Pekanbaru

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Pekanbaru
Bandar Raya Pekanbaru (Malay)
ڤكنبارو (Jawi)
City
From top, left to right: Faculty of Medicine, Riau University; Anjung Seni Idrus Tintin; an-Nur Grand Mosque; lanterns in streets during Chinese New Year; Tuanku Tambusai Street; ar-Rahman Mosque.

Coat of arms
Nickname(s): Kota Bertuah (Indonesian): "The City of Good Fortune"
Motto: Bersih, Tertib, Usaha Bersama, Aman, dan Harmonis (Clean, Orderly, Labor, Peace and Harmony)
Location of Pekanbaru in Indonesia
Pekanbaru is located in Indonesia
Pekanbaru
Location of Pekanbaru in Indonesia
Coordinates: 0°32′0″N 101°27′0″E / 0.53333°N 101.45000°E / 0.53333; 101.45000Coordinates: 0°32′0″N 101°27′0″E / 0.53333°N 101.45000°E / 0.53333; 101.45000
Country Indonesia
ProvinceRiau
Founded22 June 1784
Government
 • MayorH. Firdaus, ST, MT
Area
 • City632.26 km2 (244.12 sq mi)
 • Metro41,323.05 km2 (15,954.92 sq mi)
Population (2012)
 • City1.1 million [1]
 • Density2,041/km2 (5,290/sq mi)
 • Metro3,452,544
 • Metro density835.5/km2 (2,164/sq mi)
Time zoneWIB (UTC+7)
Postal code28131
Area code(s)+62 761
Websitewww.pekanbaru.go.id
 
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Pekanbaru
Bandar Raya Pekanbaru (Malay)
ڤكنبارو (Jawi)
City
From top, left to right: Faculty of Medicine, Riau University; Anjung Seni Idrus Tintin; an-Nur Grand Mosque; lanterns in streets during Chinese New Year; Tuanku Tambusai Street; ar-Rahman Mosque.

Coat of arms
Nickname(s): Kota Bertuah (Indonesian): "The City of Good Fortune"
Motto: Bersih, Tertib, Usaha Bersama, Aman, dan Harmonis (Clean, Orderly, Labor, Peace and Harmony)
Location of Pekanbaru in Indonesia
Pekanbaru is located in Indonesia
Pekanbaru
Location of Pekanbaru in Indonesia
Coordinates: 0°32′0″N 101°27′0″E / 0.53333°N 101.45000°E / 0.53333; 101.45000Coordinates: 0°32′0″N 101°27′0″E / 0.53333°N 101.45000°E / 0.53333; 101.45000
Country Indonesia
ProvinceRiau
Founded22 June 1784
Government
 • MayorH. Firdaus, ST, MT
Area
 • City632.26 km2 (244.12 sq mi)
 • Metro41,323.05 km2 (15,954.92 sq mi)
Population (2012)
 • City1.1 million [1]
 • Density2,041/km2 (5,290/sq mi)
 • Metro3,452,544
 • Metro density835.5/km2 (2,164/sq mi)
Time zoneWIB (UTC+7)
Postal code28131
Area code(s)+62 761
Websitewww.pekanbaru.go.id

Pekanbaru (Jawi: ڤكنبارو) is the capital of Riau, a province in Indonesia on the island of Sumatra. It has an area of 632.26 km² and a population of 1.1 million,[2] making it Sumatra's fourth largest municipality, after Medan, Palembang, and Batam.

It is on the Siak River, which drains to the Strait of Malacca. Pekanbaru has direct access to the busy strait and was long known as a trading port (the city name is derived from the Indonesian words of 'new market' or 'new town', "pekan" meaning 'market' or 'town', and "baru" meaning 'new'). The city is divided into 12 subdistricts (kecamatan). The Sultan Syarif Kasim II International Airport serves Pekanbaru. A settlement has existed on the ite since the 17th century. In the late 19th century, the city developed to serve the coffee and coal industries, and the Dutch built roads to help ship goods to Singapore and Malacca.

History[edit]

Sultanate of Siak[edit]

While Sultan Abdul Djalil Alamuddin Syah moved the center of the Mempura Kingdom of Siak to Senapelan (which is now called Pekanbaru) in 1605.This city used to be the family's only some citizens only and the sultan wanted to make Senapelan became forward in the trade sector. but his goal is not achieved so much that he moved the Center to the Kingdom of Siak Sri Indrapura.

Chinese and Arab traders flocked[edit]

In the year 1689 Chinese traders flock to this town with a economy wants to develop trade mean to them, therefore Arab traders from Aceh and Malacca to arrive so that the city has historically named merked the name is Pasar Bawah. the longer it is the more advanced so it can build a infrasutur such as roads, Buildings, places of worship and the port.So the city is again exchanged its name with the name of Pekanbaru which means it has a big economic opportunities in the field of trade.

Dutch East Indies Company[edit]

In 1749 under the terms of a peace treaty between the Sultan of Johor and the Dutch East India Company (VOC) Siak was put under Dutch administration. The Sultan moved residence to a palace in Senapelan built in 1760.

Sultan Syarif Kasim II of Siak and his wife, 1910-1920. The last Sultan of Siak who ceded his kingdom to the Republic of Indonesia.

At Senapelan Sultan Abdul Jalil Shah Alamudin unsuccessfully tried to organize a major regional fair. In the early 1780s his son Sultan Muhammad Ali managed to establish the grand fair. Due to the important commercial value for this part of Sumatra the settlement itself was renamed Pakanbaru by the local council of tribal elders on 23 June 1784. Translated Pekan Baru, literally means New Fair.

June 23 is officially celebrated as the founding day of Pakanbaru.

Dutch East Indies[edit]

Pekanbaru or Senapelan in 1956

Following the collapse of the VOC all company ownership of Pakanbaru was transferred to the Dutch crown. During the colonial Dutch East Indies era in the 19th and early 20th century the city remained important, especially as a major trading point: Siak river navigation conditions provide a stable relationship with shipping from the Malacca Strait. Additionally the city became a major center of the coffee industry and coal industry. The urban influence of the sultans gradually became more and more nominal, especially after the capital of the Sultanate moved to Sri Indrapura in 1830. Actual management functions were carried out by representatives of the Dutch colonial administration, i.e., by the post of assistant-resident and controller.

Second World War[edit]

During the Second World War from February 1942 to August 1945 the city was occupied by the armed forces of Japan. In an effort to strengthen the military and logistical infrastructure in this part of Sumatra, the Japanese launched the construction of a 220 km long railway, connecting Pakanbaru to the coast of Malacca Straits.

The Pekanbaru Railway was constructed under harsh conditions by forced labour. 6,500 Dutch, mostly Indo-Europeans, and British prisoners of war and over 100,000 Indonesian, mostly Javanese, forced workers called Romushas were put to work by the Japanese army. By the time the work was completed in August 1945 almost a third of the European POWs and over half of the Indonesian coolies had died. The railway was never fully utilised. Today it remains unused and in an advanced state of decay.[3]

Reputation[edit]

The Chinese New Year celebration in Pekanbaru

Pekanbaru is one of the cleanest big cities in Indonesia.[4] In 2011, it received the "Adipura" ('clean city') award in the category of large city for the seventh consecutive time.[5] The city is notable for its wide main streets. However, Pekanbaru regularly suffers from smoke or smog due to forest fires, particularly in the dry season, since there is very little rain to put the fires out. The fires can be traced to people simply burning their trash or freshly cut grass. Most of the fires are intentionally started but often unintentionally grow dangerous.

Demographics[edit]

Pekanbaru is the third most populous city on Sumatra Island, after Medan and Palembang with a population of 1,290,902 recorded in 2012.[6] The city is highly urbanized, drawing many of its people from the neighbouring province of West Sumatra. In addition to Riau Malays natives, the city has other ethnic groups. The Minangkabau are the largest, forming 37.96% of population.[7] Javanese, Batak, and Tionghoa are the other main ethnic groups inhabiting Pekanbaru.

Languages[edit]

Bahasa Indonesia is the primary language that is spoken by the citizens of Pekanbaru. It is followed by the Minangkabau and Malay languages which are widely spoken because of the great population of both ethnics in Pekanbaru. In addition, Hokkien is greatly spoken by Tionghoa as most of Chinese Indonesian in Pekanbaru are belong to Hokkien people. In fact, many Chinese Indonesian in Pekanbaru come from regions in Riau such as Selat Panjang, Bengkalis and Siak, beside Chinese Indonesian who are originally from Pekanbaru itself. Moreover, many Chinese Indonesian especially from Medan, North Sumatra and West Sumatra regions have moved to Pekanbaru due to opportunities and rapid econonomical growth since the 1990s and 2000s.

Ethnic groups in Pekanbaru
EthnicCensus (%)
Minangkabau37.7
Malay26.1
Javanese15.1
Batak10.8
Tionghoa7.0
Other3.3
Source: 2007 Census by Bappeda Pekanbaru
An-Nur mosque panorama

Subdistricts[edit]

The city is divided into 12 subdistricts.[8]

SubdistrictsCapital
Bukit RayaSimpang Tiga
Lima PuluhRinties
Marpoyan DamaiTangkerang Tengah
Payung SekakiLabuh Baru Timur
Pekanbaru KotaTanah Tinggi
SailCinta Raja
SenapelanPadang Bulan
SukajadiSukajadi
RumbaiSri Meranti
Rumbai PesisirLembah Damai
TampanSudomulyo Timur
Tenayan RayaKulim

Climate[edit]

Pekanbaru has a tropical rainforest climate under the Köppen climate classification.[9] As with many cities with a tropical rainforest climate, Pekanbaru features relatively constant temperatures throughout the course of the year, with average high temperatures around 31 degrees Celsius and average lows of around 23 degrees Celsius. The city has no dry season month but does feature wetter and drier months. Its driest month (July) sees on average about 40% of the precipitation as its wettest month (November). Pekanbaru on average sees roughly 2600 mm of rain per year.

Climate data for Pekanbaru
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
Average high °C (°F)30
(86)
31
(87)
31
(88)
31
(88)
32
(89)
32
(89)
31
(88)
31
(88)
31
(88)
31
(88)
31
(87)
30
(86)
31
(88)
Average low °C (°F)23
(74)
23
(74)
23
(74)
23
(74)
24
(75)
23
(74)
23
(73)
23
(73)
23
(73)
23
(74)
23
(74)
23
(73)
23
(74)
Precipitation mm (inches)180
(7.09)
210
(8.27)
220
(8.66)
250
(9.84)
200
(7.87)
160
(6.3)
120
(4.72)
170
(6.69)
210
(8.27)
240
(9.45)
300
(11.81)
270
(10.63)
2,580
(101.57)
Source: http://www.weatherbase.com/weather/weather.php3?s=90169&refer=&units=metric

Economy[edit]

The Panorama of Pekanbaru

After oil was discovered in the region in the 1930s, Pekanbaru's economy has depended heavily on oil revenues which have made it the city with the highest per capita income in Indonesia.[citation needed] Most of Indonesia's petroleum is produced in Riau, and much of Pekanbaru's economy is based on the petroleum industry. International oil companies, such as Chevron from US, as well as other Indonesian companies, have established their offices in the region. The city is connected by road to an oil refining and exporting port at Dumai. Many facilities, including an airport, three stadiums (building a fourth), a swimming pool, one of the two bridges that cross the Siak River near the city, the roads in Rumbai area, and the road to Dumai, were partially or fully financed by oil companies working in the area.

Because Pekanbaru is a major gateway into Indonesia from Singapore, the city has become a favorite stop before travelers go further inland. The Pasar Pusat (centre market) is a food-trip destination and is considered a household-goods trove. Pasar Bawah and Pasar Tengeh in the port area have Chinese goods, including ceramics and carpets.

Transportation[edit]

TransMetro Pekanbaru Bus

There are several transportation mode in Pekanbaru such as taxi, bus, oplet (share taxi), bajaj (auto rickshaw), ojek (motorcycle taxi) and Trans Metro Pekanbaru (bus rapid transit).

For land transport, Pekanbaru is connected to Padang, Medan, Jambi, Palembang, and other cities or regions in Riau Province and Sumatra Island by the existence of Bandar Raya Payung Sekaki Terminal Bus (Terminal AKAP). The terminal was officially open for public in 2007, replacing Pekanbaru's former "Mayang Terurai Terminal Bus" due to heavy congestion.

Sungai Duku Port (Pelabuhan Sungai Duku) is by the Siak River, connecting Pekanbaru with regions in Riau Province and Riau Islands such as Siak, Tanjung Buton, Selatpanjang, Bengkalis, and Batam. Moreover, this port serves direct ferry to Malacca, Malaysia which approximately takes 6–8 hours per trip.

Sultan Syarif Kasim II International Airport serves flights in Pekanbaru to and from several cities in Indonesia such as Batam, Medan, Tanjung Pinang, Bandung, Jakarta, Dumai, Yogyakarta, etc. and international flights to Malaysia (Kuala Lumpur and Malacca) and Singapore. In 2012, the new terminal was opened and fully operated, replacing the old terminal that had been used since the 1980s. The old terminal will be demolished to build more spaces for apron and more aircraft capacity. Pekanbaru's airport is the airbase of the TNI-AU (Indonesian Air Force) and homebase of the 12th Squadron, a shelter to some Hawk Mk.109s and Mk.209s.

Sport[edit]

PSPS Pekanbaru

Football is the most popular sport in Indonesia. In Pekanbaru, PSPS Pekanbaru is the local club that has been competing in Indonesian Super League since the 2000s. Kaharudin Nasution Sport Center Rumbai Stadium is the home stadium for PSPS Pekanbaru.

In 2012, 2013 AFC U-22 Asian Cup qualification, 2012 Pekan Olahraga Nasional (Indonesian National Games) and 2012 Pekan Paralympic Nasional was held in Riau Province. Since then, many sport facilities have been built in Pekanbaru because this city was home for many sports venue during these multi-national events, such as the prominent Riau Main Stadium.

Several golf course can be found in Pekanbaru, such as Pekanbaru Golf Course Country Club at Kubang Kulim, Simpang Tiga Golf Course at AURI Complex, Rumbai Golf Course at IKSORA Rumbai Complex and Labersa Golf Course at Labersa Hotel and Convention Center.

Media[edit]

The TVRI Riau (state-owned) and Riau TV (private) are some of the popular local television stations in Pekanbaru. Several local newspapers are operating in Pekanbaru, such as Riau Pos, Haluan Riau, Tribun Pekanbaru, Pekanbaru Pos, Pekanbaru MX and Korau Riau.

Sister cities[edit]

Sister citiesCountry
Malacca CityMalaysia Malaysia
Kota BahruMalaysia Malaysia
Zamboanga CityPhilippines Philippines
Davao CityPhilippines Philippines
PhuketThailand Thailand
ChongqingChina China
LiuzhouChina China
Quebec CityCanada Canada
SuwonSouth Korea South Korea
Fukushima CityJapan Japan
DaeguSouth Korea South Korea
San Jose, CaliforniaUnited States United States
UtrechtNetherlands Netherlands
AtlantaUnited States United States
Da NangVietnam Vietnam
BatamIndonesia Indonesia
BandungIndonesia Indonesia
Bandar LampungIndonesia Indonesia

Photo gallery[edit]

References[edit]

External links[edit]