Paul Stewart (actor)

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Paul Stewart
Citizen Kane-Paul Stewart.JPG
Stewart on the set of Citizen Kane (1941)
BornPaul Sternberg
(1908-03-13)March 13, 1908
Manhattan, New York. U.S.
DiedFebruary 17, 1986(1986-02-17) (aged 77)
Los Angeles, California, U.S.
Cause of death
Heart failure
Alma materColumbia University
OccupationActor, director, producer
Years active1930–1985
Spouse(s)Peg LaCentra (1939–1986)
 
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Paul Stewart
Citizen Kane-Paul Stewart.JPG
Stewart on the set of Citizen Kane (1941)
BornPaul Sternberg
(1908-03-13)March 13, 1908
Manhattan, New York. U.S.
DiedFebruary 17, 1986(1986-02-17) (aged 77)
Los Angeles, California, U.S.
Cause of death
Heart failure
Alma materColumbia University
OccupationActor, director, producer
Years active1930–1985
Spouse(s)Peg LaCentra (1939–1986)

Paul Stewart (born Paul Sternberg; March 13, 1908 – February 17, 1986) was an American character actor, director and producer who worked in theatre, radio, films and television. He frequently portrayed cynical and sinister characters throughout his lengthy career. A friend and associate of Orson Welles for many years, he helped Welles get his first job in radio and was associate producer of the celebrated radio program "The War of the Worlds", in which he also performed. One of the Mercury Theatre players who made their film debut in Welles's landmark film Citizen Kane, Stewart portrayed Kane's butler and valet, Raymond. He appeared in 50 films, and performed in or directed some 5,000 radio and television shows.

The cast of Gertrude Berg's The House of Glass (1935)
As Raymond in the trailer for Citizen Kane (1941)
With Henry Fonda in the Broadway production of Mister Roberts (1950)

Biography[edit]

Paul Stewart was born in Manhattan March 13, 1908, as Paul Sternberg.[1] His parents were Maurice D. Sternberg, a salesman and credit agent for a textile manufacturer, and Nathalie C. (Nathanson) Sternberg; both were born in Minneapolis.[2] Stewart attended public school and completed two years at Columbia University,[3][4] studying law. He had received first place in the Belasco Theatre Tournament in 1925 and decided on an acting career.[5]

Stewart began his stage career in New York as teenager.[6] He made his Broadway debut in 1930, in Subway Express.[7]:16 He next appeared in the 1931 play, Two Seconds, adapted as a film the next year.[8]

In 1932, after two additional Broadway credits,[9][10] Stewart moved to Cincinnati and went to work at radio station WLW.[11] It was there in 1928 that radio pioneer Fred Smith had created the program Newscasting, which in 1931 evolved into the popular national news series, The March of Time.[12] For 13 months Stewart worked in all aspects of radio production at WLW — acting, announcing, directing, producing, writing and creating sound effects. When he returned to New York he was on The March of Time[11] and a member of radio's elite corps of actors.

In 1934 Stewart introduced Orson Welles to director Knowles Entrikin, who gave Welles his first job on radio, on The American School of the Air.[13]:331 "I'd been turning up for auditions and never landing a job until I met Paul Stewart," Welles recalled. "He's a lovely man; for years he was one of the main pillars of our Mercury broadcasts. He can't be given too much credit."[13]:10

In March 1935 Stewart saw Welles's stage performance in Archibald MacLeish's verse play Panic, and recommended him to director Homer Fickett. Welles was auditioned and hired to join the repertory company that presented The March of Time.[14]:86

"It was like a stock company, whose members were the aristocrats of this relatively new profession of radio acting," wrote fellow actor Joseph Julian. At that time Julian had to content himself with being an indistinguishable voice in crowd scenes, envying this "hallowed circle" that included Stewart, Welles, Kenny Delmar, Arlene Francis, Gary Merrill, Agnes Moorehead, Jeanette Nolan, Everett Sloane, Richard Widmark,[15]:9 Art Carney, Ray Collins, Pedro de Cordoba, Ted de Corsia, Juano Hernandez, Nancy Kelly, John McIntire, Jack Smart and Dwight Weist. The March of Time was one of radio's most popular shows.[16]:12–13

Stewart was a founder of the American Federation of Radio Artists in August 1937, and one of its inaugural officers.[6][17]:21,24 He carried card number 39 in the union and was a frequent delegate at the national convention.[11] He was also a board member of the Screen Actors Guild, and a member of the Directors Guild of America and the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences.[6]

Stewart played various roles throughout Welles's memorable tenure as Lamont Cranston in The Shadow (September 1937–September 1938).[18]:69[19]

In 1938 Welles expanded the range of the Mercury Theatre from Broadway to network radio with his CBS series, The Mercury Theatre on the Air, and Stewart became his associate producer.[20]:390 In addition to playing a number of roles in the drama series and its sponsored continuation, The Campbell Playhouse, Stewart made significant contributions to the celebrated broadcast, "The War of the Worlds", as rehearsal director, actor and co-writer.[21][13]:343 Welles later said that Stewart deserved the largest share of the credit for the quality of "The War of the Worlds".[22]:195[23]

In 1939 Stewart was married to actress and singer Peg LaCentra (1910–1996), a vocalist with Artie Shaw's first orchestra who worked in radio, films and television.[24][25] That September Welles called Stewart in New York.[18]:411[26][27]:254

"The telephone rang and I heard the unmistakable voice of Orson Welles, speaking from California," Stewart recalled:

Well, when Orson said he had a part for you, you went. So I left New York to play my first role in a picture at 500 dollars a week, three weeks' guarantee. I was on Citizen Kane for 11 weeks. … My first shot was a close-up in which Orson wanted a special smoke effect from my cigarette. I was rigged with tube that went under my clothes and down my finger to the cigarette, but somehow the contraption wouldn't exude smoke. "I want long cigarettes — the Russian kind!" Orson ordered. Everyone waited while the prop man fetched some Russian cigarettes. Just before the scene Orson Welles warned me: "Your head is going to fill the screen at the Radio City Music Hall" — at that time Citizen Kane was booked for the Music Hall. Then he said in his gruff manner, "Turn 'em." But just before I started, he added quietly in his warm voice, "Good luck." I blew the first take. It was 30, 40 takes before I completed a shot that Orson liked — and I had only one line. That was almost 30 years ago, but even today I have people repeat it to me, including young students. The line was: "Rosebud … I'll tell you about Rosebud …"[28]:8–9

Stewart's most famous role is his screen debut as Raymond, the cynical butler in Citizen Kane (1941).[22]:195 Actress Ruth Warrick, who portrayed Kane's first wife, remembered Stewart saying to her at the film's New York premiere, "From this night on, wherever we go or whatever we do in our lives, we will always be identified with Citizen Kane."[29]

On the stage, Stewart appeared in the Mercury Theatre's acclaimed production of Native Son, directed by Welles and produced by John Houseman at the St. James Theatre March 24–June 28, 1941.[7][30]

During World War II Stewart served with the New York-based Office of War Information (1941–43)[31] and narrated documentaries including The World at War (1942).[32] He worked under John Houseman at the newly created Voice of America (1942–43), broadcasting news, editorials and commentary from the U.S. press, and quotes from notable speeches, to audiences in Europe.[33]:39 When Houseman took his oath of allegiance as a U.S. citizen in March 1943, he chose Stewart to accompany him as his witness.[33]:87

Stewart was given leave to go to Hollywood to act in a few wartime films, including Mr. Lucky (1943),[11] and worked as a barker in The Mercury Wonder Show, a magic-and-variety show produced by Welles and Joseph Cotten as a morale-boosting entertainment for U.S. soldiers.[18]:171 Because of his comprehensive radio experience, Stewart was called upon by U.S. Treasury Secretary Henry Morgenthau, Jr. to prepare radio programs used to promote the purchase of War Bonds during World War II.[5] He produced and directed Welles's Fifth War Loan broadcast from the Hollywood Bowl June 14, 1944,[13]:384 and produced, directed and acted in a number of patriotic episodes of the Cavalcade of America radio series.[34]

After the war Stewart went to work for David O. Selznick and Dore Schary as a writer, director and producer, and directed screen tests for Paramount Pictures.[31] Stewart's many feature film credits as an actor include The Window, Champion, Twelve O'Clock High, The Bad and the Beautiful, The Juggler, Kiss Me Deadly, King Creole, In Cold Blood, The Day of the Locust and W.C. Fields and Me, in which he portrayed Florenz Ziegfeld.

In 1950 Stewart took over the role of Doc in Joshua Logan's Broadway production of Mister Roberts, starring Henry Fonda.[5]

On television, Stewart's director credits include the syndicated series, Top Secret (1954–55), in which he costarred with the young Gena Rowlands, and a notable episode of the TV series The Twilight Zone, "Little Girl Lost" (1962). He was host and narrator of the syndicated series Deadline (1959–61) and appeared in episodes of The Ford Theatre Hour, Suspense, Playhouse 90, Alcoa Theatre, Alfred Hitchcock Presents, The Asphalt Jungle, Perry Mason, Dr. Kildare, Mannix, Mission Impossible, The Name of the Game ("L.A. 2017"), McMillan & Wife, Columbo, The Rockford Files, Lou Grant and Remington Steele, among many other TV series.

Orson Welles called upon Stewart to play a role in his film, The Other Side of the Wind, shot in the 1970s and left unfinished. When Welles died at his home in Hollywood October 10, 1985, Stewart was the first of his friends to arrive.[22]:195, 297

Stewart died of heart failure at Cedars-Sinai Medical Center in Los Angeles on February 17, 1986, after a long illness.[6] He had suffered a heart attack in 1974 during the first two weeks' filming of Richard Brooks's Western, Bite the Bullet, in which he was replaced.[35]

In the 1999 film RKO 281, Paul Stewart was portrayed by Adrian Schiller.

Select theatre credits[edit]

DateTitleRoleNotes
1930–May 1930Subway ExpressPassengerLiberty Theatre, New York[7][36][5]
October 9–November 1931Two SecondsFirst Reporter, First DetectiveRitz Theatre, New York
Directed by Alexander Leftwich[8]
January 26–February 1932East of BroadwayWillie PosnerBelmont Theatre, New York
Directed by Lew Levenson[9]
May 6–May 1932Bulls, Bears and AssesMerwinPlayhouse Theatre, New York
Directed by Melville Burke[10]
February 21–March 1938Wine of ChoiceLeo TraubGuild Theatre, New York
Directed by Herman Shumlin[37]
March 24–June 28, 1941Native SonA Newspaper ManSt. James Theatre, New York
Directed by Orson Welles[38]
September 24–29, 1941Twilight WalkFulton Theatre, New York
Directed by Paul Stewart[39]
August–September 1943The Mercury Wonder ShowBarkerHollywood, California
Directed by Orson Welles[18]:171[13]:377
May–December 1950Mister RobertsDocAlvin Theatre, New York
Directed by Joshua Logan[40][41][42]
November 30, 1971–January 8, 1972The Caine Mutiny Court-MartialAhmanson Theatre, Los Angeles
Directed by Henry Fonda[31][43]

Select radio credits[edit]

Paul Stewart played in or directed 5,000 radio and TV shows, usually without credit.[44]

Actor[edit]

DateTitleRoleNotes
1934–38The March of TimeRepertory cast[31][16]:13[11]
April 17–December 25, 1935The House of GlassWhitey[45][46]:333[47]
November 9, 1936–June 25, 1937The Jack Pearl ShowAnnouncer[48][46]:365
1936–37Easy AcesJohnny Sherwood[49][50][51]
September 26, 1937–September 11, 1938The ShadowRepertory cast[19][52]
1938The Raleigh and Kool Cigarette ProgramAnnouncer[53]
1938–Life Can Be BeautifulGyp Mendoza[46]:394
August 29, 1938The Mercury Theatre on the AirPaul Dantès"The Count of Monte Cristo"[13]:345[54]:51
September 5, 1938The Mercury Theatre on the AirGogol"The Man Who Was Thursday"[13]:345[54]:51
October 30, 1938The Mercury Theatre on the AirStudio announcer
Third studio announcer
"The War of the Worlds"[13]:346[21][55]
1939–Mr. District Attorney[46]:464
March 10, 1939The Campbell PlayhouseRepertory cast"The Glass Key"[13]:351
May 5, 1939The Campbell Playhouse"Wickford Point"[13]:352
May 20, 1939Arch Oboler's Plays"Crazytown"[56]
May 25, 1939The Campbell Playhouse"Ah, Wilderness!"[13]:352
September 17, 1939The Campbell Playhouse"American Cavalcade: The Things We Have"[13]:352
January 9, 1940The Cavalcade of AmericaRepertory cast"The Raven Wins Texas"[34]
February 11, 1940The Campbell Playhouse"Mr. Deeds Goes to Town"[13]:358
April 6, 1941The Free Company"His Honor, the Mayor"[13]:362–363
May 11, 1941Twenty-Six by Corwin"The Log of the R-77"[57]
May 30, 1941Great Moments from Great Plays"The Butter and Egg Man"[58]:201
June 22, 1941Twenty-Six by Corwin"Daybreak"[57]
July 20, 1941Twenty-Six by Corwin"Double Concerto"[57]
October 6, 1941Orson Welles Show[13]:367
November 3, 1941Orson Welles Show"Wild Oranges"[13]:367[59]
1942–43Voice of AmericaMedium wave English-language news broadcasts to Europe[31][33]:39–40
March 28, 1942This Is War"It's in the Works"[58]:501
April 6, 1942The Cavalcade of America"Yellow Jack"[34]
May 4, 1942The Cavalcade of America"The Printer Was a Lady"[34]
May 11, 1942The Cavalcade of America"A Tooth for Paul Revere"[34]
July 27, 1942The Cavalcade of America"Man of Design"[34]
August 3, 1942The Cavalcade of America"This Our Exile"[34]
September 23, 1942Suspense"A Passage to Benares"[60]
September 28, 1942The Cavalcade of America"Juarez: Thunder from the Mountains"[34][61]
February 2, 1943Lights Out"Until Dead"[62]
March 22, 1943The Cavalcade of America"Lifetide"[34]
June 7, 1943The Cavalcade of America"The Enemy is Listening"[34]
June 14, 1943The Cavalcade of America"Make Way for the Lady"[34]
June 21, 1943The Cavalcade of America"The Unsinkable Marblehead"[34]
August 17–October 5, 1943Passport for AdamsEight 30-minute episodes[63][64]
December 6, 1943The Cavalcade of America"Navy Doctor"[34]
December 13, 1943The Cavalcade of America"Check Your Heart at Home"[34]
1946–The Fat Man[46]:241
September 4, 1948Gang Busters"The Case of the Collector"[65]
June 18, 1949NBC University Theater of the Air"What Makes Sammy Run?"[58]:347
June 30, 1950The MGM Theater of the Air"Public Hero Number One"[66]
1950–51Rogue's GalleryRichard Rogue55 episodes[67]
January 10, 1954NBC Star Playhouse"For Whom the Bell Tolls"[68]
November 7, 1954You Were There"Eight By Three By Two"[69]
August 21, 1955You Were There"The Way We Want It"[69]
August 28, 1955You Were There"Once Upon a Time"[69]

Director, producer[edit]

YearTitleNotes
July 11–December 4, 1938The Mercury Theatre on the AirAssociate producer, rehearsal director[13]:343
22 episodes
December 9, 1938–March 31, 1940The Campbell PlayhouseAssociate producer, rehearsal director[13]:343
56 episodes
1943–44The Cavalcade of AmericaProducer and director of episodes including the following:[34]
"Navy Doctor", December 6, 1943
"Check Your Heart at Home", December 13, 1943
"U-Boat Prisoner", December 27, 1943
"Bullseye for Sammy", January 3, 1944
"Prelude to Glory", February 7, 1944
"The Purple Heart Comes to Free Meadows", February 21, 1944
"Junior Angel", February 28, 1944
"The Doctor Gets the Answer", September 11, 1944
"Spy on the Kilocycles", October 8, 1944 (director only)
June 14, 1944The Fifth War Loan DriveProducer, director[13]:384
Because of his comprehensive radio experience, Stewart was called upon by U.S. Treasury Secretary Henry Morgenthau, Jr. to prepare radio programs used to promote the purchase of War Bonds during World War II[5]

Select film and television credits[edit]

Actor[edit]

YearTitleRoleNotes
1941Citizen KaneRaymondFilm debut[70]
1942Johnny EagerJulio[70]
1942The World at WarNarratorU.S. Office of War Information documentary[32]
1943Mr. LuckyZepp[70]
1949The WindowJoe Kellerson[70]
1949The Ford Theatre Hour (TV series)Paul Lawton"She Loves Me Not"[71]
1944Government GirlBranch Owens[70]
1948Berlin ExpressNarrator (uncredited)[71]
1949ChampionTommy Haley[70]
1949Easy LivingDan Argus[70]
1949Illegal EntryZack Richards[70]
1950Twelve O'Clock HighCapt. [Major] "Doc" Kaiser[70]
1950Edge of DoomCraig[70]
1950Walk Softly, StrangerWhitey Lake[70]
1950Suspense (TV series)Sam Cragg"1000 to One"[71]
1950The Prudential Family Playhouse (TV series)Max Wharton"Over 21"[71]
1951Appointment with DangerEarl Boettinger[70]
1951Lights Out (TV)"The Man with the Astrakhan Hat"[71]
1951Faith Baldwin Romance Theatre (TV series)"Success Story"[71]
1952Deadline – U.S.A.Harry Thompson[70]
1952Carbine Williams"Dutch" Kruger[70]
1952Loan SharkLou Donelli[70]
1952We're Not MarriedStone, Eve's lawyer[70]
1952The Bad and the BeautifulSyd Murphy[70]
1953The JugglerDetective Karni[70]
1953The Joe Louis StoryTad McGeehan[70]
1954Deep in My HeartBert Townsend[70]
1954Prisoner of WarCapt. Jack Hodges[70]
1954Inner Sanctum (TV series)Three episodes[71]
1954–55Top Secret (TV series)Professor Brand26-episode syndicated series costarring Gena Rowlands[71][72][73]
1955Kiss Me DeadlyCarl Evello[70]
1955Chicago SyndicateArnold Valenti[70]
1955The CobwebDr. Otto Wolff[70]
1955TV Reader's Digest (TV series)Larry Sears"The Manufactured Clue"[74]
19551955 Motion Picture Theatre CelebrationHimself[75]
1956Hell on Frisco BayJoe Lye[70]
1956The Wild PartyBen Davis[70]
1956Playhouse 90 (TV series)Martin Hoeffer"Confession"[76]
1957Top Secret AffairPhil Bentley[70]
1957The Joseph Cotten Show (TV series)Mr. Bari"The Secret of Polanta"[71]
1958King CreoleCharlie Le Grand[70]
1958Alcoa Theatre (TV series)Don Peters"The First Star"[77]
1958No Warning (TV series)Stephen Chase"Fingerprints"[78]
1959Beyond All LimitsPendergast[70]
1959–61Deadline (TV series)Narrator, hostSyndicated newspaper anthology series[79][71]
1960Alfred Hitchcock Presents (TV series)Vincent Noonan"Craig's Will"[80]
1961The Asphalt Jungle (TV series)Alex Meridan"The Kidnapping"[81]
1963A Child is WaitingGoodman[70]
1964Perry Mason (TV series)Cameron Burgess"The Case of the Tragic Trophy"[71]
1964Dr. Kildare (TV series)Dr. Guiseppe Muretelli"Rome Will Never Leave You"[82]
1965The Greatest Story Ever ToldQuestor[70]
1966Perry Mason (TV series)Cameron Burgess"The Case of the Avenging Angel"[83]
1966–67The Man Who Never Was (TV series)Paul GrantSeries[84]:462
1967In Cold BloodReporter[70]
1968JigsawSimon Joshua[4]
1968Mannix (TV series)Morgan Farrell"Pressure Point"[85]
1969How to Commit MarriageAttorney[70]
1969Ironside (TV series)Paul Cambridge"The Prophesy"[86]
1969Mission: Impossible (TV series)Jonas Stone"Mastermind"[87]
1970Carter's Army (TV series)General ClarkAlso known as Black Brigade[88]
1970The Governor & J.J. (TV series)Dr. Ed Graham"And the World Begat the Bleep"[89]
1970Gunsmoke (TV series)Sanders"The Cage"[90]
1971The Silent Force (TV series)"The Banker"[91]
1971The Name of the Game (TV series)Dr. Rubias"L.A. 2017"[92]
1971City Beneath the Sea (TV)Barton[93]
1971McMillan & Wife (TV series)Chief Andy Yeakel"Husbands, Wives and Killers"[94]
1973Ironside (TV series)Ben Hopkins"Ring of Prayer"[95]
1973The F.B.I. (TV series)Reese"Rules of the Game"[96]
1973Columbo (TV series)Clifford Paris"Double Shock"[71][31]
1974F for FakeSpecial participant[13]:442
1974Murph the SurfAveryAlso known as Live a Little, Steal a Lot[97]
1974Cannon (TV series)Lester Cain"The Hit Man"[98]
1975The Day of the LocustHelverston[70]
1975The Streets of San Francisco (TV series)Nick Lugo"Letters from the Grave"[99]
1976W.C. Fields and MeFlo Ziegfeld[70]
1977Opening NightDavid Samuels[70]
1977The Rockford Files (TV series)Julius "Buddy" Richards"Irving the Explainer"[100]
1978Revenge of the Pink PantherScallini[70]
1978The NativityZacharias[101]
1979Lou Grant (TV series)Kenneth Homes"Hollywood"[71]
1981S.O.B.Harry Sandler[102]
1981The Dain Curse (TV)Old manMiniseries[103]
1981Nobody's PerfektDr. Segal[70]
1982TempestPhillip's father[104]
1983Remington Steele (TV series)Joseph Barber"Steele Knuckles and Glass Jaws"[71][31]
1985MacGyver (TV series)Dr. Carl SteubensSeries pilot[105]
2015[106][107]The Other Side of the WindMatt CostelloScenes filmed between 1970 and 1976[108]

Director, producer[edit]

YearTitleNotes
1954–55Top Secret (TV series)15-minute syndicated series, also known as Top Secret U.S.A.
"I also directed my own TV series in the East … We did 26 films in 25 days, so you can see I'm used to making deadlines" (Paul Stewart)[72][73][109]
1955Kings Row (TV series)Three episodes[71]
1955–56Warner Bros. Presents (TV series)Three episodes[71]
1957Meet McGraw (TV series)"The White Rose"[71][110]
1958Peter Gunn (TV series)"The Leaper"[71]
1959–60Hawaiian Eye (TV series)"Secret of the Second Door"
"Shipment from Kihei"
"The Koa Man"
"Stamped for Danger"[71]
1960M Squad (TV series)Five episodes[71]
1960Philip Marlowe (TV series)"Murder is a Grave Affair"[111]
1960–61Michael Shayne (TV series)Eight episodes; associate producer of the series[71][112]
1961–62Checkmate (TV series)Six episodes[71]
1962The Twilight Zone (TV series)"Little Girl Lost"[113]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Ancestry.com, New York, New York, Birth Index 1878–1909, Certificate Number 16276 [database online], Provo, Utah. Ancestry.com Operations Inc., 2014. Retrieved 2014-10-24.
  2. ^ Ancestry.com, 1930 United States Federal Census [database on-line]. Provo, UT, USA: Ancestry.com Operations Inc., 2002. Retrieved 2014-10-24.
  3. ^ Ancestry.com, 1940 United States Federal Census [database on-line]. Provo, UT, USA: Ancestry.com Operations Inc., 2012. Retrieved 2014-10-24.
  4. ^ a b Katz, Ephraim, Fred Klein; Ronald Dean Nolan, The Film Encyclopedia (Third Edition). New York: HarperPerennial, 1998. ISBN 9780062734921 page 1311.
  5. ^ a b c d e "Who's Who in the Cast". Playbill for Mister Roberts, October 9, 1950.
  6. ^ a b c d "Paul Stewart is Dead at 77; Stage, Screen and TV Actor". Associated Press, The New York Times, February 19, 1986. Retrieved 2014-10-22. 
  7. ^ a b c "Who's Who in the Cast". Playbill for Native Son, April 13, 1941. Retrieved 2014-10-29. 
  8. ^ a b "Paul Stewart". Internet Broadway Database. Retrieved 2014-10-24. 
  9. ^ a b "East of Broadway". Internet Broadway Database. Retrieved 2014-11-01. 
  10. ^ a b "Bulls, Bears and Asses". Internet Broadway Database. Retrieved 2014-11-01. 
  11. ^ a b c d e "Paul Stewart, A Heavyweight Among Heavies". Muller, Eddie, Noir City Sentinel, Summer 2010, Film Noir Foundation. Retrieved 2014-11-14. 
  12. ^ "Fred Smith, Radio Pioneer, Dies; Helped Create 'March of Time'". The New York Times, August 15, 1976
  13. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t Welles, Orson, and Peter Bogdanovich, edited by Jonathan Rosenbaum, This is Orson Welles. New York: HarperCollins Publishers 1992 ISBN 0-06-016616-9.
  14. ^ Noble, Peter, The Fabulous Orson Welles. London: Hutchinson and Co., 1956.
  15. ^ Julian, Joseph, This Was Radio: A Personal Memoir. New York: Viking Press, 1975. ISBN 9780670702992
  16. ^ a b Fielding, Raymond, The March of Time, 1935–1951. New York: Oxford University Press 1978. ISBN 0-19-502212-2
  17. ^ Harvey, Rita Morley, Those Wonderful, Terrible Years: George Heller and the American Federation of Television and Radio Artists. Carbondale, Illinois: Southern Illinois University Press, 1999. ISBN 0-8093-2022-3
  18. ^ a b c d Whaley, Barton, Orson Welles: The Man Who Was Magic. Lybrary.com, 2005, ASIN B005HEHQ7E
  19. ^ a b "The Shadow". RadioGOLDINdex. Retrieved 2014-11-04. 
  20. ^ Houseman, John, Run Through: A Memoir. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1972, ISBN 0-671-21034-3
  21. ^ a b "The Mercury Theatre". RadioGOLDINdex. Retrieved 2014-10-22. 
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  23. ^ Welles, Orson, and Peter Bogdanovich, This is Orson Welles. HarperAudio, September 30, 1992. ISBN 1559946806 Audiotape 4A 8:40–9:15. Welles told Bogdanovich, "I think the man who gets the biggest credit for that show is Paul Stewart. He was my acting director. He did an awful lot of that work before I even got into it. All the technical side was worked out before … He did that awfully well."
  24. ^ "Peg LaCentra, 86, a Singer With Shaw Orchestra". Grimes, William, The New York Times, September 8, 1996. Retrieved 2014-10-22. 
  25. ^ "Peg LaCentra, The Complete Recordings". Yanow, Scott, AllMusic. Retrieved 2014-10-24. 
  26. ^ Stewart was initially cast in Heart of Darkness, the first film Welles proposed to do for RKO, which was eventually shelved.
  27. ^ Meryman, Richard, Mank: The Wit, World and Life of Herman Mankiewicz. New York: William Morrow and Company, Inc., 1978 ISBN 0-688-03356-3
  28. ^ Thomas, Bob (ed.) (1973). "Citizen Kane Remembered [May–June 1969]". Directors in Action: Selections from Action, The Official Magazine of the Directors Guild of America. Indianapolis: The Bobbs Merrill Company, Inc. pp. 1–11. ISBN 0-672-51715-9. 
  29. ^ Vallance, Tom, "Obituary: Ruth Warrick; Actress Best Remembered for Citizen Kane". The Independent, January 20, 2005.
  30. ^ "The Play: 'Native Son,' by Paul Green and Richard Wright, Put On by Orson Welles and John Houseman". Atkinson, Brooks, The New York Times, March 25, 1941.
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  34. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o "The Cavalcade of America". RadioGOLDINdex. Retrieved 2014-11-04. 
  35. ^ "Bite the Bullet". AFI Catalog of Feature Films. Retrieved 2014-11-13. 
  36. ^ "Subway Express". Internet Broadway Database. Retrieved 2014-11-01. 
  37. ^ "Wine of Choice". Internet Broadway Database. Retrieved 2014-11-01. 
  38. ^ "Native Son". Internet Broadway Database. Retrieved 2014-11-01. 
  39. ^ "Twilight Walk". Internet Broadway Database. Retrieved 2014-11-01. 
  40. ^ "Mister Roberts". Internet Broadway Database. Retrieved 2014-11-01. 
  41. ^ Atkinson, Brooks, "Mister Roberts: Its Performance Retains First-Night Lustre". The New York Times, May 21, 1950.
  42. ^ "In 'Mister Roberts'". The New York Times, December 4, 1950.
  43. ^ Deutsch, Linda, "Music Center's New Chief Tells Goals". Pasadena Star-News, November 7, 1971.
  44. ^ "Deaths Elsewhere". The Washington Post, February 22, 1986.
  45. ^ "'House of Glass' Has Plot Crisis". The Bismarck Tribune. July 6, 1935. 
  46. ^ a b c d e Dunning, John, On the Air: The Encyclopedia of Old-Time Radio. New York: Oxford University Press, Inc., 1998. ISBN 978-0-19-507678-3
  47. ^ Berg, Gertrude, "The Real Story Behind 'The House of Glass'". Radio Mirror, July 1935, pp. 22–23.
  48. ^ "The Jack Pearl Show". RadioGOLDINdex. Retrieved 2014-11-04. 
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External links[edit]