Paul Thomas Anderson

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Paul Thomas Anderson
Paul Thomas Anderson 2007 crop.jpg
Anderson in New York City, December 10, 2007
BornPaul Thomas Anderson
(1970-06-26) June 26, 1970 (age 43)
Los Angeles
Other namesP.T.A., P.T. Anderson
OccupationFilm director, script writer, producer
Years active1988–present
Notable work(s)Boogie Nights, Magnolia, Punch-Drunk Love, There Will Be Blood, The Master
Partner(s)Maya Rudolph (2001–present)
Children4
 
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Paul Thomas Anderson
Paul Thomas Anderson 2007 crop.jpg
Anderson in New York City, December 10, 2007
BornPaul Thomas Anderson
(1970-06-26) June 26, 1970 (age 43)
Los Angeles
Other namesP.T.A., P.T. Anderson
OccupationFilm director, script writer, producer
Years active1988–present
Notable work(s)Boogie Nights, Magnolia, Punch-Drunk Love, There Will Be Blood, The Master
Partner(s)Maya Rudolph (2001–present)
Children4

Paul Thomas Anderson (born June 26, 1970) is an American film director, screenwriter, and producer. Interested in film-making at a young age, Anderson was encouraged by his father Ernie Anderson to become a filmmaker. Anderson is often considered to be one of the greatest and most distinctive filmmakers of his generation, initially being praised as a wunderkind after the release of Boogie Nights and Magnolia.

In 1993, he wrote and directed a short film titled Cigarettes & Coffee on a budget of $20,000. After he attended the Sundance Institute, Anderson had a deal with Rysher Entertainment to direct his first feature film, Hard Eight, in 1996. Anderson received critical and commercial success for his film Boogie Nights (1997), set during the Golden Age of Porn in the 1970s and 1980s. His third feature, Magnolia (1999), received wide acclaim despite struggling at the box office.

In 2002, Punch-Drunk Love, Anderson's fourth feature, was released to positive reviews. After a five-year absence, There Will Be Blood was released to critical acclaim in 2007. It is Anderson's highest-grossing film to date and is considered by many critics to be one of the greatest films of the 2000s. In 2012, Anderson's sixth film, The Master, was released to critical acclaim. His planned seventh film, Inherent Vice, based on the novel of the same name by Thomas Pynchon, is scheduled for release in 2014.

Early life[edit]

Paul Thomas Anderson was born on June 26, 1970, in Studio City, California, to Edwina (née Gough) and Ernie Anderson.[1][2] Ernie was an actor who was the voice of A.B.C. and a Cleveland television late-night horror movie host known as "Ghoulardi" (after whom Paul Thomas Anderson later named his production company).[1][2] Anderson grew up in the San Fernando Valley.[3] He is third youngest of nine children,[4][5] and had a troubled relationship with his mother but was close with his father, who encouraged him to become a writer or director.[6] Anderson attended a number of schools, including Buckley in Sherman Oaks, John Thomas Dye School, Campbell Hall School, Cushing Academy and Montclair Prep.[5]

Anderson was involved in film-making at a young age[7][8] and never really had an alternative plan to directing films.[9] He made his first movie when he was eight years old[4] and started making movies on a Betamax video camera which his dad bought in 1982 when he was twelve years old.[8] He later started using 8 mm film but realized that video was easier.[7] He began writing in adolescence, and at 17 years old he began experimenting with a Bolex sixteen millimeter camera.[7][10] After years of experimenting with "standard fare", he wrote and filmed his first real production as a senior in high school at Montclair Prep using money he earned cleaning cages at a pet store.[8] The film was a thirty-minute mockumentary shot on video called The Dirk Diggler Story (1988), about a pornography star; the story was inspired by John Holmes, who also served as a major inspiration for Boogie Nights.[5][6][7][10]

Career[edit]

Early career[edit]

An admittedly poor student in high school, Anderson was unable to immediately attend college. Nevertheless, he spent two semesters as an English major at Emerson College and only two days at New York University. Anderson began his career as a production assistant on television movies, music videos and game shows in Los Angeles and New York City.[5][11][12] With some money he won gambling, his girlfriend's credit card, and $10,000 his father set aside for college, Anderson decided to make a twenty-minute film that would be his "college."[11]

The film he made was Cigarettes & Coffee (1993), a short film made for $20,000 connecting multiple story lines with a twenty-dollar bill.[5][10][13] The film was screened at the 1993 Sundance Festival Shorts Program. He decided to expand the film into a feature length film and was subsequently invited to the 1994 Sundance Feature Film Program.[5][10][13] At Sundance Feature Film Program, Michael Caton-Jones served as Anderson's mentor; he saw Anderson as someone with "talent and a fully formed creative voice but not much hands-on experience" and gave him some hard and practical lessons.[8]

1990s[edit]

Hard Eight[edit]

While at the Sundance Feature Film Program, Anderson already had a deal with Rysher Entertainment to direct his first feature.[8] In 1996, Anderson made his first full-length feature, Sydney, which was retitled Hard Eight (1996).[6] Upon completion of the film, Rysher re-edited it.[8] Anderson, who still had the workprint of his original cut, submitted the film,[10] which was accepted and screened in the Un Certain Regard section at the 1996 Cannes Film Festival.[14][15] Anderson was able to get his version released but only after he retitled the film and raised the $200,000 necessary to finish it; he, Gwyneth Paltrow, and John C. Reilly contributed the funding.[8][10] The version that was released was Anderson's[10] and the acclaim from the film launched his career.[5]

Boogie Nights[edit]

Anderson began working on the script for his next feature film during his troubles with Hard Eight,[8] completing the script in the 1995.[10] The result was Anderson's breakout film[16][17][18] Boogie Nights (1997), a full-length major motion picture based on his short The Dirk Diggler Story.[5][10][19] The script was noticed by New Line Cinemas president, Michael De Luca, who felt "totally gaga" reading it.[8] It was released on October 10, 1997 and was a critical and commercial success.[6] The film revived the career of Burt Reynolds[20][21] and provided breakout roles for Mark Wahlberg[22] and Julianne Moore.[23][24] At 70th Academy Awards, the film received three Academy Award nominations, for Best Actor in a Supporting Role (Burt Reynolds), Best Actress in a Supporting Role (Julianne Moore), and Best Original Screenplay.[25]

Magnolia[edit]

After the success of Boogie Nights, New Line told Anderson that he could do whatever he wanted for his next film and granted him creative control.[6] Though Anderson initially wanted to make a film that was "intimate and small-scale", the script "kept blossoming". The resulting film was the ensemble piece Magnolia (1999), which tells the story of the peculiar interaction of several individuals in the San Fernando Valley.[26][27] Anderson used the music of Aimee Mann as a basis and inspiration for the film,[28] commissioning her to write eight new songs.[29] At the 72nd Academy Awards, Magnolia received three nominations, for Best Actor in a Supporting Role (Tom Cruise), Best Original Song for "Save Me" by Aimee Mann and Best Original Screenplay.[30] Anderson stated after the film's release that "what I really feel is that Magnolia is, for better or worse, the best movie I'll ever make."[31]

2000s[edit]

Punch-Drunk Love[edit]

After the release of Magnolia, Anderson stated that he would like to work with Adam Sandler in the future and that he was determined to make his next film 90 minutes long.[16][26] His next feature was the comedy/romance film Punch-Drunk Love (2002), partly based on David Phillips (also called The Pudding Guy). The film starred Adam Sandler with Emily Watson portraying his love interest.[32] The story centers on a beleaguered small-business owner (Sandler) with anger issues and seven emasculating sisters.[32] Sandler received critical praise for his role in his first major departure from the mainstream comedies that had made him a star.[20][33] At the 2002 Cannes Film Festival, the film won best director and was nominated for the Golden Palm.[34]

There Will Be Blood[edit]

There Will Be Blood (2007) was loosely based on the Upton Sinclair novel Oil!.[35] The budget of the film was $25 million, and it earned $76.1 million worldwide.[36] Daniel Day-Lewis starred and won an Oscar for Best Leading Actor for his role.[37] The film received eight nominations overall at the 80th Academy Awards.[37] Paul Dano received a BAFTA nomination for Best Supporting Actor.[38] Anderson was nominated for Best Director from the Directors Guild of America.[39] The film also received eight Academy Award nominations, tying with No Country for Old Men for the most nominations.[40] Anderson received nominations for Best Picture, Best Director and Best Adapted Screenplay, losing all three to the Coen Brothers for No Country for Old Men.[37] There Will Be Blood was largely regarded as one of the greatest films of the decade, and some parties further declaring it one of the most accomplished American films of the modern era; David Denby of The New Yorker wrote "the young writer-director Paul Thomas Anderson has now done work that bears comparison to the greatest achievements of Griffith and Ford", while Richard Schickel proclaimed it "one of the most wholly original American movies ever made".[41]

2010s[edit]

The Master[edit]

In December 2009, Anderson was working on a new script tentatively titled The Master, about a "charismatic intellectual" who starts a new religion in the 1950s.[42] Though the film makes no reference to the movement, it has "long been widely assumed to be based on Scientology."[43] The Master was released on September 14, 2012 by The Weinstein Company in the United States and Canada[44] to critical acclaim.[45][46] The film received three nominations at the 85th Academy Awards: Joaquin Phoenix for Best Leading Actor, Philip Seymour Hoffman for Best Supporting Actor and Amy Adams for Best Supporting Actress[47]

Inherent Vice[edit]

Production of Anderson's adaptation of Thomas Pynchon's 2009 novel Inherent Vice began in May 2013 and ended in August of the same year.[48] The film marks the first time that Pynchon allowed his work to be adapted for the screen and will see Anderson team up with Phoenix for a second time.[49][50] As of June 2013, the supporting cast includes Owen Wilson,[48] Reese Witherspoon, Jena Malone, Martin Short,[51] Benicio Del Toro,[52] Sean Penn,[53] Katherine Waterston,[54] and Josh Brolin.[55]

Other work[edit]

Anderson was a standby director during the 2005 filming of Robert Altman's A Prairie Home Companion for insurance purposes, as Altman was 80 years old at the time.[56] In addition to films, Anderson has directed several music videos, including several for musician Fiona Apple.[57][58] In 2008, Anderson co-wrote and directed a 70-minute play at the Largo Theatre, comprising a series of vignettes starring Maya Rudolph and Fred Armisen, with a live musical score by Jon Brion.[59]

Influences and style[edit]

Influences[edit]

Anderson only attended film school for two days, preferring to learn the craft by watching films by the filmmakers he liked, as well as watching films accompanied by director's audio commentary.[3][9][10] In 2012 at Australia's Melbourne premiere of The Master at The Astor Theatre, Anderson spoke candidly of his brief experiences at film school, remarking of his frustration at the 'dull silent movies' displayed by lecturers who tried to make movie watching feel 'as much like homework as possible.'[60] Anderson cites Martin Scorsese, Robert Altman, Jonathan Demme, Stanley Kubrick, Orson Welles, and Max Ophüls as his main influences as a filmmaker.[7][18][61]

Themes and style[edit]

Anderson is known for films set in the San Fernando Valley with realistically flawed and desperate characters.[9][62] Among the themes dealt with in Anderson's films are dysfunctional familial relationships,[18][61][63] alienation,[61] surrogate families,[64] regret,[61] loneliness,[18] destiny,[5] the power of forgiveness,[4] and ghosts of the past.[18] Anderson's films are known for their bold visual style[62] which includes stylistic trademarks such as constantly moving camera,[31][62] steadicam-based long takes,[17][18][65] memorable use of music,[17][31][62] and multilayered audiovisual imagery.[17][65] Anderson also tends to reference the Book of Exodus, either explicitly or subtly, such as in recurring references to Exodus 8:2 in Magnolia,[66] which chronicles the Plague of frogs, culminating with the literal raining of frogs in the film's climax, or the title and themes in There will be blood, a phrase that can be found in Exodus 7:19, which details the Plague of blood.[67]

Within his first three films, Hard Eight, Boogie Nights, and Magnolia, Anderson explored themes of dysfunctional families, alienation, and loneliness.[18][61] Boogie Nights and Magnolia were noted for their large ensemble casts.[16][62] In Punch-Drunk Love, Anderson explored similar themes but expressed a different visual style, shedding the influences and references of his earlier films, being more surreal and having a heightened sense of reality.[61][65] It was also short, compared to his previous two films, at 90 minutes.[16] There Will Be Blood stood apart from his first four films but shared similar themes and style such as flawed characters, moving camera, memorable music, and a lengthy running time.[62] The film was more overtly engaged with politics than his previous films had been,[16] examining capitalism and themes such as savagery, optimism, and obsession.[68]

Frequent collaborators[edit]

Anderson frequently collaborates with many actors and crew, carrying them over from film to film.[69] Anderson has referred to his regular actors as "my little rep company" that includes John C. Reilly, Philip Baker Hall, Philip Seymour Hoffman, Julianne Moore, William H. Macy, and Melora Walters.[70] Luis Guzmán is also considered an Anderson regular.[71] Hoffman acted in Anderson's first four films[72] as well as The Master.[73] With the exception of Paul F. Tompkins, who had an equally minor role in Magnolia,[74] There Will Be Blood had an entirely new cast. Additionally, Robert Elswit has been cinematographer for Anderson's first five features.[75] Jon Brion has served as composer for three of his films (Hard Eight, Magnolia, and Punch-Drunk Love),[76] and Jonny Greenwood has served as composer on two (There Will Be Blood and The Master).[77] Anderson also regularly works with producing partners JoAnne Sellar, Scott Rudin, Michael De Luca, and Daniel Lupi[75] as well as casting director Cassandra Kulukundis.[73]

CollaboratorsHard EightBoogie NightsMagnoliaPunch-Drunk LoveThere Will Be BloodThe MasterInherent Vice
Mark Bridges - costume/production designer (Magnolia only)
YesY
YesY
YesY
YesY
YesY
Jon Brion - composer
YesY
YesY
YesY
Robert Elswit - cinematography
YesY
YesY
YesY
YesY
YesY
YesY
Jonny Greenwood - composer
YesY
YesY
YesY
Luis Guzmán
YesY
YesY
YesY
Philip Baker Hall
YesY
YesY
YesY
Philip Seymour Hoffman
YesY
YesY
YesY
YesY
YesY
William H. Macy
YesY
YesY
Alfred Molina
YesY
YesY
Julianne Moore
YesY
YesY
Kevin J. O'Connor
YesY
YesY
YesY
Michael Penn - composer/actor (Boogie Nights only)
YesY
YesY
Joaquin Phoenix
YesY
YesY
John C. Reilly
YesY
YesY
YesY
Melora Walters
YesY
YesY
YesY
YesY
Dylan Tichenor - editor
YesY
YesY
YesY

Personal life[edit]

Anderson has been in a relationship with actress and comedienne Maya Rudolph since 2001.[78][79] They live together in Los Angeles[4][73] with their four children: daughters Pearl Minnie (born October 2005)[80][81][82] and Lucille (born November 2009),[83] son Jack (born July 2011),[84] and a baby born in September 2013.[85]

He was previously romantically linked to singer Fiona Apple,[86] and directed several music videos for her second album.[87]

Filmography[edit]

Feature films[edit]

YearFilmCredited asRotten Tomatoes
DirectorWriterProducer
1996Hard Eight (also known as Sydney)YesYes82%
1997Boogie NightsYesYesYes92%
1999MagnoliaYesYesYes84%
2002Punch-Drunk LoveYesYesYes79%
2007There Will Be BloodYesYesYes91%
2012The MasterYesYesYes85%
2014Inherent ViceYesYesYes

Short films[edit]

Music videos[edit]

Awards and recognition[edit]

Anderson has been hailed as "one of the most exciting talents to come along in years"[88] and "among the supreme talents of today."[89] After the release of Boogie Nights and Magnolia, Anderson was praised as a wunderkind.[90] In 2004, Anderson was ranked twenty-first on The Guardian's list of the forty best directors.[91] In 2007, Total Film named him the twentieth greatest director of all time and the American Film Institute regarded him as "one of American film's modern masters."[68][92] In 2012, The Guardian ranked him number one on its list of "The 23 Best Film Directors in the World," stating "his dedication to his craft has intensified, with his disdain for PR and celebrity marking him out as the most devout filmmaker of his generation."[93] In 2013, Entertainment Weekly named him the eighth-greatest working director, calling him "one of the most dynamic directors to emerge in the last 20 years."[94] In a podcast interview with critic Elvis Mitchell, director Sam Mendes referred to Anderson as "a true auteur – and there are very few of those who I would classify as geniuses", and Ben Affleck in his acceptance speech for the Golden Globe Award for Best Director said "Paul Thomas Anderson, who to me is like Orson Welles."[95]

YearAwardCategoryTitleResult
1996Deauville Film FestivalGrand Special PrizeSydneyNominated
1997Boston Society of Film Critics AwardBest New Film-MakerBoogie Nights
Sydney
Won
Los Angeles Film Critics Association AwardNew Generation AwardBoogie NightsWon
Toronto International Film FestivalMetro Media AwardWon
1998Academy AwardBest Original ScreenplayNominated
BAFTA AwardBest ScreenplayNominated
European Film AwardScreen International AwardNominated
Independent Spirit AwardBest First FeatureSydneyNominated
Best First ScreenplayNominated
Online Film Critics Society AwardBest DirectorBoogie NightsNominated
Best ScreenplayNominated
PEN Center USA West Literary AwardsBest ScreenplayWon
Satellite AwardBest DirectorNominated
Best Motion PictureNominated
Best ScreenplayNominated
Writers Guild of America AwardBest ScreenplayNominated
1999Toronto Film Critics Association AwardBest DirectorMagnoliaWon
Best ScreenplayWon
2000Academy AwardBest Original ScreenplayNominated
Berlin International Film FestivalGolden Berlin BearWon
Reader Jury of the "Berliner Morgenpost"Won
Chicago Film Critics Association AwardBest DirectorNominated
Best ScreenplayNominated
Chlotrudis AwardBest DirectorNominated
Italian National Syndicate of Film JournalistsBest Foreign DirectorNominated
Online Film Critics Society AwardBest ScreenplayNominated
San Sebastián International Film FestivalFIPRESCI Film of the YearWon
Satellite AwardBest DirectorNominated
Best ScreenplayNominated
Writers Guild of America AwardBest ScreenplayNominated
2001Bodil AwardBest American FilmNominated
Cinema Brazil Grand PrizeBest Foreign FilmNominated
Empire AwardBest DirectorNominated
Guldbagge AwardBest Foreign FilmWon
London Critics Circle Film AwardScreenwriter of the YearNominated
Robert FestivalBest American FilmNominated
2002Cannes Film FestivalBest DirectorPunch-Drunk LoveWon
Palme d'OrNominated
Gijón International Film FestivalBest ScreenplayWon
Best Feature FilmNominated
Toronto Film Critics Association AwardBest DirectorWon
2003Central Ohio Film Critics AssociationBest DirectorWon
Best ScreenplayWon
Chicago Film Critics Association AwardBest DirectorNominated
Best ScreenplayNominated
Chlotrudis AwardBest DirectorWon
Motovun Film FestivalPropeller of Motovun AwardWon
Online Film Critics Society AwardBest ScreenplayNominated
Phoenix Film Critics Society AwardBest ScreenplayNominated
2007AFI AwardAFI Movie of the YearThere Will Be BloodWon
Austin Film Critics AssociationBest DirectorWon
Chicago Film Critics Association AwardBest DirectorNominated
Best ScreenplayNominated
Dallas-Fort Worth Film Critics Association AwardBest DirectorNominated
Los Angeles Film Critics Association AwardBest DirectorWon
New York Film Critics Circle AwardBest DirectorNominated
San Diego Film Critics Society AwardBest DirectorWon
Best ScreenplayWon
2008Academy AwardBest Adapted ScreenplayNominated
Best DirectorNominated
Best PictureNominated
Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences of ArgentinaBest Foreign FilmNominated
Amanda AwardBest Foreign FilmWon
BAFTA AwardBest DirectorNominated
Best FilmNominated
Best ScreenplayNominated
Berlin International Film FestivalBest DirectorWon
Golden Berlin BearNominated
Chlotrudis AwardBest DirectorNominated
Best ScreenplayNominated
David di Donatello AwardBest Foreign FilmNominated
Directors Guild of America AwardBest DirectorNominated
Golden Eagle AwardBest Foreign FilmWon
Italian National Syndicate of Film JournalistsBest Non-European DirectorNominated
Kansas City Film Critics Circle AwardBest DirectorWon
London Critics Circle Film AwardDirector of the YearWon
Screenwriter of the YearNominated
National Society of Film Critics AwardBest DirectorWon
Best ScreenplayNominated
Online Film Critics Society AwardBest DirectorNominated
Best ScreenplayNominated
PEN Center USA West Literary AwardsBest ScreenplayWon
PGA AwardBest Theatrical Motion PictureNominated
Russian Guild of Film CriticsBest Foreign FilmNominated
San Sebastián International Film FestivalFIPRESCI Film of the YearWon
USC Scripter AwardUSC Scripter AwardNominated
Vancouver Film Critics CircleBest DirectorNominated
Writers Guild of America AwardBest ScreenplayNominated
2009Bodil AwardBest American FilmWon
César AwardBest Foreign FilmNominated
Empire AwardBest DirectorNominated
Film Critics Circle of Australia AwardBest Foreign FilmNominated
Guldbagge AwardBest Foreign FilmNominated
Robert FestivalBest American FilmNominated
2012Boston Society of Film Critics AwardBest DirectorThe MasterNominated
Chicago Film Critics Association AwardBest PictureNominated
Best DirectorNominated
Best Original ScreenplayNominated
Gotham AwardsBest FeatureNominated
FIPRESCI AwardBest FilmWon
Los Angeles Film Critics Association AwardBest DirectorWon
Best FilmNominated
Premia Cinema LudusSpecial Mention – Gran Prix for Best FilmWon
Best Undistributed FilmWon
Best Director – Undistributed FilmWon
Best Screeplay – Undistributed FilmWon
Satellite AwardsBest Original ScreenplayNominated
Venice International Film FestivalGolden LionNominated
Silver LionWon
Washington D.C. Area Film Critics AssociationBest DirectorNominated
Best Original ScreenplayNominated
2013AACTA AwardsBest International ScreenplayNominated
British Academy Film AwardsBest Original ScreenplayNominated
Broadcast Film Critics Association AwardBest PictureNominated
Best Original ScreenplayNominated
National Society of Film Critics AwardBest FilmNominated
Best DirectorNominated
Best ScreenplayNominated
Writers Guild of America AwardBest Original ScreenplayNominated

References[edit]

Notes
  1. ^ a b Waxman, Sharon R. (2005). Rebels on the backlot: six maverick directors and how they conquered the Hollywood studio system. HarperCollins. p. 84. ISBN 978-0-06-054017-3. 
  2. ^ a b Luttermoser, John (April 5, 2008). "'There Will Be Blood' comes out on video Tuesday". Cleveland.com. Cleveland Live, Inc. Retrieved September 28, 2010. 
  3. ^ a b Waxman, Sharon R. (2005). Rebels on the backlot: six maverick directors and how they conquered the Hollywood studio system. HarperCollins. pp. xii, xiii. ISBN 978-0-06-054017-3. 
  4. ^ a b c d Hirschberg, Lynn (June 5, 2013). "The Master Director: Paul Thomas Anderson". PORT Magazine. Retrieved June 8, 2013. 
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h i Richardson, John H. (September 22, 2008). "The Secret History of Paul Thomas Anderson". Esquire.com. Hearst Communications, Inc. Retrieved July 29, 2010. 
  6. ^ a b c d e Hirshberg, Lynn (December 19, 1999). "His Way". NYTimes.com (The New York Times Company). Retrieved February 10, 2010. 
  7. ^ a b c d e "Transcript: Paul Thomas Anderson 12/16/99". Time.com (Time Inc.). December 16, 1999. Archived from the original on June 29, 2011. Retrieved February 26, 2011. 
  8. ^ a b c d e f g h i Rochlin, Margy (October 12, 1997). "FILM; The Innocent Approach to an Adult Opus". NYTimes.com (The New York Times Company). Retrieved April 7, 2011. 
  9. ^ a b c Johnston, Robert K. (2004). Useless Beauty: Ecclesiastes Through The Lens Of Contemporary Film. Baker Academic. pp. 73–74. ISBN 978-0-8010-2785-7. 
  10. ^ a b c d e f g h i j McKenna, Kristine (October 12, 1997). "Knows It When He Sees It". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved May 21, 2011. 
  11. ^ a b Ebert, Roger (October 19, 1997). "Director's talent makes 'Boogie' fever infectious". rogerebert.com. Chicago Sun-Times. Retrieved May 21, 2011. 
  12. ^ Waxman, Sharon R. (2005). Rebels on the backlot: six maverick directors and how they conquered the Hollywood studio system. HarperCollins. p. 86. ISBN 978-0-06-054017-3. 
  13. ^ a b Waxman, Sharon R. (2005). Rebels on the backlot: six maverick directors and how they conquered the Hollywood studio system. HarperCollins. p. 87. ISBN 978-0-06-054017-3. 
  14. ^ Waxman, Sharon R. (2005). Rebels on the backlot: six maverick directors and how they conquered the Hollywood studio system. HarperCollins. p. 91. ISBN 978-0-06-054017-3. 
  15. ^ "Festival de Cannes: Hard Eight". Festival-Cannes.com. Retrieved September 20, 2009. 
  16. ^ a b c d e Pilkington, Ed (January 4, 2008). "'Tell the story! Tell the story!'". guardian.co.uk. Guardian News and Media Limited. Retrieved March 9, 2011. 
  17. ^ a b c d Lim, Dennis (December 24, 2007). "Bigger, Louder, More Frogs". Slate.com. Washington Post.Newsweek Interactive Co. LLC. Retrieved February 26, 2011. 
  18. ^ a b c d e f g Allon, Yoram; Cullen, Del; Patterson, Hannah (2002). Contemporary North American film directors: a Wallflower critical guide. Wallflower Press. pp. 14–15. ISBN 1-903364-52-3. 
  19. ^ Waxman, Sharon R. (2005). Rebels on the backlot: six maverick directors and how they conquered the Hollywood studio system. HarperCollins. p. 115. ISBN 978-0-06-054017-3. 
  20. ^ a b Kennedy, Helen (January 19, 1998). "'TITANIC' FLOATS THEIR BOATS WINS GOLDEN GLOBES FOR DRAMA, DIRECTOR". NYDailyNews.com. NYDailyNews.com. Retrieved August 23, 2010. 
  21. ^ Corliss, Richard (December 17, 2008). "Burt Reynolds, Boogie Nights". Time.com (Time Inc.). Retrieved February 26, 2011. 
  22. ^ Travers, Peter (October 10, 1997). "Boogie Nights". RollingStone.com. Jann Wenner. Retrieved February 26, 2011. 
  23. ^ Reid, Joe (March 1, 2010). "Julianne Moore Returning to As the World Turns". SOAPnet.com. SOAPnet. Retrieved February 26, 2011. 
  24. ^ Warner, Rick (March 28, 2010). "Moore searches for motives in marriage". The Journal Gazette. Retrieved February 26, 2011. 
  25. ^ "Nominees & Winners for the 70th Academy Awards". Oscars.org. Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences. Retrieved September 22, 2010. 
  26. ^ a b Patterson, John (March 10, 2000). "Magnolia Maniac". guardian.co.uk. Guardian News and Media Limited. Retrieved April 12, 2010. 
  27. ^ Schickel, Richard (December 27, 1999). "Cinema: Magnolia". Time.com (Time Inc.). Retrieved February 26, 2011. 
  28. ^ Bessman, Jim (December 16, 1999). "Music blossomed into film ; Magnolia director was inspired by Aimee Mann's work". Toronto Star. Retrieved May 26, 2011. 
  29. ^ Nichols, Natalie (January 2000). The Mann Act. Los Angeles Magazine. p. 22. Retrieved January 22, 2012. 
  30. ^ "Nominees & Winners for the 72nd Academy Awards". Oscars.org. Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences. Retrieved September 22, 2010. 
  31. ^ a b c Patterson, John (February 1, 2003). "Boogie knight". The Guardian. Retrieved February 17, 2011. 
  32. ^ a b Puig, Claudia (October 7, 2002). "The proof of 'Punch-Drunk Love' is in the pudding". USA Today. Gannett Co. Inc. Retrieved February 26, 2011. 
  33. ^ Hartlaub, Peter (March 12, 2007). "Hey, it's Adam Sandler! But what's this? A drama?". SFGate.com. Hearst Corporation. Retrieved February 26, 2011. 
  34. ^ "Festival de Cannes: Punch-Drunk Love". Festival-Cannes.com. Cannes Film Festival. Retrieved October 25, 2009. 
  35. ^ Goodwin, Christopher (November 25, 2007). "Daniel Day-Lewis Gives Blood, Sweat and Tears". The Sunday Times. Times Newspapers Ltd. Retrieved December 21, 2009. 
  36. ^ "There Will Be Blood (2007) — Box Office Mojo". Box Office Mojo. Internet Movie Database. Retrieved April 8, 2008. 
  37. ^ a b c "Nominees & Winners for the 80th Academy Awards". Oscars.org. Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences. Retrieved September 22, 2010. 
  38. ^ "BAFTA Film Award Winners in 2008". British Academy of Film and Television Arts. Retrieved February 19, 2008. 
  39. ^ "Directors Guild announces nominations". Rope of Silicon. RopeofSilicon.com LLC. December 20, 2007. Retrieved December 31, 2007. 
  40. ^ Barnes, Brooks; Carr, David (January 23, 2008). "'No Country' and 'Blood' Lead Oscar Nominations". NYTimes.com (The New York Times Company). Retrieved February 17, 2011. 
  41. ^ "There Will Be Blood Wins the Decade— there will be blood". Gawker.com. Gawker Media. December 18, 2009. Retrieved February 7, 2010. 
  42. ^ Fleming, Michael (December 2, 2009). "Anderson working on 'Master'". Variety. Reed Business Information. Retrieved December 2, 2009. 
  43. ^ Pilkington, Ed (April 26, 2011). "Church of Scientology snaps up Hollywood film studio". guardian.co.uk. Guardian News and Media Limited. Retrieved March 9, 2011. 
  44. ^ Sneider, Jeff (July 27, 2012). "Plemons joins P.T. Anderson drama". Variety. Reed Business Information. Retrieved July 29, 2012. 
  45. ^ "The Master". Rotten Tomatoes. Flixter. Retrieved September 24, 2012. 
  46. ^ "The Master". Metacritic. CBS Interactive. Retrieved September 24, 2012. 
  47. ^ "The Nominees". Oscars. January 10, 2013. Retrieved January 10, 2013. 
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External links[edit]