125283[3]
Websitewww.pendleton.or.us
 
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Pendleton, Oregon
—  City  —
Main Street in Downtown Pendleton
Motto: The Real West
Location in Oregon
Coordinates: 45°40′11″N 118°47′29″W / 45.66972°N 118.79139°W / 45.66972; -118.79139Coordinates: 45°40′11″N 118°47′29″W / 45.66972°N 118.79139°W / 45.66972; -118.79139
CountryUnited States
StateOregon
CountyUmatilla
Incorporated1880
Government
 • MayorPhillip Houk
Area
 • Total10.1 sq mi (26.0 km2)
 • Land10.1 sq mi (26.0 km2)
 • Water0 sq mi (0 km2)
Elevation1,200 ft (365.8 m)
Population (2010[1])
 • Total16,612
 • Density1,627.2/sq mi (628.3/km2)
Time zonePacific (UTC-8)
 • Summer (DST)Pacific (UTC-7)
ZIP code97801
Area code(s)458 and 541
FIPS code41-57150[2]
GNIS feature ID1125283[3]
Websitewww.pendleton.or.us

Pendleton (play /ˈpɛnəltən/) is a city in Umatilla County, Oregon, United States. Pendleton was named in 1868 by the county commissioners for George H. Pendleton, Democratic candidate for Vice-President in the 1864 presidential campaign.[4] The population was 16,612 at the 2010 census.[1] It is the county seat of Umatilla County.[5]

Pendleton is the smaller of the two principal cities of the Pendleton-Hermiston Micropolitan Statistical Area, a micropolitan area that covers Morrow and Umatilla counties[6] and had a combined population of 87,062 at the 2010 census.[2]

Contents

History

The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints in Northwest Pendleton

A commercial center in the locality of Pendleton began as early as 1851, when Dr. William C. McKay established a trading post at the mouth of McKay Creek. A Post Office with the name of Marshall (named for the owner of another local store, and sometime gambler) was established April 21, 1865, and later renamed Pendleton. The city was incorporated by the Oregon Legislative Assembly on October 25, 1880.[7]

By 1900, Pendleton had a population of 4,406 and was the fourth-largest city in Oregon. Like many cities in Eastern Oregon, it had a flourishing Chinatown. The sector is supposed to have been underlain by a network of tunnels which are now a tourist attraction, although its authenticity as a tunnel system has been questioned.[8]

Pendleton's "old town" is listed on the National Register of Historic Places.

Economy

Historic Rainbow Cafe in downtown Pendleton (before 2006 facade restoration)

Pendleton Woolen Mills, founded in 1893, is known worldwide as a maker of fine Indian trading blankets and men's plaid shirts.[9]

Eastern Oregon Correctional Institution (EOCI) is located in Pendleton. EOCI is the state's only facility where the internationally-recognized[citation needed] "Prison Blues " line of blue denim clothing is manufactured.[citation needed] The garment factory is one of two prison industries programs operating at the facility. The prison's commercial laundry cleans clothing and other items for EOCI and Snake River Correctional Institution, in addition to Pendleton's local high school, the city's fire department, the Pendleton Convention Center, and Krusteaz Flour Mill. Other inmate work opportunities include: food service, clerical, and facility maintenance.

Geography and climate

According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 10.1 square miles (26 km2), all land.[10]

The Umatilla River flows through Pendleton.

Pendleton experiences a semi-arid climate (Köppen BSk) with short, cool winters and hot summers. Pendleton had the highest temperature recorded in Oregon at 119 degrees in 1898.[11]

Climate data for Pendleton Municipal Airport
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
Record high °F (°C)71
(22)
75
(24)
81
(27)
95
(35)
103
(39)
108
(42)
114
(46)
119
(48)
104
(40)
93
(34)
83
(28)
70
(21)
119
(48)
Average high °F (°C)40.1
(4.5)
46.5
(8.1)
54.8
(12.7)
62.2
(16.8)
70.2
(21.2)
78.7
(25.9)
87.7
(30.9)
86.6
(30.3)
77.1
(25.1)
63.8
(17.7)
48.5
(9.2)
40.0
(4.4)
63.0
(17.2)
Average low °F (°C)27.4
(−2.6)
30.9
(−0.61)
35.4
(1.9)
39.7
(4.3)
45.9
(7.7)
52.0
(11.1)
57.5
(14.2)
57.3
(14.1)
49.7
(9.8)
40.7
(4.8)
33.8
(1.0)
27.7
(−2.4)
41.5
(5.3)
Precipitation inches (mm)1.45
(36.8)
1.22
(31)
1.26
(32)
1.13
(28.7)
1.22
(31)
.78
(19.8)
.41
(10.4)
.56
(14.2)
.63
(16)
.99
(25.1)
1.63
(41.4)
1.48
(37.6)
12.76
(324.1)
Snowfall inches (cm)4.1
(10.4)
3.5
(8.9)
1.0
(2.5)
.1
(0.3)
trace0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
.3
(0.8)
2.2
(5.6)
5.0
(12.7)
16.2
(41.1)
Avg. precipitation days (≥ 0.01 in)11.710.511.08.68.16.03.23.04.46.012.211.396.0
Avg. snowy days (≥ 0.1 in)3.42.41.0.100000.31.83.712.7
Mean monthly sunshine hours137.0161.0212.0242.0298.0328.0396.0385.0279.0180.0121.0101.02,840
Source: NOAA (normals, 1971−2000)[11][12]

Demographics

Historical populations
CensusPop.
1870243
1880730200.4%
18902,506243.3%
19004,40675.8%
19104,4601.2%
19206,83753.3%
19306,621−3.2%
19408,84733.6%
195011,77433.1%
196014,43422.6%
197013,197−8.6%
198014,52110.0%
199015,1264.2%
200016,3548.1%
201016,6121.6%
source:[1][13][14]

As of the census[1] of 2010, there were 16,612 people, 5,964 households, and 3,727 families residing in the city. The population density was 1,627.2 people per square mile (628.3/km²). There were 6,352 housing units at an average density of 632.0 per square mile (244.0/km²). The racial makeup of the city was 89.15% White, 1.53% African American, 2.52% Native American, 0.94% Asian, 0.06% Pacific Islander, 3.68% from other races, and 2.12% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 6.00% of the population.

There were 5,964 households out of which 31.7% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 47.4% were married couples living together, 10.7% had a female householder with no husband present, and 37.5% were non-families. 30.4% of all households were made up of individuals and 11.6% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.39 and the average family size was 2.98.

In the city the population was spread out with 23.5% under the age of 18, 10.9% from 18 to 24, 31.3% from 25 to 44, 21.7% from 45 to 64, and 12.6% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 36 years. For every 100 females there were 114.5 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 116.8 males.

The median income for a household in the city was $36,800, and the median income for a family was $47,410. Males had a median income of $31,763 versus $23,858 for females. The per capita income for the city was $17,551. About 8.7% of families and 13.3% of the population were below the poverty line, including 16.4% of those under age 18 and 8.1% of those age 65 or over.

Arts and culture

Annual events

In addition to the woolen mills, Pendleton is also famous for its annual rodeo, the Pendleton Round-Up.[15] First held in 1910, it is part of the Professional Rodeo Cowboys Association (PRCA) sanctioned rodeo circuit. In 1999, the Pendleton Round-Up Association added a two night Professional Bull Riders Classic to the Annual events. The rodeo is noted for being the only PRCA ever held on a grass field.[16]

The Pendleton Christmas Carriage Parade began in 2007 and occurs midday every year on the first Saturday of December.[citation needed] Riders, travois, and carriages with costumed drivers represent the history of the region, and carolers also perform.[citation needed] The Festival of Trees follows on the same evening.[citation needed]

Museums and other points of interest

Local arts institutions include the Pendleton Center for the Arts (in the town's old Carnegie Library building) and Crow's Shadow Institute of the Arts on the nearby Umatilla Indian Reservation.

The Pendleton Farmers' Market began in 2002 and operates mid-May thru mid-October, on Fridays from 4-7pm on Pendleton's Main Street. Featuring farmers from the Columbia Plateau, handmade crafts, live music, and food vendors. Vendors call it the largest and friendliest market in northeast Oregon. The Market accepts SNAP and Farm Direct Nutrition Coupons/Vouchers as well as debit cards.

Sports and recreation

Every year since 1964, Pendleton has hosted the Oregon School Activities Association 2A basketball tournament.[citation needed] It is held in the Pendleton Convention Center.

The Pendleton Aquatic Center opened in 1996.[17]

Transportation

Exit 213 off Interstate 84 into downtown Pendleton, Pendleton Woolen Mills,[18] Walla Walla, Washington[19] and St Anthony's Hospital among other destinations.

Highways serving Pendleton include Interstate 84 and U.S. Route 30 running east-west and U.S. Route 395 running north-south. The city is also served by Oregon Route 37 and Oregon Route 11.

Pendleton is on the La Grande Subdivision of the Union Pacific Railroad, constructed originally through the area in the 1870s as the Oregon Railroad and Navigation Company.[citation needed] Between 1977 and 1997, the city was a regular stop along the former route of Amtrak's Pioneer between Chicago, Salt Lake City, Portland and Seattle.[citation needed]

Regional commercial aviation service is through Eastern Oregon Regional Airport located three miles outside Pendleton. The airport is owned by the City of Pendleton. SeaPort Airlines schedules three daily flights to and from Portland.

Radio

Notable people

Sister cities

Pendleton has two sister cities:[20]

References

  1. ^ a b c d "American FactFinder". United States Census Bureau. http://factfinder2.census.gov. Retrieved 2011-05-14. 
  2. ^ a b "American FactFinder". United States Census Bureau. http://factfinder.census.gov. Retrieved 2008-01-31. 
  3. ^ "US Board on Geographic Names". United States Geological Survey. 2007-10-25. http://geonames.usgs.gov. Retrieved 2008-01-31. 
  4. ^ "Profile for Pendleton, Oregon". ePodunk. http://www.epodunk.com/cgi-bin/genInfo.php?locIndex=15417. Retrieved 2010-05-27. 
  5. ^ "Find a County". National Association of Counties. http://www.naco.org/Counties/Pages/FindACounty.aspx. Retrieved 2011-06-07. 
  6. ^ MICROPOLITAN STATISTICAL AREAS AND COMPONENTS, Office of Management and Budget, 2007-05-11. Retrieved 2008-07-27.
  7. ^ Leeds, W. H. (1899). "Special Laws". The State of Oregon General and Special Laws and Joint Resolutions and Memorials Enacted and Adopted by the Twentieth Regular Session of the Legislative Assembly (Salem, Oregon: State Printer): 747. http://books.google.com/?id=gsCwAAAAIAAJ&dq=%22ocean%20grove%22%20seaside%20oregon&pg=PA747. 
  8. ^ "Asian American Comparative Collection: Asian American Sites and Museum Exhibits in the Pacific Northwest, Great Basin, and Canada". University of Idaho. http://www.uiweb.uidaho.edu/LS/AACC/MUSEUMS.HTM. Retrieved 2010-11-14. "Pendleton - Pendleton Underground. An interesting tour of downtown Pendleton basements. However, some guides call them "Chinese tunnels" thus perpetuating a stereotype for which there is no basis in fact. See "Ongoing Research" for a discussion of so-called "Chinese tunnels."" 
  9. ^ http://www.pendleton-usa.com/custserv/custserv.jsp?pageName=Heritage
  10. ^ "US Gazetteer files: 2010, 2000, and 1990". United States Census Bureau. 2011-02-12. http://www.census.gov/geo/www/gazetteer/gazette.html. Retrieved 2011-04-23. 
  11. ^ a b "Record highest temperatures by state" (PDF). National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. December 2003. http://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/oa/pub/data/special/maxtemps.pdf. Retrieved 23 June 2011. 
  12. ^ "Climatography of the United States No. 20 1971−2000: PENDLETON MUNICIPAL AP, OR" (PDF). National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. http://cdo.ncdc.noaa.gov/climatenormals/clim20/or/356546.pdf. Retrieved 2011−01−27. 
  13. ^ Moffatt, Riley. Population History of Western U.S. Cities & Towns, 1850-1990. Lanham: Scarecrow, 1996, 214.
  14. ^ "Subcounty population estimates: Oregon 2000-2007" (CSV). United States Census Bureau, Population Division. 2009-03-18. http://www.census.gov/popest/cities/files/SUB-EST2007-41.csv. Retrieved 2009-04-29. 
  15. ^ Furlong, Charles Wellington (August 1916). "The Epic Drama Of The West". Harper's Monthly Magazine CXXXIII (795): 368. http://books.google.com/?id=r_svAAAAMAAJ&pg=PA368. Retrieved 2009-08-16. 
  16. ^ http://pendletonroundup.com/about/history/
  17. ^ http://www.pendleton.or.us/pool%20photos.htm
  18. ^ Gale, Kira (2006). Lewis and Clark Road Trips: Exploring the Trail Across America. River Junction Press LLC. p. 192. ISBN 0-9649315-2-4. http://books.google.com/?id=tdMX9lJf5u0C. Retrieved 2009-09-04. 
  19. ^ Fanselow, Julie (1996). Traveling the Oregon Trail. Falcon. p. 171. ISBN 1-56044-477-0. http://books.google.com/?id=tdMX9lJf5u0C. Retrieved 2009-09-04. 
  20. ^ "Oregon Sister Relationships". Oregon Economic & Community Development Department. Archived from the original on 2006-10-15. http://web.archive.org/web/20061015013739/http://www.econ.state.or.us/oregontrade/sistercities.htm. Retrieved 2007-03-15. 

External links