Pawn Stars

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Pawn Stars
From left: Rick Harrison, Austin "Chumlee" Russell, Corey Harrison, and Richard Harrison
FormatReality television
StarringRick Harrison
Richard "Old Man" Harrison
Corey Harrison
Austin "Chumlee" Russell
Country of originUnited States
Original language(s)English
No. of seasons8
No. of episodes314 (List of episodes)
Production
Location(s)Las Vegas, Nevada
Running time23 minutes
Production company(s)Leftfield Pictures
Broadcast
Original channelHistory
Picture format1.78:1 widescreen[1]
Audio formatDolby Digital Stereo[1]
Original runJuly 19, 2009 (2009-07-19) – present
Chronology
Related showsAmerican Restoration
Cajun Pawn Stars
Counting Cars
Pawn Stars UK
External links
Website
 
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This article is about the American television series. For the British version, see Pawn Stars UK.
Pawn Stars
From left: Rick Harrison, Austin "Chumlee" Russell, Corey Harrison, and Richard Harrison
FormatReality television
StarringRick Harrison
Richard "Old Man" Harrison
Corey Harrison
Austin "Chumlee" Russell
Country of originUnited States
Original language(s)English
No. of seasons8
No. of episodes314 (List of episodes)
Production
Location(s)Las Vegas, Nevada
Running time23 minutes
Production company(s)Leftfield Pictures
Broadcast
Original channelHistory
Picture format1.78:1 widescreen[1]
Audio formatDolby Digital Stereo[1]
Original runJuly 19, 2009 (2009-07-19) – present
Chronology
Related showsAmerican Restoration
Cajun Pawn Stars
Counting Cars
Pawn Stars UK
External links
Website

Pawn Stars is an American reality television series, shown on History, and produced by Leftfield Pictures. The series is filmed in Las Vegas, Nevada, where it chronicles the daily activities at the World Famous Gold & Silver Pawn Shop,[2] a 24-hour family business opened in 1989[3] and operated by patriarch Richard "Old Man" Harrison, his son Rick Harrison, Rick's son Corey "Big Hoss" Harrison, and Corey's childhood friend, Austin "Chumlee" Russell. The show, which became the network's highest rated show,[4][5] and the No. 2 reality show behind Jersey Shore, debuted on July 26, 2009.[6][7]

The series depicts the staff's interactions with customers, who bring in a variety of artifacts to sell or pawn and who are shown haggling over the price and discussing its historical background, with narration provided by either the Harrisons or Chumlee. The series also follows the interpersonal conflicts among the cast. One reviewer referencing these conflicts described the show as a version of Antiques Roadshow "hijacked by American Chopper's" Teutul family.[8] TV Guide has offered a similar description, calling the show "one part Antiques Roadshow, a pinch of LA Ink and a dash of COPS".[9]

Numerous local experts in a variety of fields also regularly appear to appraise the items being sold or pawned, two of whom having gone on to their own spinoff programs. Antique restorer/metal artist Rick Dale is the star of the series' first spin-off, American Restoration, which premiered in October 2010,[10][11][12] and mechanic/auto restoration expert Danny "The Count" Koker stars in the third spinoff, Counting Cars, which debuted August 13, 2012.[13][14]

Production history and format

Pawn Stars began with Brent Montgomery and Colby Gaines of Leftfield Pictures, who were struck by the array of eclectic and somewhat seedy pawn shops in Las Vegas during a 2008 weekend visit to the city. Thinking such shops might contain unique characters, they searched for a family-run shop on which to center a TV series, until they found the Gold & Silver Pawn Shop less than two miles from the Las Vegas Strip.[15] It had been the subject of a 2001 PBS documentary,[16] and the manager and part-owner, Rick Harrison, had been trying unsuccessfully to pitch a show based on his shop for four years.[16][17][18] The shop, and Rick, had previously been featured in the Las Vegas episode of Insomniac with Dave Attell in 2003.[19]

The series was originally pitched to HBO, though the network preferred the series to have been a Taxicab Confessions-style series taking place at the Gold & Silver's night window.[20] The format eventually evolved into the now-familiar family-oriented motif used on the series.[21] History president Nancy Dubuc, who had been charged with creating programming with a more populist appeal to balance out the network's in-depth military programming, picked up the series, which was initially titled Pawning History, before a staffer at Leftfield suggested that Pawn Stars would fit better with the locale.[22] The network concurred, believing that name to be more pleasing and easily remembered.[21] The staffer adjusted its story-line in order to bring it in line with the network's brand, which included the on-camera experts appraising the items brought into the Gold & Silver, though she did not discourage the interpersonal conflicts among the show's stars.[15]

World Famous Gold & Silver Pawn Shop in 2010

The series is filmed on location at the World Famous Gold & Silver Pawn Shop in Las Vegas, Nevada. Although jewellery is the most commonly pawned item at the Gold & Silver Pawn Shop,[23] most of the customers featured in episodes bring in a variety of vintage or antique items to the store, which has 12,000 items in its inventory as of July 2011[24] (5,000 of which are typically held on pawn).[25] Each episode consists of segments devoted to approximately five or six of these items, in which one of the staff members, usually Rick Harrison, his son Corey, or Harrison's father Richard (known as the "Old Man"), explains the history behind the object. When the buyer is unable to evaluate an object, they consult with a knowledgeable expert who can evaluate it to determine its authenticity and potential value, and in the case of items needing repair, the cost of restoration or preparing the item for sale. Whoever is evaluating the object goes over the potential value with the customer, including the expert's opinion, if one is given, often interspersed with an interview in which he explains the basis of his decision to the viewer. A price tag graphic at the bottom corner of the screen provides the ever-changing dollar amount as the two haggle over the item's price. On occasion, Rick will purchase items in need of restoration before determining its restoration costs, thus taking a risk on such costs.[26]

Interpersonal narratives focusing on the relationship and conflicts among Rick, Corey, the Old Man, and Corey's childhood friend, Austin "Chumlee" Russell, who also works at the shop, also comprise episode plots. These usually pertain to arguments over the running of the shop, the elder Harrisons questioning Corey's judgment,[27][28] and aspersions cast on Chumlee's intelligence and competence.[29] Before the second commercial break, a multiple choice trivia question related to the shop and its inventory, the cast members or one of the featured items is shown, with the answer provided after the break; beginning with the Season 8 episode "A Very Vegas Christmas", a trivia question is asked at every commercial break.

In addition to spawning imitators, such as the truTV series Hardcore Pawn, the success of Pawn Stars has been a boon to the Gold & Silver Pawn Shop, which has become a Las Vegas tourist site,[21] and has expanded its business accordingly. Originally averaging between 70 and 100 customers per day, the shop's traffic increased to more than 1,000 by October 2010. To handle the increased business, the shop hired nearly 30 new employees,[30] and underwent a $400,000 expansion of their showroom by two thirds, to 15,000 square feet,[15][21] the shop's tenth expansion since it opened.[31] Rick Harrison also mentioned in the fourth season episode "Over the Top" that he was building a gym above the Pawn Shop for the staff's use.[32] The shop also now sells its own brand merchandise, whose designs originate from fans entering design competitions on Facebook, which saves the Harrisons the cost of hiring professional designers. The staff's presence on Facebook and Twitter also ensures audiences during local nightclub appearances, for which Corey Harrison and Chumlee Russell are paid $1,000 a night.[4] As a result of filming at the shop, however, the four main cast members no longer work the counter, due to laws that require the identity of customers pawning items to remain confidential, and the tourists and fans taking photos and video in the showroom that would preclude this. When shooting episodes of the series, the shop is temporarily closed, with only a handful of customers allowed into the showroom.[16][33]

In July 2011, Harrison signed a record-breaking 80-episode renewal contract for four more seasons of the series.[4]

After being broadcast during its first four years on Mondays at 10PM ET, the program moved to Thursday nights at 9PM ET on May 30, 2013,[34] replacing Swamp People, which moved an hour later to 10PM ET.[35] The program also received a new opening and theme song, "Winning isn't Everything", performed by Lynyrd Skynyrd.[34] The opening would be replaced again with different theme music from an uncredited artist on June 12, 2014.[36]

Episodes

Cast

Main shop staff

Corey Harrison (left) and Austin "Chumlee" Russell pictured in 2010. Both are part of the main staff of the pawn shop.

Minor shop staff

Antwaun Austin works as bouncer in the shop.

Recurring experts

Professional specialists are sometimes called in by the pawn shop to determine the authenticity and value of the items brought in and, in some cases, to restore them. The following is a list of recurring experts who have appeared in two or more episodes.

NameArea of expertise
Mark AllenPerformer and collector of Western memorabilia, and owner of Wild West Arts Club and Western Stage Props.[87][88][89][90][91]
Brenda AndersonHandwriting expert and owner of Expert Handwriting Analysis.[92][93]
Jesse AmorosoExpert in stringed instruments, and owner of Cowtown Guitars.[94][95][96]
Joe AshmanExpert in guns and weapons, and owner of Ashman's Pioneer Market in Fillmore, Utah.[97][98]
Jemison BeshearsWeapons and antique arms expert.[99][100]
Jeremy BrownExpert in sports memorabilia and cards, and owner of Ultimate Sports Cards & Memorabilia.[101][102]
Rick DaleMetal artist and antique restorer, and owner of Rick's Restorations.[103][104][105] Dale also stars in American Restoration, a spin-off set at Rick's Restorations and starring Dale and his staff, which premiered in October 2010.[10][11][12]
Tony DeeAntique firearms expert, who operates The Gun Store.[106]
Bob DemelExpert in antique weapons, militaria and other types of antiques, and owner of Antiques, Arms & Armor Historical Investments, Coto de Caza, California.[107]
Ferdinand GeitnerMaster watchmaker and clockmaker, expert in timepieces, and owner of Montecito Clock Gallery.[108][109]
Craig GottliebFirearms and military antique expert, owner of Craig Gottlieb Military Antiques.[110][111] Like Rick Harrison, he also appears on the series United Stuff of America.[112]
Mark Hall-PattonExpert in 20th century artifacts and history, and administrator of the Clark County Heritage Museum and the Howard W. Cannon Aviation Museum at McCarran Airport.[113][114][115] Hall-Patton is the expert most often consulted by the Harrisons,[116] and also appears on the spinoff American Restoration.[117] Unlike most of the experts who appear on the show, Hall-Patton never offers a financial estimate of an item's value, preferring to only establish authenticity and historical significance. Although the Clark County Museum was little-known outside of Las Vegas, and has no advertising budget, annual attendance soared nearly 70% since 2012, reached 42,000 in 2013.[118] Like Rick Harrison, he also appears on the series United Stuff of America.[119]
Johnny JimenezExpert in vintage toys, and owner of Toy Shack of Las Vegas.[120][121]
Danny "The Count" KokerMotorcycle and automobile restoration expert, and owner of Count’s Kustoms.[122][123][124] Koker has also guest-starred on Rick Dale's spinoff, American Restoration,[125] and stars in his own spinoff, Counting Cars, which premiered in August 2012.[13][14]
Wally KorhonenExpert in automobile restoration, and owner of Rusty Nuts Rods and Customs.[87][126][127]
Dana LinettExpert in artifacts from Early American history, including the Colonial and Revolutionary periods, and President of Early American History Auctions.[128][129][130]
Mark LoganExpert in classic and performance cars, as well as dragsters, and President of Nevada Classics, Inc. and Shelby Cars Northwest.[131][132]
Brett MalyFine art appraiser for Art Encounter in Las Vegas.[133]
Drew MaxForensic document examiner/handwriting expert, and owner of Authentic Autographs Unlimited.[134][135][136]
Paul MilburyOwner of Military Historical Arms & Antiques, and an expert in historical military arms and antiques from 1776 – World War II.[137]
Roy PageExpert in vintage vacuum tube appliances, and owner of Roy's Repair-O-Rama, which specializes in such appliances.[138]
Sean RichAntique arms and armory expert, specializing in the 16th to 18th centuries, and owner of Tortuga Trading Inc.[139][140][141] He also appeared as an expert in the National Geographic Channel show Lords of War.[142]
Rebecca RomneyExpert in rare books, manuscripts and documents from the 15th to the 21st centuries, and manager at the Las Vegas Gallery of Bauman Rare Books.[143][144][145]
Charles RoofArchery specialist and manager of Pacific Archery Sales.[146]
Murray SawChuckProfessional magician and magic historian, owner of Murray Productions Inc.[147]
Matthew C. ShortalAviation expert, Marine F-18 and Navy Blue Angels pilot, and graduate of Top Gun.[148]
Jay TellExpert in coins, paper currency and stamps, and owner of Americana Stamp & Coin Galleries.[149][150]
Bill YbarzabalBoat restorer, and owner of A1A Marine Tech.[151][152]

Celebrity cameo appearances

Cameo appearances have been made by Bob Dylan, Jeremy McKinnon, Meredith Vieira, the Oak Ridge Boys, George Stephanopoulos, Matt Kenseth, Steve Carell, Kip Winger, Roger Daltrey, Katie Couric and Butch Harmon.[153]

Reception

U.S. television ratings

By January 2011, Pawn Stars was History's highest-rated series. An original episode broadcast on January 24, 2011 was watched by seven million viewers, the most-watched telecast ever on History, according to the network and Nielsen Media Research.[4][154] In 2011 it was the second highest-rated reality series on TV behind Jersey Shore, attracting 7.6 million viewers.[155]

Critical reception

Christopher Long, reviewing the first season DVD for DVD Town, praised the series for its cast and the educational value of the items examined, calling it "addictive" and "a big-time winner", and opined that it is the best show on History and perhaps cable.[1] In one issue of TV Guide, writer Rob Moynihan included the show in a list of "guilty pleasures."[9] April McIntyre of Monsters and Critics, whose negative view of pawn shops influenced her view of the series' setting, reviewed one episode of the series, which she labeled a "cool Antiques Roadshow". Though she found aspects of it interesting, she criticized what she perceived as an emphasis on cheap laughs at the expense of family patriarch Richard Harrison over the show's historical material, as well as Corey Harrison's weight. She ultimately saw potential for the series if aspects of it that she found to be in poor taste were curbed.[156] USA Today's Gary Strauss opined that the bickering among the Harrisons, as well as the customers seen in the shop, is "alternately amusing and grating". People magazine wrote of the show, "Think Antiques Roadshow, but with neon and far more tattoos."[157] Some of History's viewers were reportedly displeased with how reality series like Pawn Stars and Swamp People have replaced some of the network's previous history-oriented programming.[155]

The series has also attracted some criticism from other pawnbrokers, who while conceding its entertainment value, claim that the series' focus on the extravagant vintage items brought into the Gold & Silver Pawn Shop are not typical of the average pawn shop, whose business is predicated on individuals on fixed income who bring in conventional objects in order to pay their bills, such as electronics, tools and jewelry. Corey Grigson and Charles Brown, who own a shop called Pawn Stars, estimate that their average loan to a customer is between $50 and $100. They also point out appraisals are handled by the staff, who rely on experience, reference works and research, and not the outside experts who are frequently seen on the show aiding the Harrisons.[158][dead link]

The success of the series has also lent itself to parody. At the June 2011 NHL Awards in Las Vegas,[159] the Hanson Brothers from the movie Slap Shot appeared in a spoof sketch in which they try to sell the Stanley Cup to Harrison at the Gold & Silver.[160]

Awards and honors

In 2010, Rick Harrison and the staff of the Gold and Silver Pawn Shop were awarded the Pawnbroker of the Year Award by the National Pawnbrokers Association for bringing the industry greater recognition and a better image with the TV show.[44][161]

On July 17, 2012, the Clark County Commission declared that day to be "Pawn Stars/Gold & Silver Pawn Day". At the Commission meeting, Richard "The Old Man" Harrison donated $1,000 to the Clark County Heritage Museum, and lent the U.S. Senate floor chair used by Senator Patrick McCarran (sold to the Gold and Silver in the Pawn Stars episode "Take a Seat") to the museum as part of a display on Senator McCarran.[162]

Legal issues

In October 2012, A+E Networks and the History channel, as well as cast members from the show, were sued in Clark County District Court in Las Vegas for interference with business practices by Wayne Jefferies, a Las Vegas promoter[163] and the Harrisons' manager, who represented them and "Chumlee" Russell in their television business dealings.[164] Jefferies, who was instrumental in helping to launch the series,[165][166] states that after the show premiered, his influence in the show was increasingly reduced, and he was ultimately fired and left without his promised share of fees and merchandising royalties from the series. Jefferies states that this occurred after a January 2012 leaked story on TMZ that indicated that the Pawn Stars cast was taken aback by the History Channel's launch of the spinoff Cajun Pawn Stars, of which the cast had been unaware.[163][167]

Spinoffs and similar series by Leftfield

Following the success of Pawn Stars, Leftfield Pictures created five spinoffs of Pawn Stars for History:

In addition, Leftfield created five similar series that follow the same format as Pawn Stars:

Merchandise

In 2011, History launched Pawn Stars: The Game for play on Facebook.[175]

In June 2011, Rick Harrison's autobiography, License to Pawn: Deals, Steals, and My Life at the Gold & Silver, was published by Hyperion Books.[176] Harrison's autobiography details his childhood, some of the troubles he faced before he got into the pawning business, as well as anecdotes from his time at the Gold & Silver. Also, The Old Man, Corey, and Chumlee have their own chapters in the book, reflecting on their life and experiences at the pawn shop.[177]

In October 2011, the Redwood Hills Financial Group issued the Modern Cash Prepaid MasterCard Limited Edition: Gold & Silver Pawn Shop prepaid debit card, in a special tie-in with the Gold and Silver Pawn Shop.[178][179]

On September 5, 2012, it was announced that Bally Technologies would unveil a new slot machine featuring the cast of Pawn Stars the following month at the 2012 Global Gaming Expo.[180] which took place October 2 to 4, 2012 in Las Vegas.

See also

References

  1. ^ a b c d e Long, Christopher (December 29, 2009). "PAWN STARS (TV SERIES) – DVD review". Movie Metropolis.
  2. ^ Rick Harrison and Tim Keown. License to Pawn. 2011. Hyperion. pp 1–3.
  3. ^ a b c Katsilometes, John (April 8, 2010). "Pawn shop boys". Las Vegas Weekly. Retrieved May 22, 2013. 
  4. ^ a b c d Childers, Linda (July 7, 2011). "Rick Harrison of 'Pawn Stars' spills success secrets". CNN Money.
  5. ^ "Corey Harrison: Partner and general manager, Gold and Silver Pawn", Las Vegas Sun, February 26, 2010
  6. ^ Pawn Stars, Locate TV, accessed December 23, 2010.
  7. ^ Rick Harrison and Tim Keown. 2011. page 204.
  8. ^ Lawrence, Christopher. "Las Vegas pawnshop center of new reality series" Las Vegas Review-Journal; July 19, 2009
  9. ^ a b Moynihan, Rob. "Summer's Guilty Pleasures". TV Guide. June 21, 2010. Page 23
  10. ^ a b c Hibberd, James (October 14, 2010). "History spinning off "Pawn Stars"". The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved August 11, 2011. 
  11. ^ a b c Katsilometes, John (June 29, 2010). "First‘Pawn Stars’ spinoff in production in Vegas, and it has restorative properties". Las Vegas Sun. 
  12. ^ a b c Katsilometes, John (September 24, 2010). "Rick Dale’s 'Pawn Stars' spinoff, 'Rusty Nuts,' set for Oct. 18 debut". Las Vegas Sun. Retrieved September 24, 2010. 
  13. ^ a b c "Danny 'The Count' Koker is in the Driver's Seat When New Car-Loving Series Premieres on History(R) – 'Counting Cars'". The Futon Critic. July 25, 2012.
  14. ^ a b c Rose, Lacey (July 20, 2012). "History Orders Car Flipping Series Starring 'Pawn Stars' Personality (Exclusive)". The Hollywood Reporter.
  15. ^ a b c Fixmer, Andy (October 21, 2010). "Pawn Stars: Our Most Revealing Reality Show". Bloomberg Businessweek.
  16. ^ a b c Bourdeau, Annette (March 12, 2012). "'Pawn Stars': 13 Things You Didn't Know About Chumlee, Rick And Corey ". The Huffington Post.
  17. ^ a b "Pawn Stars’ Richard “Old Man” Harrison Celebrates 70th Birthday". VegasNews.com. March 4, 2011
  18. ^ Smith, Grady (June 28, 2010). "'Pawn Stars':" Rick Harrison talks about cable's most unlikely hit!". Entertainment Weekly.
  19. ^ "Pawn Stars circa 2003" on YouTube, accessed Sep 19, 2009, July 13, 2011.
  20. ^ Harrison; Keown, 2011. page 249.
  21. ^ a b c d Strauss, Gary. "From 'Pawn Stars' to 'Pickers,' America's trash is TV's treasure" USA Today February 18, 2010
  22. ^ Harrison; Keown, 2011. page 252.
  23. ^ "Pezzed Off". Pawn Stars. Episode 2.15; January 25, 2010
  24. ^ "Face the Music". Pawn Stars. Season 4. Episode 39. July 25, 2011. History.
  25. ^ "The Wright Stuff". Pawn Stars. Season 4. Episode 44. August 15, 2011. History.
  26. ^ Examples include the chronometer in "Sharks and Cobra" and the barber's chair in "A Shot and a Shave".
  27. ^ a b Examples include Rick's reaction to the purchase of a stolen item in "John Hancock's Hancock", and his perception of Corey's laziness in motivating staff people like Chumlee to keep the back storage area organized, as well as putting rare items on display at the shop instead of in the backroom in "Backroom Brawl".
  28. ^ a b Examples include his purchase of a boat in "Sink or Sell", despite his father's policy against buying boats, and his $38,000 purchase of a hot air balloon in "Hot Air Buffoon", despite his father's rule requiring him to consult him first when paying more than $10,000 for an item.
  29. ^ a b Other examples include the Old Man's remarks in "Plane Crazy" that Chumlee probably can't spell the word "art", and can barely tie his own shoelaces.
  30. ^ Corey Harrison indicates he manages 30 employees in the second season episode "Backroom Brawl", and later states the shop has 48 employees in the third season episode "Like a Rolling Chum". The June 2010 Entertainment Weekly source also indicates a staff of over 40 employees. According to Richard Harrison on Page 88 of his son's 2011 autobiography, License to Pawn: Deals, Steals, and My Life at the Gold & Silver, the shop had 12 employees at the time the show began production.
  31. ^ "Peacemaker". Pawn Stars. Season 4. Episode 27. May 9, 2011. History.
  32. ^ a b "Over the Top". Pawn Stars. Season 4. Episode 33. June 13, 2011. History.
  33. ^ Harrison, 2011. pp. 70, 89
  34. ^ a b Hibberd, James (April 22, 2013). "'Pawn Stars' gets new theme song from Lynyrd Skynyrd – EXCLUSIVE". Entertainment Weekly.
  35. ^ Per Swamp People's official Facebook page
  36. ^ "Who's Your Dali?". Pawn Stars. June 12, 2014. History.
  37. ^ His middle name is established in "Chopper Gamble" (Episode 2.19).
  38. ^ a b c Meet the Pawn Stars: Rick "The Spotter" Harrison. History.com, accessed August 30, 2011.
  39. ^ His nickname is also established by the interstitial quiz that connects the second and third acts of the episode "Luck of the Draw".
  40. ^ a b Rick claims in "Steaks at Stake to own 50% of the store, but Richard insists that Rick owns only 49%.
  41. ^ “Ask the Pawn Stars”. Pawn Stars on History. Facebook. August 28, 2012. Retrieved September 3, 2012.
  42. ^ a b Post, Paul (June 11, 2014). "Grant Cottage to be part of new TV series". Saratogian News.
  43. ^ a b Dalseide, Lars (June 21, 2014). "Catch NRA Museum's Gun Gurus tonight on History Channel's United Stuff". NRAblog.com.
  44. ^ a b Bob Shemeligian (July 13, 2010). "Road to 'Pawn' – Before 'Stars,' Rick made sandwiches". New York Post. Retrieved August 18, 2011. 
  45. ^ Meet the Pawn Stars: The Old Man "The Appraiser", History.com, accessed February 10, 2011.
  46. ^ "Chummobile", Pawn Stars, Season 4, Episode 16, March 28, 2011
  47. ^ "Phoning it In" (Episode 3.11); July 12, 2010
  48. ^ "Big Guns" (Episode 2.24); March 8, 2010
  49. ^ His passion for cars is mentioned in the first season episode "Rope a Dope" and the third season episode "Honest Abe". He mentions in the second season episode "Sharks and Cobras" that he has owned 40 cars in his life.
  50. ^ "Old Man's Booty", Episode 2.3, History, December 7, 2009
  51. ^ "Honest Abe" Pawn Stars, Episode 3.26, History, November 1, 2010
  52. ^ "Pawn Illustrated", Episode 4.9, February 7, 2011
  53. ^ Meet the Pawn Stars: Corey "Big Hoss" Harrison, History.com, accessed February 10, 2011.
  54. ^ "Guns and Rangers". Pawn Stars. Season 2. Episode 17. February 1, 2010.
  55. ^ a b Pawn Stars. Season 2. Episode 23. March 1, 2010.
  56. ^ A previous version of History.com's cast page for the series stated that Rick closed most of the deals on the show. That statement is no longer on that page[dead link] as of March 2, 2010, and the interstitial trivia quiz seen at the end of the last commercial break of the episode "Off the Wagon" states that Corey makes the most purchases. Corey's purchase rate has not been explicitly indicated, but the interstitial that precedes the last Act of "Flight of the Chum" states that Rick purchases approximately 50 items a week.
  57. ^ His father quizzes him on this in "Rick's Big Bet".
  58. ^ Examples include Corey and the Old Man's bet in "Confederate Conundrum" that Corey could not sell a restored Rolex GMT watch for more than $4,800.
  59. ^ "'I can run now': Pawn Star Corey Harrison's staggering 115lb weight loss". Mail Online. July 12, 2011.
  60. ^ "The Offer". Pawn Stars. Season 6. Episode 10. November 26, 2012. History.
  61. ^ "Silent but Chumlee". Pawn Stars. Season 6. Episode 13. December 10, 2012. History.
  62. ^ a b "Meet the Pawn Stars: Austin (Chumlee) Russell". History.com, Retrieved March 5, 2011.
  63. ^ a b "Boom or Bust" (Episode 1.1)
  64. ^ "Plane Crazy" (Episode 1.12)
  65. ^ "Moon Walking" (Episode 3.12); July 12, 2010
  66. ^ Harrison; Keown; Russel, Austin. 2011. pp. 3, 151 and 204.
  67. ^ a b c Profile for Austin "Chumlee" Russel at Gold and Silver Pawn Shop; Accessed August 25, 2010
  68. ^ a b "Ready, Set, Pawn" (Episode 3.18); September 13, 2010
  69. ^ "Some Like It Not". Pawn Stars. Season 5. Episode 55. August 27, 2012. History.
  70. ^ Harrison; Keown; Russell, Wallace. 2011. p. 213.
  71. ^ Corey also references Chumlee's knowledge of pinball machines in "Honest Able" as well.
  72. ^ Harrison; Keown; Russell. 2011. pp 215–216.
  73. ^ "Meet Olivia Black" History. Retrieved August 12, 2012.
  74. ^ "'Pawn Stars' shop girl Olivia Black fired after her porn site past is revealed". Fox News. December 20, 2012.
  75. ^ "Olivia Black: 'Pawn Stars' Reality Starlet Fired For Nude Photos From Her Past As A Porn Star". International Business Times. December 20, 2012.
  76. ^ Arnowitz, Leora (October 8, 2013). "Olivia Black Leaves Gold & Silver". Fox News Network. Retrieved July 7, 2014. 
  77. ^ Arnowitz, Leora (December 26, 2012). "'Pawn Stars' former cast member Olivia Black talks firing, return to porn site work". Fox News.
  78. ^ a b c "Teacher's Pet". Pawn Stars. Season 4. Episode 50. September 19, 2011. History.
  79. ^ Katsilometes, John (April 10, 2010). "An inside look at Las Vegas’ television 'Pawn Stars'". Las Vegas Sun.
  80. ^ a b "Pawn Stars: Security Detail", History Channel's official YouTube channel. December 18, 2009. Accessed June 14, 2011.
  81. ^ "Security". Pawn Stars. Season 4. Episode 52. September 26, 2011. History.
  82. ^ "License to Pawn" (Episode 2.32), History, May 2, 2010
  83. ^ "Chumdog Millionaire" (Episode 3.22); "Case Closed" (Episode 4.6); "Take a Seat" (Episode 4.21); "Silence of the Lambo" (Episode 5.6)
  84. ^ "Peeping Pawn" (Episode 3.13)
  85. ^ "Shekel and Hyde". Pawn Stars. Season 6. Episode 30. February 25, 2013. History.
  86. ^ "April Fooled". Pawn Stars. Season 8. Episode 49. April 3, 2014. History.
  87. ^ a b "Meet the Experts". History.com. Accessed January 24, 2010
  88. ^ "Meet the Experts: Mark Allen"[dead link]. History.com. Retrieved March 5, 2012.
  89. ^ "Rope a Dope" (Episode 1.9); "John Hancock's Hancock" (Episode 1.11); "Steaks at Stake" (Episode 2.6); "Ace in the Hole" (Episode 3.14); "Monkey Business" (Episode 3.27)
  90. ^ Wild West Arts Club's official site. Retrieved March 5, 2012.
  91. ^ Western Stage Props' official site. Retrieved March 5, 2012.
  92. ^ "Damn Yankees" (Episode 1.6); "A Shot and a Shave" (Episode 2.4)
  93. ^ "Expert Handwriting Analysis' official site". Experthandwritinganalysis.com. December 28, 2013. Retrieved March 10, 2014. 
  94. ^ "Hot Air Buffoon" (Episode 2.5); "Chumdog Millionaire" (Episode 3.22); "Strike a Chord" (Episode 4.10); "Honor They Father" (Episode 4.34)"; Face the Music" (Episode 4.38); "Buyer Beware" (Episode 5.5); "Les is More" (Episode 5.18); "Kick the Can" (Episode 5.51); "On Guard" (Episode 6.7); "Little Pawn Shop of Horrors" (Episode 6.17); "Book 'Em Rick" (Episode 6.31); "Tee'd Off" (Episode 8.50); "Ponies and Phonies" (Episode 8.55)
  95. ^ "Cowtown Guitars". Cowtown Guitars. Retrieved March 10, 2014. 
  96. ^ "Cowtown Guitars Under New Ownership". Vintage Guitar Magazine. July 7, 2011
  97. ^ Rick Harrison traveled to Utah to investigate items for sale at Ashman's market in "Sharpe Shooters" (Episode 4.30) and "Weird Science" (Episode 4.43), but Ashman later appeared at the Gold & Silver as an expert in "Rick or Treat" (Episode 4.54), "Cash Cash Bang Bang" (Episode 5.16) and "Hole in One" (Episode 5.19)
  98. ^ Joe Ishmon. White Pages. Retrieved October 24, 2011.
  99. ^ "Guilty as Charged" (Episode 5.31); "Trigger Happy" (Episode 5.36); Like a Rock (Episode 5.42); "Pin it to Win It" (Episode 5.45); "Jet Setters" (Episode 5.50)
  100. ^ Heritage Auctions. Retrieved April 9, 2012.
  101. ^ "Pipe Dreams" (Episode 4.47); "Poker Night" (Episode 4.53); "Mile High Club" (Episode 5.1); "Patriot Games" (Episode 5.2); "Blaze of Glory" (Episode 5.3); "Yankee Panky" (Episode 5.20); "Air Mail" (Episode 5.21); "Huddle Up" (Episode 5.24); "Pawnocchio" (Episode 5.25); "Corey's Big Burn" (Episode 5.32); "To the Moon" (Episode 5.34); "Pin it to Win It" (Episode 5.45); "Stalled Deals" (Episode 5.47); "Hot and Colt" (Episode 5.48); "Kick the Can" (Episode 5.51); "Free Willie" (Episode 5.54); "Thirty Something" (Episode 5.58); "Three Pawn Night" (Episode 6.3); "Wouldn't It Be Ice?" (Episode 6.12); "Silent but Chumlee" (Episode 6.13); "Little Pawn Shop of Horrors" (Episode 6.17); "Spare the Rodman" (Episode 6.20); "Off the Hook" (Episode 6.24); "Beam Me Up" (Episode 6.29)
  102. ^ "Sports Memorabilia Authentication Station Taking Place Saturday, February 16th at Ultimate Sports Cards & Memorabilia". Globe Newswire. February 11, 2008
  103. ^ "Meet the Experts: Rick Dale". History.com. Accessed November 1, 2010.
  104. ^ "Time Machines" (Episode 1.8); "Rick's Big Bet" (Episode 1.10); "A Shot and a Shave" (Episode 2.4); "Wheels" (Episode 2.12); "Off the Wagon" (Episode 2.21); "Bumpy Ride" (Episode 2.26); "Hell Week" (Episode 2.29); "The British Are Coming" (Episode 2.31); "Trail Breaker" (Episode 3.1); "Deals from Hell" (Episode 3.6); "The Pick, The Pawn and the Polish" (Episode 4.35); "Making Cents" (Episode 4.36); "Putt, Putt, Pawn" (Episode 6.11); "Spare the Rodman" (Episode 6.20)
  105. ^ Rick's Restorations[dead link]
  106. ^ "A Shot and a Shave" (Episode 2.4); "Guns and Rangers" (Episode 2.16); "The Pick, The Pawn and the Polish" (Episode 4.35)
  107. ^ "Corey's Big Play" (Episode 5.11); "Help Wanted" (Episode 5.12)
  108. ^ "Sharks and Cobras" (Episode 2.2); "Rick's Bad Day" (Episode 2.11); "Ready, Set, Pawn" (Episode 3.18)
  109. ^ "Montecito Clock Gallery". Montecito Clock Gallery. Retrieved March 10, 2014. 
  110. ^ "Family Feud" (Episode 5.40); "Stuff It" (Episode 5.49); "Bullitt Proof" (Episode 5.52); "Cool as Ike" (Episode 5.53); Fork it Over (Episode 5.57); What You Talkin' 'Bout Sturgis? (Episode 6.1); "Wouldn't It Be Ice?" (Episode 6.12); "Take the Money and Run" (Episode 6.14); "Santa Chum" (Episode 6.16); "I Herd That" (Episode 6.18); "Lunch Larceny" (Episode 6.27); "Corey, I Am Your Father" (Episode 6.32); "Close, But No Cigar" (Episode 6.33)
  111. ^ "History Hunter: Craig Gottlieb Militaria". Retrieved June 14, 2012.
  112. ^ "American Firepower". United Stuff of America. Season 1. Episode 1. June 14, 2014. History.
  113. ^ "Fired Up" (Episode 2.1); "Pezzed Off" (Episode 2.15); "Top Secret" (Episode 3.2); "Strike, Spare, BOOM" (Episode 3.8); "Message in a Bottle" (Episode 3.9); "Rough Riders" (Episode 3.10); "Moon Walking" (Episode 3.12); "Getting a Head" (Episode 3.16); "The Eagle Has Landed" (Episode 3.19); "Luck of the Draw" (Episode 4.3); "Case Closed" (Episode 4.6); "Darth Pawn" (Episode 4.7); "Put Up Your Dukes" (Episode 4.8), "Going Postal" (Episode 4.15); "Take a Seat" (Episode 4.21); "Spidey Cents" (Episode 4.25); "Necessary Roughness" (Episode 4.26); "Peacemaker" (Episode 4.27); "Broadsiding Lincoln" (Episode 4.29); "Buy the Book" (Episode 4.32); "Late Night Chum" (Episode 4.31); "Face the Music" (Episode 4.38); "Silent and Deadly" (Episode 4.42); "Pirate's Booty" (Episode 4.49); "Teacher's Pet" (Episode 4.50); "Security" (Episode 4.52); "Patriot Games" (Episode 5.2); "$=MC2" (Episode 5.7); "Pony Up" (Episode 5.8); "High Tops" (Episode 5.9); "Corey's Big Play" (Episode 5.11); "Over the Moon" (Episode 5.17); "Yankee Panky" (Episode 5.20); "Huddle Up" (Episode 5.24); "Guns Blazing" (Episode 5.26); "James Gang Rides Again" (Episode 5.27); "Corey's Big Burn" (Episode 5.32); "Bossy Pants" (Episode 5.37); "Family Feud" (Episode 5.40); "That Sinking Feeling" (Episode 5.44); "Jet Setters" (Episode 5.50); "Some Like It Not" (Episode 5.55); Fork it Over (Episode 5.57); "Three Pawn Night" (Episode 6.3); "On Guard" (Episode 6.7); "Sweet Pawn of Mine" (Episode 6.9); "Silent but Chumlee" (Episode 6.13); "It's a Wonderful Pawn" (Episode 6.15); "I Herd That" (Episode 6.18); "Spare the Rodman" (Episode 6.20); "Hair Force One" (Episode 6.22); "Comic Con" (Episode 6.23); "Room and Hoard" (Episode 6.25); "Hello, Goodbye" (Episode 6.34)
  114. ^ "Meet the Experts: Mark Hall-Patton"[dead link]. History.com. Retrieved November 1, 2010.
  115. ^ Ed Vogel (March 31, 2008). "Chapel to be museum fixture". Las Vegas Review-Journal.
  116. ^ As revealed by the interstitial trivia quiz shown at the beginning of Act 3 of "Spidey Cents" (Episode 4.25)
  117. ^ "Break In". American Restoration. Season 4. Episode 70. December 12, 2012. History.
  118. ^ Glionna, John M. (June 19, 2014). "Mark Hall-Patton, expert on TV's 'Pawn Stars,' is the real deal". Los Angeles Times.
  119. ^ "Badass Presidents". United Stuff of America. Season 1. Episode 1. June 14, 2014. History.
  120. ^ "Like a Rolling Chum" (Episode 3.20); "Hello Nurse" (Episode 3.21); "Houdini's Handcuffs" (Episode 4.4); "Necessary Roughness" (Episode 4.26); "Buffalo Bull" (Episode 4.40); "Cannons and Klingons" (Episode 4.41); "Silent and Deadly" (Episode 4.42); "The King's Bling" (Episode 4.46); "Smells Like Pawn Spirit" (Episode 5.14); "Cash Cash Bang Bang" (Episode 5.16); "Cash is King" (Episode 5.22); "Bear-ly There" (Episode 5.23); "Pawnocchio" (Episode 5.25); "Zoodoo" (Episode 5.30); "What the Truck" (Episode 5.38); "Three Hour Tour" (Episode 5.39); "Stuff It" (Episode 5.49); "Comic Con" (Episode 6.23); "Room and Hoard" (Episode 6.25); "Grand Theft Corey" (Episode 6.28); "Beam Me Up" (Episode 6.29); "Corey, I Am Your Father" (Episode 6.32)
  121. ^ Toy Shack. Retrieved May 31, 2011.
  122. ^ "Getting a Head" (Episode 3.16); "The Eagle Has Landed" (Episode 3.19); "Bare Bones" (Episode 3.24); "Packing Heat" (Episode 4.2); "Pedal to the Medal" (Episode 4.5); "Ah, Shoot!" (Episode 4.14); "Chummobile" (Episode 4.16); "Pablo Pawncasso" (Episode 4.18); "Missile Attack" (Episode 4.20); "Spidey Cents" (Episode 4.25); "Sharps Shooters" (Episode 4.29); "The Pick, The Pawn and the Polish" (Episode 4.35); "Out of Gas" (Episode 4.45); "Bugs Money" (Episode 4.51); "Security" (Episode 4.52); "Blaze of Glory" (Episode 5.3); "Silence of the Lambo" (Episode 5.6); "Pony Up" (Episode 5.8); "High Tops" (Episode 5.9); "Apocalypse Wow" (Episode 5.10); "Help Wanted" (Episode 5.12); "Air Mail" (Episode 5.21); "Cash is King" (Episode 5.22); "To the Moon" (Episode 5.34); "Trigger Happy" (Episode 5.36); "What the Truck" (Episode 5.38); "Like a Rock" (Episode 5.42); "Stalled Deals" (Episode 5.47); "Hot and Colt" (Episode 5.48); "Bullitt Proof" (Episode 5.52); "Free Willie" (Episode 5.54); "Thirty Something" (Episode 5.58); "The Offer" (Episode 6.9); "It's a Wonderful Pawn" (Episode 6.15); "Grand Theft Corey" (Episode 6.28)
  123. ^ "Meet the Experts: Danny Koker"[dead link]. History.com. Retrieved July 25, 2012.
  124. ^ "Vince Neil Celebrates Grand Opening of Vince Neil Ink at The Rio". VegasNews.com. September 13, 2009
  125. ^ "The Pick, The Pawn & The Polish". American Restoration. Season 2. Episode 14. July 11, 2011. History.
  126. ^ "Gangsters & Guitars" (Episode 1.5); "Helmet Head" (Episode 2.27)
  127. ^ "Rusty Nuts Rod-n-Custom". Rusty Nuts Rod-n-Custom. Retrieved March 10, 2014. 
  128. ^ "John Hancock's Hancock" (Episode 1.11); "PlaneCrazy" (Episode 1.12); "Steaks at Stake" (Episode 2.6); "Secret Santa" (Episode 2.8); "Chopper Gamble" (Episode 2.19); "Spooning Paul Revere" (Episode 2.20); "Zzzzzz" (Episode 2.30); "The British Are Coming" (Episode 2.31) "Aw Shucks!" (Episode 3.5); "Cornering the Colonel" (Episode 3.17); "Never Surrender" (Episode 3.25); "Honest Abe" (Episode 3.26); "Packing Heat" (Episode 4.2); "Harrison for President" (Episode 4.11); "Chummobile" (Episode 4.16); "Patton Pending" (Episode 4.24); "Broadsiding Lincoln" (Episode 4.29); "Honor Thy Father" (Episode 4.34)
  129. ^ "Meet the Experts: Dana Linett". History.com. Accessed November 1, 2010.
  130. ^ "Early American.com Home Page". Earlyamerican.com. February 14, 2014. Retrieved March 10, 2014. 
  131. ^ "Sharks and Cobras" (Episode 2.2); "Ready, Set, Pawn" (Episode 3.18)
  132. ^ "Nevada Classics". Nevada Classics. Retrieved March 10, 2014. 
  133. ^ "Monkey Business" (Episode 4.1); "Ah, Shoot!" (Episode 4.14); "Pablo Pawncasso" (Episode 4.18); "Looney Dunes" (Episode 5.4); "$=MC2" (Episode 5.7); "Apocalypse Wow" (Episode 5.10); "Dirty Sox" (Episode 5.43); "Pin it to Win It" (Episode 5.45); "Some Like It Not" (Episode 5.55); "Take the Money and Run" (Episode 6.14); "Funny Money" (Episode 6.19); "Million Dali Baby" (Episode 6.20); "Shekel and Hyde" (Episode 6.29); "Hello, Goodbye" (Episode 6.34); "April Fooled" (Episode 8.49)
  134. ^ "Phoning It In" (Episode 3.11); "Moon Walking" (Episode 3.12); "Like a Rolling Chum" (Episode 3.20); "Chumdog Millionaire" (Episode 3.22); "Pedal to the Medal" (Episode 4.5); "Put Up Your Dukes" (Episode 4.8); "Striking a Chord" (Episode 4.10); "Wise Guys" (Episode 4.12); "Evel Genius" (Episode 4.17); "Not on My Watch" (Episode 4.21); "Take a Seat" (Episode 4.22); "Pom Pom Pawn" (Episode 4.23); "Patton Pending" (Episode 4.24); "The Great Escape" (Episode 4.28); "Buy the Book" (Episode 4.32); "Buffalo Bull" (Episode 4.40); "The Wright Stuff" (Episode 4.44); "High Stakes" (Episode 4.48); "Bugs Money" (Episode 4.51); "Patriot Games" (Episode 5.2); "Crosby, Stills and Cash" (Episode 5.15); "Over the Moon" (Episode 5.17); "Les is More" (Episode 5.18); "Yankee Panky" (Episode 5.20); "Bear-ly There" (Episode 5.23); "Guns Blazing" (Episode 5.26); "Ring Around a Rockne" (Episode 5.28); "Pawn with the Wind" (Episode 5.29); "Zoodoo" (Episode 5.30); "To the Moon" (Episode 5.34); "Dirty Sox" (Episode 5.43); "Love Me Spender" (Episode 5.46)
  135. ^ "Meet the Experts: Drew Max". History.com. Accessed November 1, 2010.
  136. ^ ""Authentic Autographs Unlimited"". Aaunlimited.net. Retrieved March 10, 2014. 
  137. ^ "Pawn Illustrated" (Episode 4.9); "Over the Top" (Episode 4.33); "The King's Bling" (Episode 4.46)
  138. ^ "James Gang Rides Again" (Episode 5.27); "The Last Samurai" (Episode 6.7)
  139. ^ "Meet the Experts: Sean Rich". History.com. Accessed November 1, 2010.
  140. ^ "Pawn Shop Pinot" (Episode 2.9); "Rick's Bad Day" (Episode 2.11); "Pezzed Off" (Episode 2.15); "Guns and Rangers" (Episode 2.17); "Off the Wagon" (Episode 2.21); "Bumpy Ride" (Episode 2.26); "Bow Legged" (Episode 2.28); "Whale of a Time" (Episode 3.3); "Deals from Hell" (Episode 3.6); "Message in a Bottle" (Episode 3.9); "Rough Riders" (Episode 3.10); "Double Trouble" (Episode 3.15); "Hello Nurse" (Episode 3.21); "Gone With the Schwinn" (Episode 3.23); "Luck of the Draw" (Episode 4.3); "Pawn Illustrated" (Episode 4.9); "Chummobile" (Episode 4.16); "Peacemaker" (Episode 4.27); "Sharps Shooters" (Episode 4.29); "Off the Wall" (Episode 4.39); "Cannons and Klingons" (Episode 4.41); "Silent and Deadly" (Episode 4.42); "Weird Science" (Episode 4.43); "The Wright Stuff" (Episode 4.44); "Buyer Beware" (Episode 5.5)
  141. ^ Tortuga Trading Inc. accessed July 25, 2011.
  142. ^ "Lords of War official website, Meet the Cast (Sean Rich) section.". Retrieved July 23, 2013. 
  143. ^ "Out of Gas" (Episode 4.45); "Pipe Dreams" (Episode 4.47); "Teacher's Pet (Episode 4.50)' "Learning the Ropes" (Episode 5.13); "Cash is King" (Episode 5.22); "Zoodoo" (Episode 5.30); "Silver Linings" (Episode 5.41); "That Sinking Feeling" (Episode 5.44); "Cool as Ike" (Episode 5.53); "Say It Ain't So" (Episode 5.56); "Putt, Putt, Pawn" (Episode 6.11); "Santa Chum" (Episode 6.16); "Funny Money" (Episode 6.19); "Million Dali Baby" (Episode 6.20); "Lunch Larceny" (Episode 6.27); "Book 'Em Rick" (Episode 6.31)
  144. ^ Burke, Anne. "Las Vegas: The Strip’s only bookstore isn’t quite what you’d expect". Road Journals. June 2, 2011.
  145. ^ "Viva Los Vaqueros! February Newsletter"[dead link]. Los Vaqueros Las Vegas, Ltd. February 2010. accessed September 5, 2011.
  146. ^ "Peaches & Pinups" (Episode 1.13); "Spooning Paul Revere" (Episode 2.20); "Bow Legged" (Episode 2.28); "Chumdog Millionaire" (Episode 3.22)
  147. ^ "Houdini's Handcuffs" (Episode 4.4); "The Great Escape" (Episode 4.28); "The Offer" (Episode 6.9); "Just Shoe It" (Episode 6.26)
  148. ^ "Missile Attack" (Episode 4.20); "Broadsiding Lincoln" (Episode 4.29); "Mile High Club" (Episode 5.1); "Crosy, Stills and Cash" (Episode 5.15); "Wild Thing" (Episode 5.33); "Bossy Pants" (Episode 5.37)
  149. ^ "Guilty as Charged" (Episode 5.31); "Chum-p Change" (Episode 5.35); "Three Hour Tour" (Episode 5.39)
  150. ^ "Bio of Jay Tell". Americana Stamp & Coin Galleries, Inc. Retrieved April 24, 2012.
  151. ^ "Sink or Sell" (Episode 1.3); "Chum Goes AWOL" (Episode 2.13)
  152. ^ "Killer, Ed. "'Pawn Star' sets up shop in Stuart" TCpalm.com; February 11, 2010, Accessed February 12, 2010". Tcpalm.com. Retrieved March 10, 2014. 
  153. ^ Jeremy McKinnon appears in the episode "Double Trouble", Bob Dylan in "Like a Rolling Chum", and Meredith Vieira in "Chumdog Millionaire", all of which aired during the third season. The Oak Ridge Boys appear in "Packing Heat", and George Stephanopoulos in "Buy The Book", both of which aired during the fourth season. Matt Kenseth appears at the end of the fifth season episode "What the Truck". Steve Carell appears in the sixth season episode "Hello, Goodbye". Kip Winger and Roger Daltrey both appear in the seventh season premiere "Rick 'n' Roll". Katie Couric appears at the end of the seventh season episode "Chum-parazzi". Butch Harmon appears in the eighth season episode "Tee'd Off".
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  158. ^ Nelson, Emily (January 31, 2010). "Local pawn shops see more DVDs than diamonds". The News-Star. 
  159. ^ "Stars return to Vegas for the 2011 NHL Awards". National Hockey League. March 31, 2011.
  160. ^ "Bruins Highlights From the NHL Awards". Boston Bruins. June 22, 2011. Retrieved January 15, 2012.
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Further reading

External links